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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 454445 matches for " J. R. R. Makulo "
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The Atherogenic Dyslipidemia Ratio Log (Tg)/Hdl-C Was Not Associated with Urinary Albumin Excretion Rate (Uaer) and Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Black Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  [PDF]
M. F. Kajingulu, B. F. Lepira, I. N. F. Mbutiwi, J. R. R. Makulo, E. Bieleli, M. N. Nseka
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2016.61003
Abstract: Objective: The objective is to assess the relationship of Log (TG)/HDL-c as surrogate estimate of atherogenic dyslipidemia with urinary albumin excretion rate and cardiovascular risk among black patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients and methods: A post-hoc analysis of data from 181 type 2 diabetes patients enrolled in a cross-sectional study of urinary albumin excretion rate seen at a tertiary healthcare. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were defined as ACR 30 - 299.9 mg/g and ACR ≥ 300 mg/g, respectively. Quartiles of Log (TG)/HDL-c were used as surrogate estimates of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Cardiovascular risk was assessed using WHO chart for estimation of CV risk in low and middle income countries. Comparisons across Log (TG)/HDL-c quartiles were performed using one way ANOVA and Chi square for trend as appropriate. P < 0.05 defined the level of statistical significance. Results: A high prevalence (69%) of atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) was observed in the present case series of Black Africans with type 2 diabetes. Average total cholesterol levels showed significant (p = 0.010) trends towards lower values across quartiles of Log (TG)/ HDL-c. No significant trends were observed for average UAER and cardiovascular risk across quartiles of Log (TG)/HDL-c. Conclusion: Log (TG)/HDL-c as a surrogate estimate of atherogenic failed to predict cardiovascular risk in the present case series of black patients with type 2 diabetes.
Left Ventricular Structure, Geometry and Systolic Function among Hypertensive Black Patients with Reduced Kidney Function  [PDF]
B. C. Mpembe, F. B. Lepira, F. I. Mbutiwi, J. R. Makulo, E. V. Kintoki, M. P. Bayauli, J. R. M’Buyamba-Kabangu
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2015.510032
Abstract: Objective: To assess the LV mass, geometry and systolic function in hypertensive patients with reduced kidney function. Methods: According to ASE guidelines, we estimated LV ventricular mass, geometry and systolic function in 155 consecutive hypertensive patients [51% women, mean age 51 ± 12 years, median duration of hypertension 7 years] with reduced kidney function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or dipstick proteinuria ≥ 1+). LVH was defined as LVMI >125 g/m2 in men, >110 g/m2 in non obese women or >51 g/m2.7 for obese men or women. Where appropriate, we used Student t, Mann Whitney, one way ANOVA or Chi square tests. A P value of 0.05 or less was considered significant. Results: Seventy four patients in the series (48%) had reduced kidney function (eGFR 30 ± 15 ml/min/1.73 m2). Compared to patients with relatively normal kidney function, non obese and obese patients with reduced kidney function had significantly greater LVM [271 (198 - 348) vs 276 (175 - 284) g/m2, p = 0.008] for non obese; LVM 72 (47 - 88) vs 54 (44 - 73) g/m2.7, p = 0.007 for obese] and lower EF (60 ± 14 vs 68 ± 13%, p < 0.001) was significantly lower. LVH of mainly concentric geometric pattern was present in 68 patients with reduced kidney function (92%). Conclusion: In the present case series, reduced kidney function was associated with increased LVM, concentric geometric pattern and impaired systolic function.
Sickle Cell Trait, Hemoglobin Levels and Anemia among Black Patients with Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis  [PDF]
F. B. Lepira, T. K. Mukendi, F. I. N. Mbutiwi, J. R. Makulo, E. K. Sumaili, P. K. Kayembe, N. M. Nseka
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2016.68029
Abstract: Objective: To assess the relationship between SCT, hemoglobin levels and anemia in CKD black patients. Method: A post-hoc analysis of data from 188 patients, enrolled in a cross-sectional study of sickle cell trait (SCT) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), was performed to assess the relationship between SCT, hemoglobin (Hb) levels and anemia defined as Hb < 12 g/dl in men and <11 g/dl in women. Student t test, Mann Whitney and Chi square test were used as appropriate for different comparisons. P < 0.05 defined the level of statistical significance. Results: SCT (HbAS) and normal hemoglobin (HbAA) were present in 39 (21%) and 149 (79%) CKD patients, respectively. Despite similar estimated GFR (eGFR) and age, HbAS patients had significantly lower Hb levels (8.8 ± 1.8 vs 10 ± 2.2 g/dl; p = 0.001) and a higher proportion of anemia (95% vs 72%, p = 0.001). In multiple linear regression analysis, eGFR, BMI, SBP and SCT emerged as independent determinants of Hb levels. The presence of SCT was associated with 1.185 g/dl decrease in Hb levels. Conclusion: In the present case series, SCT was associated with lower Hb levels suggesting its potential contribution to the pathogenesis of CKD-associated anemia.
