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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 298581 matches for " J. Datta "
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Food security in HIV/AIDS response: Insights from Homa Bay, Kenya
D Datta, J Njuguna
SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance) , 2009,
Abstract: This paper examines the viability and effectiveness of a pilot farming initiative in reversing impacts of HIV/AIDS on the most affected households in Homa Bay, Kenya. The paper argues that once patients are stable, they can effectively be engaged in farming with minimal financial and technical support, resulting in enhanced food security of the affected households. More importantly, it helps to reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma and improve the individual’s self-esteem. Some of the key challenges of the pilot initiative were the limited number of agricultural extension workers and absence of facilities to enable them to deliver services to the farmers, the high cost of farm inputs, the unavailability of farm inputs when they were needed, poorly developed agricultural markets, and the absence of irrigation facilities. The paper recommends the sensitive scaling-up of this approach. However, farming initiatives by HIV/AIDS service NGOs should be linked to at least three key aspects: (a) treatment, care and support to HIV/AIDS affected households; (b) micro grant schemes or subsidies to enable farmers to purchase farming tools and farm inputs; and (c) comprehensive on-farm training support. To ensure effectiveness and wider reach, government needs to view agriculture through an HIV lens and promote a multisectoral approach that recognises the relationship between HIV/AIDS and food security. A number of immediate actions are required to strengthen this relationship, such as increased public investment to augment extension services, subsidise farm inputs, and develop infrastructure including agricultural markets.
Characterization of genetic diversity in Cicer arietinum L. and Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh using random amplified polymorphic DNA
J. Datta,N. Lal
Genomics and Quantitative Genetics , 2011,
Abstract: Insufficient quality of molecular markers regarding their predictive and diagnostic values has delayed the benefits of estimating molecular diversity and marker-assisted selection in chickpeas and pigeonpeas. To evaluate the robustness of marker systems in detection of DNA polymorphism, 19 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 22 simple sequence repeats (SSR) were used to genetically differentiate eight genotypes of chickpeas and pigeonpeas showing resistance or susceptibility to Fusarium wilt. DNA polymorphism was quantified at 93 % and 87 % when using SSR and RAPD markers, respectively. The average number of amplicons obtained was 6.42 (RAPD) and 1.3 (SSR). DNA profiles revealed a high degree of polymorphism between genera while diversity level was low among the varieties. Significant polymorphism information content values of RAPD (0.49) and SSR (0.61) profiles were obtained. Unweighted pair group mean average cluster analysis of eight genotypes effectively placed the two genera in separate clusters with their respect to resistance or susceptibility to Fusarium wilt. There was a significant correlation between RAPD and SSR (r = 0.819) GS matrices. Pearson’s correlation (r) and Mantel statistic (t) were calculated to measure the degree of relationship between the similarity matrices obtained by RAPD and SSR (t = 4.006). These results illustrate the potential of both these marker systems to distinguish pulse crops at the genus, species, or variety level. The information will facilitate selection of genotypes to serve as parents for effective breeding programs in crop improvement and also in bridging the two important pulses crop for comparative genomics.
