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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2109 matches for " JE Myers "
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Drivers’ risk profile indicates the need for a graduated driving licence in South Africa
LC Chokotho, R Matzopoulos, JE Myers
South African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background. Current driver mortality estimates do not consider the great differences in exposure across the population, giving a false impression that driver deaths are lowest in the youngest age group. Interventions to reduce risk among the younger age group include graduated driver licensing (GDL) . a three-phase licensing system for novice drivers consisting of a learnerfs permit, a provisional license, and a full license. Objectives. We calculated driver fatality rates per 10 000 registered drivers in each age group and assessed the need for stricter licensing conditions for novice and younger drivers. Methods. Age-specific driver mortality rates were calculated using Western Cape Province 2008 mortuary data. The total number of licensed drivers in each age group served as the denominator. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using the age group of 65 - 79 years as the reference. Chi-square test of trend on incidence rate ratios for the age groups was done. Statistical significance was set as p<0.05. Results. There were 339 driver deaths; mean age was 39.4}13.8 years, and males accounted for 80% of the deaths. Age-specific driver mortality rates were highest in the youngest age group (15 - 19 years). There was a significant progressive decrease (except for the age group 45 - 49 years) in the risk of death from road traffic injuries with increasing age compared with the age group .65 years (chi2 for trend p<0.0001). Conclusion. This study showed a relationship between driverfs mortality risk and younger age, and underscores the need for introduction of a GDL programme in South Africa.
Conflict of interest: A tenacious ethical dilemma in public health policy, not only in clinical practice/research
L London, R Matzopoulos, J Corrigall, JE Myers, A Maker, CDH Parry
South African Journal of Bioethics and Law , 2012,
Abstract: In addition to the ethical practice of individual health professionals, bioethical debate about conflict of interest (CoI) must include the institutional ethics of public policy-making, as failure to establish independence from powerful stakeholder influence may pervert public health goals. All involved in public policy processes are accountable for CoI, including experts, scientists, professionals, industry and government officials. The liquor industry in South Africa is presented as a case study. Generic principles of how to identify, manage and address CoI are discussed. We propose that health professionals and policy makers should avoid partnering with industries that are harmful to health. Regarding institutional CoI, we recommend that there should be effective policies, procedures and processes for governing public-private joint ventures with such industries. These include arms-length funding, maintaining the balance between contesting vested interests, and full disclosure of the identity and affiliations of all participants in structures and reports pertaining to public policy-making.
Medical Ethics: Context Is the Key Word  [PDF]
John Myers
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.516134
Abstract:

Medical Ethics is no different to Ethics, but relates specifically to the doctor-patient relationship. This relationship is based on mutual trusttrust in the doctor’s expertise and knowledge and trust that the patient is consulting the doctor, for his/her/their own health, wellbeing and welfare, without agenda or bias. In other words, the basis of the doctor-patient relationship is one of mutual trust and confidence. Thus, what is imparted between them is held in the strictest confidence. The doctor must act within the law. No third party influence can be brought to bear on this relationship without the patient’s consent. In the case of minors the relationship is between the child’s guardians as well as the doctor who must act within the law. In the category of “elderly” or adult guardianship or advocacy, those appointed and in positions of trust must take the person’s wishes into account if the patient has capacity to make decisions or has indicated their wish prior to any such appointment. Capacity is defined as consistent belief or wish, awareness of what one does not wish for, satisfaction when wishes are respected and fulfilled and the opposite when they are not. Ethical practice is determined by taking context into account in decision-making and ensuring the sanctity of the patient’s rights and wishes. Abuse is just the opposite, where actions taken or not taken are against a person’s wishes. Personal wish determines best interest. Best interest may also be defined in terms of social functioning and psychological wellbeing. Discussion of ethics in terms of General Systems Theory is also addressed, and affects an action on the environment or others, i.e. ethics in the wider medical context may pertain if the person has a contagious disease and a period of quarantine or “isolation” or barrier” nursing is required, and where precedent is given to society’s best interest over the person’s wishes, as part of an educational process and as required for strategic disease management.

Provincial differences in infant deaths in South Africa – an effect of antiretroviral interventions?
