Abstract:
In this work the structural changes induced by aged treatment have shown a connection with differences of hardness and electrochemical performance. Al-base alloys have been investigated by means of Vickers hardness, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and short-term electrochemical test. X-ray diffraction result reveals the formation of (MgZn)49Al32 phase for two conditions, the first one is when the magnesium content is upper to 5.49% in as-cast condition and the second one after the thermal treatment carried out at 450?C for 5 h. In addition, the hardness and electrochemical performance has been influenced by the presence and quantity of the (MgZn)49Al32 phase. The addition of magnesium alloying modifies the microstructure, increases the content of (MgZn)49Al32 phase and provides a localized corrosion which conduced to the breakdown of the oxide film (?-Al2O3) formed on the Al alloy surface.

Abstract:
We present a microscopical explanation of the entropy of the BTZ black hole using discrete spin foam models of quantum gravity. The entropy of a black hole is given in geometrical terms which lead us to think that its statistical description must be given in terms of a quantum geometry. In this paper we present it in terms of spin foam geometrical observables at the horizon of the black hole.

Abstract:
We show that counting different configurations that give rise to black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity is related to partitions in number theory.

Abstract:
Recently an idea for computing the entropy of black holes in the spin foam formalism has been introduced. Particularly complete calculations for the three dimensional euclidean BTZ black hole were done. The whole calculation is based on observables living at the horizon of the black hole universe. Departing from this idea of observables living at the horizon, we now go further and compute the entropy of BTZ black hole in the spirit of statistical mechanics. We compare both calculations and show that they are very interrelated and equally valid. This latter behaviour is certainly due to the importance of the observables.

Abstract:
We propose a way to describe the origin of black hole entropy in the spin foam models of quantum gravity. This stimulates a new way to study the relation of spin foam models and loop quantum gravity.

Abstract:
A method to evaluate spin networks for (2+1)-dimensional quantum gravity is given. We analyse the evaluation of spin networks for Lorentzian, Euclidean and a new limiting case of Newtonian quantum gravity. Particular attention is paid to the tetrahedron and to the study of its asymptotics. Moreover, we propose that all this technique can be extended to spin networks for quantum gravity in any dimension.

Abstract:
We present a novel paradox in special relativity together with its solution. We call it the four particles paradox. The purpose of this paradox is pedagogical and therefore directed towards students and lecturers of physics. Even if most paradoxes in special relativity theory are very interrelated and some are special cases of others, the paradox we present here is original and illuminates on the very nice subject and the literature of special relativity.

Abstract:
We present a problem relating measurements and information theory in spin foam models. In the three dimensional case of quantum gravity we can compute probabilities of spin network graphs and study the behaviour of the Shannon entropy associated to the corresponding information. We present a general definition, compute the Shannon entropy of some examples, and find some interesting inequalities.

Abstract:
We present a comparison of the calculation of BTZ black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity and in spin foam models. We see that both give the same answer.

Abstract:
Scientists from the OPERA experiment have measured neutrinos supposedly travelling at a velocity faster than light contrary to the theory of relativity. Even when the measurements are precise, the interpretation of this problem is being misunderstood. Here it is very easily solved and explained within the theory of relativity itself proving that neutrinos are not travelling faster than the speed of light and the early time arrival is due to the the presence of a gravitational field.