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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 340139 matches for " J. David Hull "
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Efficacy of a Topical Aromatic Rub (Vicks VapoRub®)-Speed of Action of Subjective Nasal Cooling and Relief from Nasal Congestion  [PDF]
Ron Eccles, Martez Jawad, David L. Ramsey, J. David Hull
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2015.51002
Abstract: Vicks VapoRub® (VVR) is a pharmaceutical preparation containing a combination of levomenthol, eucalyptus oil, turpentine oil and camphor as active ingredients, and thymol, cedarwood oil, and white soft paraffin as excipients. VVR is a petrolatum-based ointment to be either applied topically to the chest, throat, and back or added to hot water and the aromatic vapours inhaled. When used topically, the actives are evaporated by body temperature and inspired. The main therapeutic effects are the feeling of relief from nasal congestion and relief from cough. These were primarily experienced by patients as the trigeminal and olfactory impact of the aromatics and were hypothesized to be experienced within minutes. This was a randomized, single-(Investigator) blind, controlled, 2-arm (VVR vs. petrolatum), parallel design pilot study in 50 otherwise healthy adult patients suffering from common cold and experiencing nasal congestion. Speed to detection of a sensation of nasal cooling and nasal decongestion was assessed following application of the recommended amount of product. The time to first experience of a sensation of nasal cooling was significantly (p < 0.001) faster for patients who received VVR compared to control (median times of 23 and 99 seconds respectively). VVR delivered a statistically significant sensation of nasal cooling at all times from 12 seconds to 15 minutes after product application. The time to first experience of a sensation of nasal decongestion was significantly (p = 0.0102) faster for patients who received VVR compared to control (median times of 62 and 126 seconds respectively). VVR delivered a statistically significant sensation of nasal decongestion at all times from 62 seconds to 15 minutes after product application. No adverse events were reported during the study. Conclusion: Patients using Vicks VapoRub® as directed experienced significant differences from control for sensation of nasal cooling in 12 seconds and the sensation of nasal decongestion in 62 seconds.
morphforge: a toolbox for simulating small networks of biologically detailed neurons in Python
Michael J. Hull,David J. Willshaw
Frontiers in Neuroinformatics , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fninf.2013.00047
Abstract: The broad structure of a modeling study can often be explained over a cup of coffee, but converting this high-level conceptual idea into graphs of the final simulation results may require many weeks of sitting at a computer. Although models themselves can be complex, often many mental resources are wasted working around complexities of the software ecosystem such as fighting to manage files, interfacing between tools and data formats, finding mistakes in code or working out the units of variables. morphforge is a high-level, Python toolbox for building and managing simulations of small populations of multicompartmental biophysical model neurons. An entire in silico experiment, including the definition of neuronal morphologies, channel descriptions, stimuli, visualization and analysis of results can be written within a single short Python script using high-level objects. Multiple independent simulations can be created and run from a single script, allowing parameter spaces to be investigated. Consideration has been given to the reuse of both algorithmic and parameterizable components to allow both specific and stochastic parameter variations. Some other features of the toolbox include: the automatic generation of human-readable documentation (e.g., PDF files) about a simulation; the transparent handling of different biophysical units; a novel mechanism for plotting simulation results based on a system of tags; and an architecture that supports both the use of established formats for defining channels and synapses (e.g., MODL files), and the possibility to support other libraries and standards easily. We hope that this toolbox will allow scientists to quickly build simulations of multicompartmental model neurons for research and serve as a platform for further tool development.
Beyond the Interventionist-Preservationist Duality
R. Bruce Hull,David P. Robertson,Gregory J. Buhyoff
Ecology and Society , 2003,
Modelling the Effects of Electrical Coupling between Unmyelinated Axons of Brainstem Neurons Controlling Rhythmic Activity
Michael J. Hull,Stephen R. Soffe?,David J. Willshaw?,Alan Roberts
PLOS Computational Biology , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004240
Abstract: Gap junctions between fine unmyelinated axons can electrically couple groups of brain neurons to synchronise ?ring and contribute to rhythmic activity. To explore the distribution and significance of electrical coupling, we modelled a well analysed, small population of brainstem neurons which drive swimming in young frog tadpoles. A passive network of 30 multicompartmental neurons with unmyelinated axons was used to infer that: axon-axon gap junctions close to the soma gave the best match to experimentally measured coupling coef?cients; axon diameter had a strong in?uence on coupling; most neurons were coupled indirectly via the axons of other neurons. When active channels were added, gap junctions could make action potential propagation along the thin axons unreliable. Increased sodium and decreased potassium channel densities in the initial axon segment improved action potential propagation. Modelling suggested that the single spike ?ring to step current injection observed in whole-cell recordings is not a cellular property but a dynamic consequence of shunting resulting from electrical coupling. Without electrical coupling, firing of the population during depolarising current was unsynchronised; with coupling, the population showed synchronous recruitment and rhythmic firing. When activated instead by increasing levels of modelled sensory pathway input, the population without electrical coupling was recruited incrementally to unpatterned activity. However, when coupled, the population was recruited all-or-none at threshold into a rhythmic swimming pattern: the tadpole “decided” to swim. Modelling emphasises uncertainties about fine unmyelinated axon physiology but, when informed by biological data, makes general predictions about gap junctions: locations close to the soma; relatively small numbers; many indirect connections between neurons; cause of action potential propagation failure in fine axons; misleading alteration of intrinsic firing properties. Modelling also indicates that electrical coupling within a population can synchronize recruitment of neurons and their pacemaker firing during rhythmic activity.