A Boulle, ML Thompson, R Laubscher, LF Johnson, R Sayed, LL Brody, B Draper, MF Cotton, F Abdullah, JE Myers, DE Bourne
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Objective. It has previously been demonstrated that a peak in registered infant deaths, at 2 - 3 months of age at death, developed between 1997 and 2002 in South Africa, alongside the evolving HIV epidemic. The objective of this analysis was to explore the age distribution of post-neonatal infant deaths in South Africa by province, and relate the observed distributions to HIV and intervention characteristics. Design. Ecological study based on registered infant deaths and published HIV and intervention characteristics. Methods. Numbers of registered infant deaths beyond 1 month of age at death were plotted by year of death, province of South Africa and age at death in months, for the years 1997 - 2007. Results. The total number of registered deaths in infants aged 1 - 11 months increased from 15 404 in 1997 to 34 479 in 2006. Eight of the 9 provinces experienced an annual peak in registered infant deaths at 2 - 3 months of age between 1997 and 2007. This peak in mortality was not observed in the Western Cape. In 7 of 9 provinces registered post-neonatal infant deaths did not rise markedly in 2007 compared with 2005. Conclusions. We identified a single province out of 9 South African provinces in which a peak in early infant deaths at age 2 - 3 months did not occur during the period 1997 - 2007. This was the province with the earliest and highest coverage of antiretroviral interventions from 1999 onwards. It is possible that these interventions have averted the greater increase in early infant deaths seen in the rest of South Africa over this period.
The Impact of Cattle Grazing in High Elevation Sierra Nevada Mountain Meadows over Widely Variable Annual Climatic Conditions  [PDF]
Lindsey Myers, Brenda Whited
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.328097
Abstract: The impact of summer cattle grazing on water quality during three very different climatic years in the Sierra Nevada was investigated. Water year 2009 had near normal precipitation; 2010 had late precipitation and snowmelt; and 2011 had 150% above normal precipitation. Surface waters were tested for pathogenic bacteria indicators fecal coliform, E. coli, and total coliform before and after cattle were released onto summer grazing allotments. Water samples were collected from meadow stream sites up to 6 weeks before and up to 6 weeks after cattle grazing began. Streams passing through ungrazed meadow served as controls. Eight sample sites were between 1694 m and 2273 m in elevation; one site was lower at 1145 m in elevation. Samples were transported within 6 hours to a water analysis laboratory, where samples were analyzed following standardized laboratory methods. Results showed that individual site and total mean concentrations of E. coli in surface waters were within regulatory standards before cattle arrived during each of the 3 study years. After the beginning of grazing, mean E. coli counts increased as follows: 2009 from 8 to 240 CFU/100mL, 2010 from 7 to 561 CFU/10mL; 2011 from 7 to 657 CFU/100mL (p < 0.05 all years). Total coliform bacteria and fecal coliform concentrations showed the same pattern. This study shows that cattle grazing in the high elevation Sierra Nevada results in a significant increase in indicator bacteria. This impact on the watersheds occurs despite widely variable annual climatic conditions.
Is Alzheimer’s Disease an Adaptability Disorder? What Role Does Happiness Have in Treatment, Management and Prevention  [PDF]
John B. Myers
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2015.53020
Abstract: A case presentation indicating the importance of “happiness” in childhood causing memory block until the patent presented with probable mixed vascular and neurodegenerative memory loss at 60 years of age is presented to highlight the role of emotional factors in causing the disease. The question of whether Alzheimer’s disease is an adaptability disorder is raised, given the patient blocked out her memory of her childhood experience. The importance of “happiness” as a treatment goal raises issues of advocacy and Guardianship as well as capacity, which is addressed by actual case reference and court action in defence of the patient’s rights to have their wishes respected and observed. Functional mental capacity assessment, using the Functional Mental State Measure (FMSM) gives a greater indication of neuronal reserve than standard cognitive testing, as it helps to unravel the dilemma associated with pure cognitive assessment in Alzheimer’s Disease as well as vascular dementia patients and patients who, despite retained and intact functional capacity and ability to express their wishes, i.e. “best interest”, are “wrongly” placed under Guardianship. Maladaptive responses, to control the change in external environment that are sensed or perceived, and which lead to disorder or to susceptibility to disease, exemplify a General Systems Theory approach, in which appropriate and adequate responses to environmental change, in behavioural terms, by a person, whether independently, or as the recipient or giver, or both, leads to functional interaction and happiness.
