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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297467 matches for " J. Selker "
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Autonomous distributed temperature sensing for long-term heated applications in remote areas
A.-M. Kurth, N. Dawes, J. Selker,M. Schirmer
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems (GI) & Discussions (GID) , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/gi-2-71-2013
Abstract: Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is a fiber-optical method enabling simultaneous temperature measurements over long distances. Electrical resistance heating of the metallic components of the fiber-optic cable provides information on the thermal characteristics of the cable's environment, providing valuable insight into processes occurring in the surrounding medium, such as groundwater–surface water interactions, dam stability or soil moisture. Until now, heated applications required direct handling of the DTS instrument by a researcher, rendering long-term investigations in remote areas impractical due to the often difficult and time-consuming access to the field site. Remote control and automation of the DTS instrument and heating processes, however, resolve the issue with difficult access. The data can also be remotely accessed and stored on a central database. The power supply can be grid independent, although significant infrastructure investment is required here due to high power consumption during heated applications. Solar energy must be sufficient even in worst case scenarios, e.g. during long periods of intense cloud cover, to prevent system failure due to energy shortage. In combination with storage batteries and a low heating frequency, e.g. once per day or once per week (depending on the season and the solar radiation on site), issues of high power consumption may be resolved. Safety regulations dictate adequate shielding and ground-fault protection, to safeguard animals and humans from electricity and laser sources. In this paper the autonomous DTS system is presented to allow research with heated applications of DTS in remote areas for long-term investigations of temperature distributions in the environment.
Autonomous distributed temperature sensing for long-term heated applications in remote areas
A.-M. Kurth,N. Dawes,J. Selker,M. Schirmer
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/gid-2-855-2012
Abstract: Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) is a fiber-optical method enabling simultaneous temperature measurements over long distances. Electrical resistance heating of the metallic components of the fiber-optic cable provides information on the thermal characteristics of the cable's environment, providing valuable insight into processes occurring in the surrounding medium, such as groundwater-surface water interactions, dam stability or soil moisture. Until now, heated applications required direct handling of the DTS instrument by a researcher, rendering long-term investigations in remote areas impractical due to the often difficult and time-consuming access to the field site. Remote-control and automation of the DTS instrument and heating processes, however, resolve the issue with difficult access. The data can also be remotely accessed and stored on a central database. The power supply can be grid-independent, although significant infrastructure investment is required here due to high power consumption during heated applications. Solar energy must be sufficient even in worst case scenarios, e.g. during long periods of intense cloud cover, to prevent system failure due to energy shortage. In combination with storage batteries and a low heating frequency, e.g. once per day or once per week (depending on the season and the solar radiation on site), issues of high power consumption may be resolved. Safety regulations dictate adequate shielding and ground-fault protection, to safeguard animals and humans from electricity and laser sources. In this paper the autonomous DTS system is presented to allow research with heated applications of DTS in remote areas for long-term investigations of temperature distributions in the environment.
Ideal Independence, Free Sequences, and the Ultrafilter Number
Kevin Selker
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We make use of a forcing technique for extending Boolean algebras. The same type of forcing was employed in [BK81], [Kos99], and elsewhere. Using and modifying a lemma of Koszmider, and using CH, we obtain an atomless BA, A such that f(A) = smm(A) < u(A), answering questions raised by [Mon08] and [Mon11].
CHD1 Remodels Chromatin and Influences Transient DNA Methylation at the Clock Gene frequency
William J. Belden,Zachary A. Lewis,Eric U. Selker,Jennifer J. Loros,Jay C. Dunlap
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002166
Abstract: Circadian-regulated gene expression is predominantly controlled by a transcriptional negative feedback loop, and it is evident that chromatin modifications and chromatin remodeling are integral to this process in eukaryotes. We previously determined that multiple ATP–dependent chromatin-remodeling enzymes function at frequency (frq). In this report, we demonstrate that the Neurospora homologue of chd1 is required for normal remodeling of chromatin at frq and is required for normal frq expression and sustained rhythmicity. Surprisingly, our studies of CHD1 also revealed that DNA sequences within the frq promoter are methylated, and deletion of chd1 results in expansion of this methylated domain. DNA methylation of the frq locus is altered in strains bearing mutations in a variety of circadian clock genes, including frq, frh, wc-1, and the gene encoding the frq antisense transcript (qrf). Furthermore, frq methylation depends on the DNA methyltransferase, DIM-2. Phenotypic characterization of Δdim-2 strains revealed an approximate WT period length and a phase advance of approximately 2 hours, indicating that methylation plays only an ancillary role in clock-regulated gene expression. This suggests that DNA methylation, like the antisense transcript, is necessary to establish proper clock phasing but does not control overt rhythmicity. These data demonstrate that the epigenetic state of clock genes is dependent on normal regulation of clock components.
