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Proximate Composition and Phytochemical Screenings of Crotalaria retusa Leaves and Seeds  [PDF]
J. A. Alalade, J. A. Akinlade, A. A. Akingbade, C. B. Emiola, I. A. Adebisi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105058
Abstract:
The leaves and seeds of Crotalaria retusa were evaluated for the proximate, mineral and anti-nutritional contents in a completely randomized design. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used in determination of the seeds and leaves for phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. Anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) including tannin, oxalate and phytate were also determined using appropriate technique. The result of proximate analysis indicated that leaves and seeds had high crude protein (18.00% and 14.63%), dry matter (94.78% and 90.98%), Ash (7.00% and 8.02%), crude fiber for both leaves (12.75%) and seed (28.44%) and the ether extract was (4.60%) and (5.03%) for leaves and seeds respectively. Mineral analysis indicated the Crotalaria retusa leave and seeds contained some essential mineral such as %P (0.37%) leave and (0.47%) seeds, %K (0.97%, 0.68%), %Mg (0.48%, 0.64%), %Ca (0.58%, 0.78%) and Fe (76.10 mg/kg) for leaves and (70.10 mg/kg) seeds of Crotalaria retusa. The leaves and seeds of Crotalaria retusa had low concentration of anti-nutrient factors; phytate (0.01%) leave and (0.06%) seed, oxalate (0.07%) leave and (0.09%) seed, tannin contents were (0.02%) and (0.05%) for leaves and seeds respectively. The overall results suggested that Crotalaria retusa leaves and seeds were of high nutritionally quality due to high protein and mineral contents with low presence of anti-nutritional factors.
The Effect of Poultry Manure on Proximate Composition and in vitro Gas Production of Panicum maximum cv T 58 in the Derived Savanna Zone of Nigeria
F.G. Sodeinde,J.A. Akinlade,O.A. Aderinola,S.R. Amao
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: The in vitro gas production and the proximate composition of field grown Panicum maximum cv T 58 (Guinea grass) harvested from poultry manured soil and harvested after 6 weeks of regrowth was determined. The experiment was a split plot design with three replicates. Poultry droppings increased the volume of the gas produced in both stem and leaf of P. maximum cv T 58. The result reveals that stems produce higher methane gas than the leaf. This indicates that the stem lost high energy compared to the leaves when fed to the ruminants. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in metabolizable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and short chain fatty acids (SFA) measured. Panicum maximum from fertilized poultry dropping recorded higher crude protein 8.40% content in the leaf compared with the stem of 5.08 %. Despite these variations, the forage generally contained adequate amounts of the minerals to meet livestock requirements. In production systems, the quality of Panicum maximum a major feed of grazing animals in south Western Nigeria could be enhanced by application of the poultry dropping to the soil.
Production Efficiency of Farmers under National Fadama II Project in Oyo State, Nigeria
O.L Balogun,A. Adeoye,,S.A. Yusuf, R,J Akinlade
International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development , 2012,
Abstract: The study examines production efficiency of farmers underNational Fadama-II Project in Oyo State Nigeria. Primarydata were collected from two hundred and sixty-four farmersusing multistage sampling technique. The analytical frameworkused for the study include: descriptive, infrastructure index,gross margin and stochastic frontier production function. Averageinfrastructural index in the area was 0.42. The gross margin forIDV was 445, 968.30 while for IUV for under-developed inFadama villages is 357, 805.00. Gross margin was higher forFadama II farmers than non Fadama-II farmers in IDV. Themean technical efficiency were 0.69 and 0.59 for Fadama andnon-Fadama farmers respectively. The result showed that technicalinefficiency of female Fadama-II farmers reduced by 0.19%while that of non-Fadama II farmers by 1.23%. Similarly,extension contact, marital status and infrastructural status reducedtechnical inefficiency of Fadama-II farmers by 2.8%, 0.3% and2.6% respectively. Presence of infrastructure of Fadama-IIproject has imparted on efficiency of resource use among thebeneficiary. There is therefore need to improve on CommunityDriven Development programme like Fadama-II and on comingFadama-III project or any developmental project, so as to furtherimpart more technical and economic knowledge to farmers.