Modelling Feedback Excitation, Pacemaker Properties and Sensory Switching of Electrically Coupled Brainstem Neurons Controlling Rhythmic Activity
Michael J. Hull,Stephen R. Soffe?,David J. Willshaw?,Alan Roberts
PLOS Computational Biology , 2016, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004702
Abstract: What cellular and network properties allow reliable neuronal rhythm generation or firing that can be started and stopped by brief synaptic inputs? We investigate rhythmic activity in an electrically-coupled population of brainstem neurons driving swimming locomotion in young frog tadpoles, and how activity is switched on and off by brief sensory stimulation. We build a computational model of 30 electrically-coupled conditional pacemaker neurons on one side of the tadpole hindbrain and spinal cord. Based on experimental estimates for neuron properties, population sizes, synapse strengths and connections, we show that: long-lasting, mutual, glutamatergic excitation between the neurons allows the network to sustain rhythmic pacemaker firing at swimming frequencies following brief synaptic excitation; activity persists but rhythm breaks down without electrical coupling; NMDA voltage-dependency doubles the range of synaptic feedback strengths generating sustained rhythm. The network can be switched on and off at short latency by brief synaptic excitation and inhibition. We demonstrate that a population of generic Hodgkin-Huxley type neurons coupled by glutamatergic excitatory feedback can generate sustained asynchronous firing switched on and off synaptically. We conclude that networks of neurons with NMDAR mediated feedback excitation can generate self-sustained activity following brief synaptic excitation. The frequency of activity is limited by the kinetics of the neuron membrane channels and can be stopped by brief inhibitory input. Network activity can be rhythmic at lower frequencies if the neurons are electrically coupled. Our key finding is that excitatory synaptic feedback within a population of neurons can produce switchable, stable, sustained firing without synaptic inhibition.
Assumptions about Ecological Scale and Nature Knowing Best Hiding in Environmental Decisions
R. Bruce Hull,David P. Robertson,Gregory J. Buhyoff,Erin Seekamp
Ecology and Society , 2002,
Abstract: Assumptions about nature are embedded in people’s preferences for environmental policy and management. The people we interviewed justified preservationist policies using four assumptions about nature knowing best: nature is balanced, evolution is progressive, technology is suspect, and the Creation is perfect. They justified interventionist policies using three assumptions about nature: it is dynamic, inefficient, and robust. Unstated assumptions about temporal, spatial, and organizational scales further confuse discussions about nature. These findings confirm and extend findings from previous research. Data for our study were derived from interviews with people actively involved in negotiating the fate of forest ecosystems in southwest Virginia: landowners, forest advisors, scientists, state and federal foresters, loggers, and leaders in non-governmental environmental organizations. We argue that differing assumptions about nature constrain people’s vision of what environmental conditions can and should exist, thereby constraining the future that can be negotiated. We recommend promoting ecological literacy and a biocultural approach to ecological science.