Characterization of Pt-Pd/C Electrocatalyst for Methanol Oxidation in Alkaline Medium
S. S. Mahapatra,J. Datta
International Journal of Electrochemistry , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/563495
Abstract: The Pt-Pd/C electrocatalyst was synthesized on graphite substrate by the electrochemical codeposition technique. The physicochemical characterization of the catalyst was done by SEM, XRD, and EDX. The electrochemical characterization of the Pt-Pd/C catalyst for methanol electro-oxidation was studied over a range of NaOH and methanol concentrations using cyclic voltammetry, quasisteady-state polarization, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The activity of methanol oxidation increased with pH due to better OH species coverage on the electrode surface. At methanol concentration (>1.0?M), there is no change in the oxidation peak current density because of excess methanol at the electrode surface and/or depletion of OH? at the electrode surface. The Pt-Pd/C catalyst shows good stability and the low value of Tafel slope and charge transfer resistance. The enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes is ascribed to the synergistic effect of higher electrochemical surface area, preferred OH? adsorption, and ad-atom contribution on the alloyed surface. 1. Introduction The direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC) has now emerged as one of the prospective power sources, since liquid alcohol fuels have several merits over gaseous fuel such as high energy density and, availability of gasoline infrastructure, and these can be used directly without the necessity of reforming. Among the different fuel candidates, methanol has been considered as one of the most appropriate fuel for the DAFCs because of its low molecular weight, simplest structure, and very high energy density (6.1?kWh?kg?1). Methanol can be generated from a number of different sources like natural gas, oil, coal, or biomass, since direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) can operate by feeding methanol directly to the reactor without using a reformer and the system is compact and suitable for portable and mobile power generation [1, 2]. However, it is difficult to carry out the complete oxidation of methanol in acid with Pt alone as the electrocatalyst. The electro-oxidation of methanol in acid media has been studied extensively, and several parallel reactions are reported to limit the electropotentiality of methanol in acid media [3, 4]. Formaldehyde, formic acid and CO are considered as reaction intermediates in acidic media. The formation of surface adsorbed intermediate species could act as poison for subsequent methanol adsorption and oxidation. The CO is strongly adsorbed and linearly bonded, which leads to self-poisoning of Pt electrocatalyst. Further, adsorption of methanol on
Exterior Sourcing and Technology Distinctness as Indicators for Radical Innovations: Evidence from Patents in Information Technology Industry  [PDF]
Avimanyu Datta
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2011.23020
Abstract: We hypothesized and tested the role of looking beyond a firm’s focal industry on technology distinctness and both of their impacts on radicalness of innovations. We used patent filings from 1996 through 2009 (N = 192,070) from the IT industry within the S & P-500 database. We also classified exterior sourcing as high and low, and divided technology distinctness as high, medium, and low. We found that when innovations are primarily sourced exteriorly, there is a negative relationship with technology distinctness. We also found that the relationship between technology distinctness and radicalness is stronger at lower levels of exterior sourcing than at higher levels. Further, when exterior sourcing is unable to create highly distinct technologies, the relationship between technology distinctness and radicalness goes from sparsely significant to significantly negative.
Application of Bootstrap in Dose Apportionment of Nuclear Plants Via Uncertainty Modeling of the Effluent Released from Plants  [PDF]
Debabrata Datta
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2012.21007
Abstract: Nuclear power plants are always operated under the guidelines stipulated by the regulatory body. These guidelines basically contain the technical specifications of the specific power plant and provide the knowledge of the discharge limit of the radioactive effluent into the environment through atmospheric and aquatic route. However, operational constraints sometimes may violate the technical specification due to which there may be a failure to satisfy the stipulated dose apportioned to that plant. In a site having multi facilities sum total of the dose apportioned to all the facilities should be constrained to 1 mSv/year to the members of the public. Dose apportionment scheme basically stipulates the limit of the gaseous and liquid effluent released into the environment. Existing methodology of dose apportionment is subjective in nature that may result the discharge limit of the effluent in atmospheric and aquatic route in an adhoc manner. Appropriate scientific basis for dose apportionment is always preferable rather than judicial basis from the point of harmonization of establishing the dose apportionment. This paper presents an attempt of establishing the discharge limit of the gaseous and liquid effluent first on the basis of the existing value of the release of the same. Existing release data for a few years (for example 10 years) for any nuclear power station have taken into consideration. Bootstrap, a resampling technique, has been adopted on the existing release data sets to generate the corresponding population distribution of the effluent release. Cumulative distribution of the population distribution obtained is constructed and using this cumulative distribution, 95th percentile (upper bound) of the discharge limit of the radioactive effluents is computed. Dose apportioned for a facility is evaluated using this estimated upper bound of the release limit. Paper de- scribes the detail of the bootstrap method in evaluating the release limit and also presents the comparative study of the dose apportionment using this new method and the existing adhoc method.
Construction of Zero Autocorrelation Stochastic Waveforms  [PDF]
Somantika Datta
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2012.26065
Abstract: Stochastic waveforms are constructed whose expected autocorrelation can be made arbitrarily small outside the origin. These waveforms are unimodular and complex-valued. Waveforms with such spike like autocorrelation are desirable in waveform design and are particularly useful in areas of radar and communications. Both discrete and continuous waveforms with low expected autocorrelation are constructed. Further, in the discrete case, frames for Cd are constructed from these waveforms and the frame properties of such frames are studied.