Gliricidia Leafmeal in Layer s Diet: Effect on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Economy of Production
A.O. Ige,A.A. Odunsi,J.A. Akinlade,L.O. Ojedapo,S.A. Ameen,O.A. Aderinola,T.A. Rafiu
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted to assess the nutritional value of Gliricidia Leaf Meal (GLM) on performance, nutrient digestibility and economy of production of layer chickens. GLM was used partially to replace maize and soyabean at 0, 5, 10 and 15% in diets A(control), B, C and D, respectively. Performance characteristics interms of Hen day production, feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency and feed cost were monitored. Chemical analysis revealed that GLM contains 24.38 Crude Protein (CP), 1.75 Ether Extract (EE), 12.45 Crude Fibre (CF), 8.64 Ash and 45.36% Nitrogen Free Extractives (NFE). Only egg weight showed no significant difference (p>0.05) while Henday production, feed intake feed efficiency and body weight were significantly different (p<0.05) among dietary treatments. Feed cost (N/kg feed) was significantly different (p<0.05) across the diet. Nutrient utilization studies (dry mater, crude protein and ether extractives) were not significantly influenced (p>0.05) due to dietary treatments. It therefore appears that up to 15% of GLM can be incorporated into laying chicken ration without any adverse effect.
A Survey of Some Dry Season Feed Materials for Small Ruminants in Ogbomoso, Nigeria
F.G. Sodeinde,Akinlade J.A,V.O. Asaolu,M.A. Oladipo S.R. Amao,J.A.Alalade
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The study was conducted to find out the feed materials available for small ruminants in the five local government area of Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. One hundred questionnaires were administered within the five zones. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that 60% kept goats alone, 20% tended only sheep while 20% kept both sheep and goats, respectively. About 50% got their animals from local markets while others goat theirs as gifts or from contractual agreements. Flock sizes of 1-6 goats and 1-10 sheep were pre dominant among respondents. Fed materials commonly used in the dry season are agro-industrial by-products, by-products of grain processing, peels of crops, crop residues kitchen waste and roughages including pastures and browse plants. Forages are abundant in the wet season, therefore little supplementation is done. The quality and quantity of these materials tend to be affected by the location and season.
Evaluation of Three Dietary Levels of Wild Sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia, Hemsi A. Gray) Forage Meal on Growth and Carcass Measurement of Male Rabbits
V.A.Togun,G.O. Farinu,O.O. Ojebiyi,J.A. Akinlade,O.B.Popoola
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Twenty-four cross bred male weaner rabbits of between 5-8 weeks, with mean weight of 804.67 g, were used in a feeding trial involving three levels 0,15 and 20% inclusion of Wild Sunflower Forage Meal (WSFM) in a complete randomized design study that lasted for 8 weeks. The rabbits were randomly divided into three dietary groups of 8 rabbits each. Each rabbit served as a replicate. The parameters measured were, feed intake, daily weight gain, feed: gain ratio, organ weights, carcass yield and tissue development. Rabbits with 20% WSFM inclusion in their diet recorded significant (p<0.05) lower values in daily feed intake and weight gain than both the control and 15% inclusion group. Values recorded for all the groups however did not significantly (p>0.05) differ in organ weights, organ yield and tissue development. It was concluded that WSFM can be included in the weaner rabbit diet up to 15% level without any deleterious effect on growth performance.