A distributed stream temperature model using high resolution temperature observations
M. C. Westhoff, H. H. G. Savenije, W. M. J . Luxemburg, G. S. Stelling, N. C. van de Giesen, J. S. Selker, L. Pfister,S. Uhlenbrook
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2007,
Abstract: Distributed temperature data are used as input and as calibration data for an energy based temperature model of a first order stream in Luxembourg. A DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) system with a fiber optic cable of 1500 m was used to measure stream water temperature with 1 m resolution each 2 min. Four groundwater inflows were identified and quantified (both temperature and relative discharge). The temperature model calculates the total energy balance including solar radiation (with shading effects), longwave radiation, latent heat, sensible heat and river bed conduction. The simulated temperature is compared with the observed temperature at all points along the stream. Knowledge of the lateral inflow appears to be crucial to simulate the temperature distribution and conversely, that stream temperature can be used successfully to identify sources of lateral inflow. The DTS fiber optic is an excellent tool to provide this knowledge.
Corrigendum to "A distributed stream temperature model using high resolution temperature observations" published in Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1469–1480, 2007
M. C. Westhoff, H. H. G. Savenije, W. M. J . Luxemburg, G. S. Stelling, N. C. van de Giesen, J. S. Selker, L. Pfister,S. Uhlenbrook
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2011,
Abstract: No abstract available.
Parity Biquandle Invariants of Virtual Knots
Aaron Kaestner,Sam Nelson,Leo Selker
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We define counting and cocycle enhancement invariants of virtual knots using parity biquandles. These invariants are determined by pairs consisting of a biquandle 2-cocycle \phi^0 and a map \phi^1 with certain compatibility conditions leading to one-variable or two-variable polynomial invariants of virtual knots. We provide examples to show that the parity cocycle invariants can distinguish virtual knots which are not distinguished by the corresponding non-parity invariants.
A Cytosine Methyltransferase Homologue Is Essential for Sexual Development in Aspergillus nidulans
Dong W. Lee, Michael Freitag, Eric U. Selker, Rodolfo Aramayo
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002531
Abstract: Background The genome defense processes RIP (repeat-induced point mutation) in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, and MIP (methylation induced premeiotically) in the fungus Ascobolus immersus depend on proteins with DNA methyltransferase (DMT) domains. Nevertheless, these proteins, RID and Masc1, respectively, have not been demonstrated to have DMT activity. We discovered a close homologue in Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus thought to have no methylation and no genome defense system comparable to RIP or MIP. Principal Findings We report the cloning and characterization of the DNA methyltransferase homologue A (dmtA) gene from Aspergillus nidulans. We found that the dmtA locus encodes both a sense (dmtA) and an anti-sense transcript (tmdA). Both transcripts are expressed in vegetative, conidial and sexual tissues. We determined that dmtA, but not tmdA, is required for early sexual development and formation of viable ascospores. We also tested if DNA methylation accumulated in any of the dmtA/tmdA mutants we constructed, and found that in both asexual and sexual tissues, these mutants, just like wild-type strains, appear devoid of DNA methylation. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that a DMT homologue closely related to proteins implicated in RIP and MIP has an essential developmental function in a fungus that appears to lack both DNA methylation and RIP or MIP. It remains formally possible that DmtA is a bona fide DMT, responsible for trace, undetected DNA methylation that is restricted to a few cells or transient but our work supports the idea that the DMT domain present in the RID/Masc1/DmtA family has a previously undescribed function.
Secreted Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3654c and Rv3655c Proteins Participate in the Suppression of Macrophage Apoptosis
Lia Danelishvili,Yoshitaka Yamazaki,Jeannie Selker,Luiz E. Bermudez
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010474
Abstract: Inhibition of macrophage apoptosis by Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been proposed as one of the virulence mechanisms whereby the pathogen avoids the host defense. The mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain suppress apoptosis and escapes human macrophage killing was investigated.
Substitutions in the Amino-Terminal Tail of Neurospora Histone H3 Have Varied Effects on DNA Methylation
Keyur K. Adhvaryu,Emanuela Berge,Hisashi Tamaru,Michael Freitag,Eric U. Selker
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002423
Abstract: Eukaryotic genomes are partitioned into active and inactive domains called euchromatin and heterochromatin, respectively. In Neurospora crassa, heterochromatin formation requires methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9) by the SET domain protein DIM-5. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) reads this mark and directly recruits the DNA methyltransferase, DIM-2. An ectopic H3 gene carrying a substitution at K9 (hH3K9L or hH3K9R) causes global loss of DNA methylation in the presence of wild-type hH3 (hH3WT). We investigated whether other residues in the N-terminal tail of H3 are important for methylation of DNA and of H3K9. Mutations in the N-terminal tail of H3 were generated and tested for effects in vitro and in vivo, in the presence or absence of the wild-type allele. Substitutions at K4, K9, T11, G12, G13, K14, K27, S28, and K36 were lethal in the absence of a wild-type allele. In contrast, mutants bearing substitutions of R2, A7, R8, S10, A15, P16, R17, K18, and K23 were viable. The effect of substitutions on DNA methylation were variable; some were recessive and others caused a semi-dominant loss of DNA methylation. Substitutions of R2, A7, R8, S10, T11, G12, G13, K14, and P16 caused partial or complete loss of DNA methylation in vivo. Only residues R8-G12 were required for DIM-5 activity in vitro. DIM-5 activity was inhibited by dimethylation of H3K4 and by phosphorylation of H3S10, but not by acetylation of H3K14. We conclude that the H3 tail acts as an integrating platform for signals that influence DNA methylation, in part through methylation of H3K9.
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