Comparison of the Performance of Three Commonly Used Electrocardiographic Indexes for the Diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Black Hypertensive Patients with Reduced Kidney Function Managed at a Tertiary Healthcare Hospital: A Post-Hoc Analysis  [PDF]
F. B. Lepira, C. M. B. Mpembe, F. I. N. Mbutiwi, J. R. Makulo, P. K. Kayembe, F. M. Kajingulu, E. V. Kintoki, J. R. M’buyamba-Kabangu
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2017.74011
Background: Reduced kidney function in blacks is associated with an increased frequency of left ventricular hypertrophy. Given the unavailability of echocardiography in most developing countries, the diagnostic performance of current ECG indexes needs to be evaluated. Objective: To compare the diagnostic performance of 3 commonly used ECG indexes (Sokolow-Lyon, Cornell voltage and Cornell product) in black hypertensive patients. Methods: Electrocardiography and echocardiography estimated left ventricular mass of 155 consecutive hypertensive patients who participated from January 2012 to January 2013 to an echocardiographic cross-sectional study of left ventricular structure was analyzed to compare Cornell voltage and Cornell product indexes with Sokolow-Lyon voltage index as a reference. Reduced kidney function was defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.730.05 m2. ROC curves in relation to LVH diagnosis were used to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of each index. P < 0.05 defined the level of the statistical significance. Results: The sensitivity and specificity were 43% and 85%, 23% and 77% and 26% and 77% for Sokolow-Lyon, Cornell voltage and Cornell product indexes, respectively. However, Sokolow-Lyon index (AUC; 95% CI: 0.64; 0.50 - 0.78) showed better performance than Cornell voltage (0.42; 0.25 - 0.59) and Cornell product (0.43; 0.28 - 0.59). Sokolow-Lyon index cut-point ≥ 37 mm corresponded to the highest Youden index (39.4% of sensitivity and 92.3% of specificity). Conclusion: Although the overall performance of the 3 ECG indexes versus echocardiography was low, Sokolow-Lyon index performed better than the two other indexes in diagnosing LVH.
Prevalence of Circadian Blood Pressure Patterns and Factors Associated with Non-Dipping among Black Patients with Untreated and Treated Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
T. S. Mvunzi, Y. Lubenga, F. B. Lepira, J. R. Makulo, A. Nkodila, D. K. Kuntonda, Y. Samafundu, Y. M. Nlandu, Y. M. Engole, B. P. Kianu, F. Kintoki, D. Mupepe, N. Buila, R. M. Kongo, E. V. Kintoki
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2017.711038
Abstract: Objective: To determine the prevalence of circadian BP patterns and to assess factors associated with the non-dipping pattern in untreated and treated hypertensive patients, studied separately. Methods: Clinical data and ABPM were obtained from 52 untreated and 168 treated hypertensive patients referred for ABPM to Monkole Hospital in Kinshasa. Twenty-four ABPM was performed using an oscillometric device. Non-dipping pattern encompasses non-dipping (nocturnal systolic BP dip less than 10% of daytime systolic BP) and reverse dipping (mean night SBP higher than the day SBP). Results: the prevalence of non-dipping pattern was 75% (63.5% non-dipping and 11.5% reverse dipping) and 70% (60.1% non-dipping and 10.1% reverse dipping) in untreated and treated hypertensive patients, respectively. Advanced age (adjusted OR 1.80; 95%CI 1.96 - 3.38; p = 0.015), female sex (adjusted OR 2.28; 95%CI 1.19 - 4.36; p = 0.013), diabetes (adjusted OR 5.06; 95%CI 1.38 - 6.95; p = 0.014), reduced kidney function (adjusted OR 3.10; 95%CI 1.50 - 6.43; p = 0.018), inflammation (adjusted OR 2.65; 95%CI 1.76 - 6.48; p = 0.031), LVH (adjusted OR 4.45; 95%CI 1.78 - 7.67;
Blood Pressure Patterns and Factors Associated with Relative Hypertension among Steady State Sickle Cell Disease Patients in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
P. I. Mboliasa, F. B. Lepira, J. R. Makulo, A. Nkodila, E. K. Sumaili, J. B. Bukabau, V. M. Mokoli, A. L. Longo, C. V. Zinga, F. M. P. Kanjingulu, Y. M. Nlandu, Y. M. Engole, M. M. Mukendi, E. M. Kadima, C. K. Ilunga, P. M. Ekulu, N. M. N. Nseka
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2018.83021
Abstract: Background: Although systemic hypertension is rarely seen in steady state sickle cell disease (SCD), relative hypertension has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and renal complications. Objective: To determine the prevalence of BP patterns and assess factors associated with relative hypertension insickle cell anemia (SCA) adult patients. Methods: Clinical data and office BP were obtained from 103 consecutive steady-state SCA adult patients (mean age 26 ± 7.9 years, 66% females, 22.3% on hydroxyurea) attending four healthcare centers providing SCD-specific care in Kinshasa. Seated BP was measured using an automated electronic device. Three consecutive blood pressure measurements were taken with 2 minutes interval between readings and the average of the 2 last readings was considered for the analyses. Normal BP, relative hypertension and systemic hypertension were defined as BP < 120/70 mmHg, 120 - 139/70 - 89 mmHg and ≥140/90 mmHg, respectively. Results: Normal BP, relative hypertension and systemic hypertension were observed in 56 (54%), 43(42%) and 4 (4%) of SCA patients, respectively. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with relative hypertension were leg ulcer (aOR 2.05; 95%CI 1.77 -
Chronic kidney disease among high school students of Kinshasa