Evaluation of efficacy and safety of epalrestat and epalrestat in combination with methylcobalamin in patients with diabetic neuropathy in a randomized, comparative trial  [PDF]
Manish Maladkar, N. J. S. Saggu, P. Moralwar, Aziz A. Mhate, Datta Zemse, Anil Bhoraskar
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2013.31004
Abstract:

Recent Background: Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications in long standing hyperglycemic patients. Though exact mechanism of neuronal damage is unclear, accumulation of excess sorbitol through polyol pathway is believed to contribute significantly. Epalrestat and methylcobalamin are extensively used in this area to counter neuronal damage. This study was aimed to evaluate the combined effect of these drugs. Materials and Methods: A total of 220 patients with diabetic neuropathy were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups; group A was administered combination of epalrestat 50 mg and methylcobalamin 500 mcg while group B was administered epalrestat 50 mg alone (both thrice daily). The treatment period was 12 weeks with monitoring on week 4, 8 and 12 of the study. At baseline and at follow up visits following parameters were evaluated: loss of sensation, burning sensation, numbness, muscle cramps, spontaneous pain, weakness, dizziness, loss of the thermal sensitivity, tendon reflexes, muscle strength and pain intensity using visual analog scale (VAS). Results: All the parameters were improved in both the groups compared to baseline. In group A significant improvement was seen on week 4 itself and continued for the rest of the study in all the measured parameters. Group B showed significant improvement from 8th week onwards. The inter-group difference is statistically significant in favour of the combination therapy. Conclusion: Combination of epalrestat and methylcobalamin is a better option for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy than epalrestat alone. Combination therapy was associated with faster onset and better symptomatic relief.

The 2-3 symmetry: Flavour Changing $b$, $τ$ Decays and Neutrino Mixing
Alakabha Datta,Patrick J. O'Donnell
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.72.113002
Abstract: The observed pattern of neutrino mixing may be the result of a 2-3($ \mu- \tau$) symmetry in the leptonic sector. We consider a two Higgs doublet model with a 2-3 symmetry in the down type quark and the charged lepton sector. The breaking of the 2-3 symmetry by the strange quark mass and the muon mass leads to FCNC in the quark sector and the charged lepton sector that are suppressed by ${m_s \over m_b}$ and ${m_{\mu} \over m_{\tau}}$ in addition to the mass of the heavy Higgs boson of the second Higgs doublet. A Higgs boson mass of $ m_H \sim 600 - 900$ GeV can explain the deviation from standard model reported in several rare B decays. Predictions for other B decays are made and a new CP phase is predicted in $B_{s}-{\bar{B}_{s}}$ mixing. The lepton flavour violating decays $ \tau \to \mu \bar{l}(\bar{q}) l(q)$ are below the experimental limits. The breaking of 2-3 symmetry in the lepton sector can lead to deviations of the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle from the maximal value by $ \sim 2$ degrees.
Understanding the nature of $D_s(2317)$ and $D_s(2460)$ through nonleptonic B Decays
Alakabha Datta,Patrick J. O'Donnell
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2003.08.025
Abstract: We consider the nonleptonic B decays $ B \to D^{(*)} D_s(2317)$ and $ B \to D^{(*)} D_s(2460)$, involving the newly discovered $D_s(2317)$ and the $D_s(2460)$ states. We find that experiments indicate disagreement with model calculations of their properties and/or breakdown of the factorization assumption for these decays . We point out that decays involving $B_s$ mesons where the $D_s$ resonances can be produced via the weak decay of the $b$ quark can provide further information about the nature of these newly discovered states. We also propose a model to calculate the two body nonleptonic decays $ B \to D^{(*)} D_s(2317)(D_s(2460))$, if the $D_s(2317)$ and $D_s(2460)$ are interpreted as $DK$ and $D^*K$ molecules.
A New State of Baryonium
Alakabha Datta,Patrick J. O'Donnell
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2003.06.050
Abstract: The recent discovery of a narrow resonance in the decay $J/\psi \to \gamma p \bar{p}$ is described as a zero baryon number, ``deuteron-like singlet ${}^1S_0 $'' state. The difference in binding energy of the deuteron (-2.225 MeV) and of the new state (-17.5 MeV) can be accounted for in a simple potential model with a $\lambda \cdot \lambda$ confining interaction.
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