Validity of air-displacement plethysmography in the assessment of body composition changes in a 16-month weight loss program
Cláudia S Minderico, Analiza M Silva, Pedro J Teixeira, Luis B Sardinha, Holly R Hull, David A Fields
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-3-32
Abstract: 93 healthy female subjects (38.9 ± 5.7 yr, 159.8 ± 5.6 cm, 76.7 ± 9.9 kg, 30.0 ± 3.4 kg/m2) completed a 16 month weight loss intervention. Eligible subjects attended 15 treatment sessions occurring over the course of 4 months with educational content including topics relating to physical activity and exercise, diet and eating behavior, and behavior modification. In the remaining 12 months, subjects underwent a lifestyle program designed to increase physical activity and improve eating habits. Before and after the intervention, subjects had their percent body fat (%fat), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM)) assessed by DXA and ADP.Significant differences (p ≤ 0.001) were found between DXA and ADP at baseline %fat (46.0 % fat vs. 42.0 % fat), FM (35.3 kg vs. 32.5 kg) and FFM (40.8 kg vs. 44.2 kg) as well as at post intervention for %fat (42.1% fat vs. 38.3 % fat), FM (30.9 kg vs. 28.4 kg) and FFM (41.7 kg vs. 44.7 kg). At each time point, ADP %fat and total FM was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.001) than DXA while FFM was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.001). However, both techniques tracked %fat changes similarly considering that there were no differences between the two means. Furthermore, a Bland-Altman analysis was performed and no significant bias was observed, thus demonstrating the ability of ADP to measure body fat across a wide range of fatness.At baseline and post weight loss, a significant difference was found between ADP and DXA. However, the results indicate both methods are highly related and track changes in %fat similarly after a weight loss program in overweight and obese females. Additionally, the mean changes in %fat were similar between the two techniques, suggesting that ADP can be translated to its use in clinical practice and research studies as DXA currently is used.It has been widely documented and reported the rise in obesity rates across the globe in all ethnicities and genders [1,2]. The link between obesity and its related co-morbidities and de
Rigid Origami Vertices: Conditions and Forcing Sets
Zachary Abel,Jason Cantarella,Erik D. Demaine,David Eppstein,Thomas C. Hull,Jason S. Ku,Robert J. Lang,Tomohiro Tachi
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We develop an intrinsic necessary and sufficient condition for single-vertex origami crease patterns to be able to fold rigidly. We classify such patterns in the case where the creases are pre-assigned to be mountains and valleys as well as in the unassigned case. We also illustrate the utility of this result by applying it to the new concept of minimal forcing sets for rigid origami models, which are the smallest collection of creases that, when folded, will force all the other creases to fold in a prescribed way.
Observational Study of a Multi-Active Ingredient Over-the-Counter Cold Remedy Following Active Pharmacist Recommendation  [PDF]
Gillian Lisa Phillipson, John David Hull, Boles?aw Samoliński
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.71005
Abstract: Real-world user satisfaction with a fixed dose combination over-the-counter cold remedy (Vicks Symptomed Complete Cytrynowy hot drink; VSCC) was evaluated in a prospective, non-comparative, observational study involving 176 pharmacies in Poland from February to April 2015. 1391 participants completed a questionnaire in the pharmacy and several paper questionnaires at home following use of the product at their own discretion. Participants returned their completed questionnaires to the pharmacy. 1356 participants were included in the intent-to-treat analysis. Participants highly valued the advice from their pharmacist (97%, P < 0.0001, important vs. not important) and thought the quality of that advice was good (93%, P < 0.0001, good/very good vs. very bad-fair). 96% of participants found VSCC to be effective in some way against their cold symptoms (P < 0.0001, effective vs. not effective) and 68% of them stated that it was better than any other cold therapy they had used before (P < 0.0001, better/best vs. same/worse). Adverse event reporting was very low.
Efficacy of a Topical Aromatic Rub (Vicks VapoRub) on Effects on Self-Reported and Actigraphically Assessed Aspects of Sleep in Common Cold Patients  [PDF]
Nayantara Santhi, David Ramsey, Gill Phillipson, David Hull, Victoria L. Revell, Derk-Jan Dijk
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.72009
Common cold sufferers frequently report sleep disruption during the symptomatic period of infections. We examined the effects of treatment with a topical aromatic pharmaceutical ointment (Vicks VapoRub), on associated sleep disturbances. The effects of Vicks VapoRub versus placebo (petrolatum ointment) on subjective and objective measured sleep parameters were assessed in an exploratory study of 100 common cold patients, in a randomized, single blind, controlled, two-arm, parallel design study. The primary efficacy variable was subjective sleep quality measured with the SQSQ (Subjective Quality of Sleep Questionnaire). Additional measures included, ease of falling asleep and depth of sleep (measured with a post-sleep Visual Analog Scale), total sleep time, sleep onset latency, activity score, percentage of sleep, sleep efficiency (measured with actigraphy and SQSQ) and sleep quality index measured with a modified Karolinska Sleep Diary (KSD). The primary endpoint, “How was the quality of your sleep last night?” showed a statistically significant difference in change from baseline in favour of VapoRub treatment (p = 0.0392) versus placebo. Positive effects of VapoRub versus placebo were also observed for “How refreshed did you feel upon waking up?” (p = 0.0122) (SQSQ), “Did you get enough sleep?” (p = 0.0036) (KSD), “How was it to get up?” (p = 0.0120) (KSD) and “Do you feel well-rested?” (p = 0.0125) (KSD). No statistically significant changes from baseline versus placebo were detected in the Actiwatch endpoints. Vicks VapoRub when applied before retiring to bed can reduce subjective sleep disturbances during a common cold. The results of this exploratory study support the belief among patients that the use of VapoRub improves subjective sleep quality during common cold which was associated with more refreshing sleep.
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