Erratum to “Is Alzheimer’s Disease an Adaptability Disorder? What Role Does Happiness Have in Treatment, Management and Prevention” [World Journal of Neuroscience 5 (2015) 180-188]  [PDF]
John B. Myers
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2015.54027
Abstract: A case presentation indicating the importance of “happiness” in childhood causing memory block until the patent presented with probable mixed vascular and neurodegenerative memory loss at 60 years of age is presented to highlight the role of emotional factors in causing the disease. The question of whether Alzheimer’s disease is an adaptability disorder is raised, given the patient blocked out her memory of her childhood experience. The importance of “happiness” as a treatment goal raises issues of advocacy and Guardianship as well as capacity, which is addressed by actual case reference and court action in defence of the patient’s rights to have their wishes respected and observed. Functional mental capacity assessment, using the Functional Mental State Measure (FMSM) gives a greater indication of neuronal reserve than standard cognitive testing, as it helps to unravel the dilemma associated with pure cognitive assessment in Alzheimer’s Disease as well as vascular dementia patients and patients who, despite retained and intact functional capacity and ability to express their wishes, i.e. “best interest”, are “wrongly” placed under Guardianship. A General Systems approach, which recognises functional interaction as optimal and withdrawal or inadequate and/or inappropriate response as not, provides further understanding of the relationship between emotional factors, memory and neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s) disease.
Mouse models of human breast cancer: evolution or convolution?
JE Green
Breast Cancer Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/bcr660
Abstract:
Identifying and assessing women at high risk for breast cancer
JE Garber
Breast Cancer Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2262
Abstract: Testing for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast ovarian cancer susceptibility genes has become part of the established care of breast cancer patients. Genetic information from BRCA1/2 testing is used to help healthy at-risk women to avoid breast and/or ovarian cancer, and ultimately to avoid death from those cancers. Data accumulated over the past decade have provided evidence that breast cancer surveillance can be improved with the addition of breast MRI, that prophylactic oophorectomy substantially reduces the risk of ovarian cancer and, when performed before menopause, can reduce the risk of breast cancer as well, and that prophylactic mastectomy reduces the risk of breast cancer by more than 90%.It has been observed that approximately 80% of BRCA1-associated breast cancers are negative for ER, PR and HER2 (so-called triple negative) and cluster with basal-like breast cancers by DNA microarray, while 80% of BRCA2-associated breast cancers are ER+ and PR+, but HER2 negative, and luminal. These data are surprising given the close relationships between these genes in their DNA repair activities, and raise some concern that hormonal interventions will not successfully reduce the risk of BRCA1-associated breast cancers. Other strategies may be necessary to reduce breast cancer risk for this group.Genetic information has been shown to have important implications for women with breast cancer as well. Women with strong family histories of breast and/or ovarian cancer, and women diagnosed before age 40 may consider testing at the time of breast cancer diagnosis if they would use the information to make treatment decisions. Some women choose bilateral mastectomies over breast-conserving treatment if they learn that their risk of second primary breast cancer exceeds 50%, and if their prognosis from the original breast cancer is good. Some women opt for oophorectomy as part of the management of their ER+ breast cancer if they are premenopausal mutation carriers (and coul
Diagnóstico del carcinoma escamoso de la mucosa bucal: reporte de 5 casos
Baudo,JE;
Avances en Odontoestomatología , 2005, DOI: 10.4321/S0213-12852005000400005
Abstract: it is certain that the cancer buccal cause an important number of deaths at world level. the cancer invasivo can remain long time low changes macroscopic unspecific, the biopsy only allows its diagnosis. the more used technique is the routine with hematoxylin - eosin, at the moment is added to the same others that contribute to clarify the diagnosis, for example the inmunohistoquímica that will determine the stock of a neoplasia in many cases.
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