Insulin Injection Practices In People with Diabetes Mellitus
AO Ogbera, S Chinenye, A Akinlade
African Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism , 2008,
Abstract: Background: The significance of achieving good glycaemic control cannot be over-emphasized as this goes a long way in the reduction of disease burden arising from diabetes mellitus. In Nigeria, insulin injections are still widely unacceptable thus posing a problem towards achieving optimal glycaemic control in insulin requiring diabetes patients. Aim: This study aimed to provide information on insulin usage in Nigeria. Patients and Methods: The study was carried out in the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH) and the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria. Participants were recruited from patients receiving care at the Diabetes Clinic of the above mentioned hospitals. It is a descriptive study in which 100 insulin-requiring diabetes patients were studied via the use of intervieweradministered questionnaire. Results: Essentially, insulin techniques, glycaemic control and complications of insulin usage were documented. Conclusions: The main form of insulin used is the human insulin. High cost of insulin is one of the major factors responsible for poor glycaemic control. For proper delivery of diabetes care, insulin, insulin pens and syringes must be available, accessible and at affordable cost.
Emergency Management: A Challenge to Public Administration in Nigeria
Aladegbola, I. A.,Akinlade, M. T.
International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment , 2012,
Abstract: The adequacy of a modern government could largely be measured by her immediate response to calamitous situation, and the prevention of its occurrence in the society. The quick response of United States of America to the September 11, 2001 attack on the Twin Towers of the World Trade Centre is an example of how a responsible and responsive government should go in the protection of her citizens. Nigeria falls short in this regard. Even, in the face of intervention, there are always procedural flaws, shortage of human and material resources as well as administrative bottlenecks that sometimes paradoxically expand the problem they are attempting to solve. This review provided a blueprint in managing emergencies and the essential duty of government in providing security for life and property and the general welfare of its citizen.
Mineral and Antinutritional Contents of Some Forage Legumes Consumed by Small Ruminants in the Derived Savanna of Nigeria
F.G. Sodeinde,V.O. Asaolu,M.A.Oladipo,J.A.Akinlade,A.O. Ige,S.R. Amao,J.A. Alalade
Research Journal of Agronomy , 2012,
Abstract: Experiment were conducted to evaluate the nutritive of 15 forage legumes collected from 5 locations Ogbomoso local government area of Oyo state in Nigeria. Analysis carried out for macro and micro-mineral contents of these plants showed high percentages of Mg (0.31), P (0.28), Ca (1.25), Na (0.02) and K (2.44). Overall mean levels were 23.64 ppm for Zn, 315.66 for Fe, 86.42 for Mn, 9.43 for Cu and 108.90 for Se. In all forages the concentrations of physic-acid (28.55-316.22mg g-1), physic-phosphorus (20.1792.50 mg g-1), oxalates (0.540.82) and nitrates (0.13-0.66%) were moderate to high. Saponin and hydrogen cyanide contents were inherently low or low due to a high drying temperature of the samples. Tannin acid differed considerably among the different species, being absent or low in some forages and extremely high in others. These differences may be genetic or due to cultural practices and soil composition. The nutritional implications of the results are discussed.
Bifurcation and Chaos in Coupled Ratchets exhibiting Synchronized Dynamics
U. E. Vincent,A. Kenfack,A. N. Njah,O. Akinlade
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.72.056213
Abstract: The bifurcation and chaotic behaviour of unidirectionally coupled deterministic ratchets is studied as a function of the driving force amplitude ($a$) and frequency ($\omega$). A classification of the various types of bifurcations likely to be encountered in this system was done by examining the stability of the steady state in linear response as well as constructing a two-parameter phase diagram in the ($a -\omega$) plane. Numerical explorations revealed varieties of bifurcation sequences including quasiperiodic route to chaos. Besides, the familiar period-doubling and crises route to chaos exhibited by the one-dimensional ratchet were also found. In addition, the coupled ratchets display symmetry-breaking, saddle-nodes and bubbles of bifurcations. Chaotic behaviour is characterized by using the sensitivity to initial condition as well as the Lyapunov exponent spectrum; while a perusal of the phase space projected in the Poincar$\acute{e}$ cross-section confirms some of the striking features.
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