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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 853210 matches for " J. A. M; "
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Radiological Concentration Distribution of 131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, and 135I Due to a Hypothetical Accident of TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor  [PDF]
M. A. Malek, K. J. A. Chisty, M. M. Rahman
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.310194
Abstract: The present work gives a methodology for assessing radiological concentration of 131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, and 135I due to a hypothetical accident of TRIGA Mark-II research Reactor at AERE, Savar, Bangladesh. The concentrations were estimated through different pathways like ingestion of vegetation, milk, and meat from air and ground deposition. The maximum air concentrations for all 16 directions were found at 110 m distance from the core of the reactor and it was found to be highest in the southern (S) direction. The maximum ground concentration occurred immediately just after the accident in different directions. In all pathways, the most concentration was found to be in S-direction. The concentrations in vegetation of 131I, 133I, 135I were significant, while no concentrations of 132I and 134I were observed. The concentration in vegetation for 131I was found to be highest than all other isotopes of iodine. The concentrations of 133I were found to be higher and concentrations of 134I were observed to be lower in both milk and meat compared to other radio isotopes of iodine. In the case of a radiological accident, the results of the present study will be a valuable guide for adopting radiological safety measures for radiation protection against the ingestion of vegetables, milk and meat from around the research reactor at AERE, Savar, Bangladesh.
Electrochemical Separation of Metal Silver from Industrial Wastewater  [PDF]
M. A. Olutoye, J. A. Alhamdu
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2014.44043
Abstract: Investigation into the separation of metal silver from industrial wastewater using electrochemical cell was carried out. Wastewater from photo laboratories was collected and treated batch wise using electrolytic equipment. A constant voltage of 2.0 V and variable current in the range of 0.3 - 0.6 A at normal temperature were passed through the electrolyte for a period from 0.25 - 1.0 h. The results showed that increase in current yield an increase in the amount of metallic silver recovered with highest values of 2.3 g and 2.8 g at 0.6 A for the tested samples 1 and 2, respectively. The electrochemical separation method proved to be more reliable and economical when compared to other methods and also, reduction in environmental pollution of industrial wastewater containing high concentration of silver metal is achieved.
Engineering Economy Analysis on the Production of Iron Ore in Nigeria  [PDF]
R. A. Adebimpe, J. M. Akande
Geomaterials (GM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2011.11002
Abstract: In line with the Federal government decision to attract direct foreign investment to the solid mineral sector and to further diversify the Nigerian economy; this study used the discounted cash flow micro-economic as-sessment to evaluate large-scale iron ore production in Nigeria. The iron ore project has an initial investment cost of US$ 73.934 m, annual expenditure and benefit of US$ 48.128 m and US$ 270 m respectively .The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period of financial analysis at 100% ca-pacity utilizations are US$ 833.10 m, 444.36% and 6 years respectively. The economic assessment also shows a positive NPV at both 75% and 60% capacity utilizations. The study further show that the iron ore project has good economic potential and will also guide potential investor(s) in making decision on whether or not to commit resources to the project.
Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring Maturity Stage of Fruit  [PDF]
M. Krairiksh, J. Varith, A. Kanjanavapastit
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2011.39034
Abstract: In this letter, we present a wireless sensor network for monitoring the maturity stage of fruit. A dual-polari- zation coupled patch sensor, which is robust to environmental changes, was designed to operate at 2.45 GHz. It was attached to a Durian fruit for a period of days to measure the magnitude of mutual coupling corresponding mainly to the starch concentration of its pulp. Signal was transmitted from a sensor node, via tree nodes, to a master node that displays the variations occurring in the period. The maximum mutual coupling occurred at the maturity stage of 60% whereas the minimum occurred at 70%. These results demonstrate that this wireless sensor network can enable fruit growers to harvest their Durians at an appropriate time, providing a reliable quality control for export.
A Late 20th Century European Climate Shift: Fingerprint of Regional Brightening?  [PDF]
A. T. J. de Laat, M. Crok
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2013.33031

We investigate the spatial extent of a statistically highly significant shift in atmospheric temperatures over Europe around 1987-1988 using a boot-strap change point algorithm. According to this algorithm, this change point (average warming of about one degree Celsius) is statistically highly significant (p > 99.9999%). The change point is consistently present in satellite and surface temperature measurements as well as temperature re-analyses and ocean heat content over most of Western Europe. We also find a connection with parts of the North Atlantic Ocean and eastern Asia. Although the time of change coincides with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) going from negative to positive, the consistent warmer temperatures throughout the decades after 1987-1988 does not coincide with a persistent shift of the NAO, as it returns to a neutral/negative in the 1990’s. Furthermore, the shift does not coincide with any other known mode of multidecadal internal climate variability. We argue that the notion of a shift is “spurious”, i.e. the result of a fast change in Europe from dimming to brightening combined with an accidental sequence of cold (negative NAO) and warm (positive) NAO years during this period. The “shift” could therefore be considered as a fingerprint of European brightening during the last few decades.