Justine B Bukabau, Jean Robert R Makulo, Nestor M Pakasa, Eric P Cohen, Fran?ois B Lepira, Nazaire M Nseka, Patrick K Kayembe, Ernest K Sumaili
BMC Nephrology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2369-13-24
Abstract: In an epidemiological cross sectional study, a random sample of 524 pupils (263 boys, mean age of 18.7 ± 1.4 years) from school environment of Kinshasa were studied. Recorded parameters of interest were anthropometric, proteinuria, serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) according to the Schwartz formula using uncalibrated creatinine levels from one random measurement. CKD was defined as the presence of kidney damage (daily proteinuria ≥ 300 mg) and/or reduced kidney function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2). Concordances between eGFR according to Schwartz, Cockcroft-Gault (C-G) indexed for BSA and modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) study equations were computed using the kappa coefficient.The prevalence of CKD by the Schwartz formula was 1.5%. By stage, 0.8% had CKD stage 1 (proteinuria with normal eGFR) and 0.8% had CKD stage 3 (eGFR, 30 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m2). The prevalence of proteinuria ≥ 300 mg/day was 1% (one case had 2.7g/day). Agreement between eGFR according to Schwartz formula and the MDRD formula was excellent (kappa: 88.8%). Although correlations between all formulas were excellent (0.99; 0.87, and 0.89), agreement was poor between eGFR according to Schwartz and C-G indexed BSA equation (kappa: 52.7%) and, poorer with C-G unadjusted for BSA (kappa: 26.9%).In the large African city of Kinshasa, 2% of high school students have CKD. This high prevalence rate emphasizes the need for appropriate detection and prevention measures in this vulnerable young age population group.
Personality of Students of Economics, Medicine, and Verbal Communication: Preliminary Results  [PDF]
J. Richter, R. Neumann
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23039
Abstract: Differences on personality between students of economics, medicine and verbal communication should be explored by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Students of economics are mainly characterized by lower harm avoidance and lower reward dependence and higher self directedness than medical students and students of verbal communication. Students of all groups seem to overestimate their self-directedness with economical students showing the most pronounced tendency of overrating, whereas medical students tend to overrate their cooperativeness more than the students from the other groups. The obvious disturbed self-evaluation corresponds to the students’ professional orientation. The students can be characterized by specific and varying types and impact of social desirability depending on their professional career.
Model of Preformed Hole-Pairs in Cuprate Superconductors  [PDF]
R. J. Singh
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.28105
Abstract: A model of preformed hole-pairs in cuprate superconductors has been proposed based on some experimental results i.e., 1) electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of quenched superconductors which show very frequently the fragment (CuO)4 broken off from the CuO2 layer in the structure, 2) 41 meV peak observed in neutron diffraction and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of superconductors, 3) Heisenberg exchange interaction leading to ferromagnetism observed in CuO which is an essential ingredient of all superconductors and some generally accepted conclusions i.e., a) that the order parameter in superconductors has dx2–y2 symmetr and b) coherence length is of the order of 15 - 20 Angstrom. Heisenberg exchange interaction between two (CuO4) plaquettes each containing a lattice hole binds the two holes which are the charge carriers in the cuprate superconductors. It is not very clear whether the hole-pair is in the triplet or singlet state, but the triplet state is supported by the experimental observation of ferromagnetism in the parent material CuO. The proposed hole-pair singlet is different from Zhang-Rice singlet.
Some Important Features of Manganites  [PDF]
R. J. Singh
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.42027

Manganites are very complex systems because of interplay among charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom. To come closer to the understanding of its nature, we discuss its three important features: 1) correlation between magnetization and electrical resistivity in the same temperature range; 2) detection of chemical constitution and the arrangement of Mn3+ and Mn4+ ions at different hole concentrations; and 3) how electrical current flows through double exchange in manganites. The first feature will be discussed for three-dimensional manganies. The features 2 and 3 are inscrutable in three-dimensional manganites. So they will be discussed for one-dimensional manganites and then generalized. One-dimensional solid has been discussed because it may give a see-through picture of various aspects of manganites. All the discussions will be done through a representative example of La1-xCaxMnO3, because it is the intermediate bandwidth manganite; has been most widely investigated and has the highest magnetoresistance. If two things: 1) magnetization and resistivity as a function of temperature at various magnetic fields; and 2) phase diagrams of other manganites are known, their properties can be understood by the discussion of the three features mentioned above.

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