Jpowder Version 2: For the Display and Examination of Powder Diffraction Data Using Stack Plot  [PDF]
Kreecha Puphaiboon, M. Arjeneh, A. J. Markvardsen
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.64021

The ability to display and inspect powder diffraction data quickly and efficiently is a central part of the data analysis process. Whilst many computer programs are capable of displaying powder data, their focus is typically on structure solution. The research proposes a lightweight powder diffraction visualization program with the capability of fast rendering to compare powder data sets. Based on the success of the earlier version and user requests, Jpowder has been extended to display powder diffraction datasets using stack plot, which options to use meta-data for crystallographic powder diffraction data in XML format. Such stack plots allows crystallographers to identify phase transitions in materials.

Commercial Laundry Water Characterisation  [PDF]
J. K. Braga, M. B. A. Varesche
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2014.51002

Surfactants are the major active ingredients of laundry detergents. Therefore, special attention should be focused on the treatment and disposal of laundry wastewater. The aim of this study was to characterise the wastewater from a commercial laundry over 30 days. Physicochemical analyses were performed, monitoring the content of nitrogen, phosphate, heavy metals, linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), volatile organic acids and alcohols. The pH was approximately 5.6 and the COD approximately 4800 mg·L1. The average concentrations of sulphate, sulphide, N-ammoniacal organic nitrogen compounds and heavy metals were below the maximum limit, in accordance with local and national environmental legislation, and the average total suspended solids was 0.08 g·L1. Among the metals analysed, iron was observed with the highest concentrations (0.037 mg·L1 and 0.72 mg·L1). Phosphate was detected in 93% of samples (94.65 mg·L1 average). LAS

On the Real Einstein Beauty E = Kmc2  [PDF]
A. J. Babchin, M. S. El Naschie
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2016.61001
Abstract: The paper suggests that E = mc2 may be open to misinterpretation and that in this form it is not what Einstein advanced first. It is further suggested to return to the slightly less compact formula E = Kmc2 where a < K < 1 which has the merit of accounting for the measured ordinary energy density of the cosmos (K = 1/22) and the conjectured missing dark energy density of the universe (K = 21/22) from the view point of economical notation.
Engineering agro-food development: The cluster model in China  [PDF]
M. Yu, J. Calzadilla, J. L. Lopez, A. Villa
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.49B006

The concept of industrial clusters has been around for some time. For many national and regional authorities, particularly in the United States and Europe, cluster development policies became the core for the new development paradigm based on the agglomeration economy. The potential of clusters for the development of a new model for the agro-food industry was recognized at an early stage. Both the United States and Europehave developed a strong base of agro-food clusters. Also in developing countries, where agriculture is the main economical source, a strong ally to change their economy has been found in clusters.Latin Americahas many good examples of agro-based clusters. The Asian region is now starting to include the agro-foodclusters into the mainstream of changes inagriculture, farming and food industry. The case in China is very relevant, as the potential it holds for agro-food development is enormous. In this communication, the state of agro-based clusters inChinais described together with two examples of clusters, one specialized in vegetables and other in flowers.

Enhanced Spore Production of Bacillus subtilis Grown in a Chemically Defined Medium  [PDF]
S. M. S. Monteiro, J. J. Clemente, M. J. T. Carrondo, A. E. Cunha
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.48049
Abstract: Spores of Bacillus subtilis are being used as probiotics and competitive exclusion agents for animal consumption. Commercial production media often include relatively expensive components of animal origin that are a potential source for the presence of adventious agents, therefore undesirable for use in production scale. In this study a new animal-free component, chemically defined medium, was tested for B. subtilis spore production. Medium composition was optimized with respect to vitamin composition, carbon, nitrogen and calcium concentrations. A fed-batch bioprocess was developed, being the effect on sporulation of the carbon to nitrogen ratio at the end of the exponential growth phase studied. The developed strategy consisted of an initial and a final batch phase and an intermediate fed-batch phase with the addition of a feeding solution containing glucose and calcium and the addition of a feeding solution of ammonium sulphate, using an exponential and a constant feeding profile, respectively. Using the fed-batch strategy, it was possible to achieve a maximum spore production of 3.6 × 1010 spores/mL, corresponding to a 5 folds increase when compared to the preliminary batch experiments.
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