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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297600 matches for " J?rgen Lassen "
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Chronic Consequences of Uncomplicated Yersinia Enterocolitica Infection: A Retrospective Study (2004) of Military Recruits Previously (1987) Screened for Antibodies to Yersinia Enterocolitica O:3  [PDF]
Arve S?b?, Karin Nygard, Georg Kapperud, Jrgen Lassen
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.22024
Abstract: In 1987, a serological survey among 755 male Norwegian military recruitsshowed that 68 (9.0%) had IgG (7.4%) and / or IgA (4.5%) antibodiesto Y.enterocolitica O:3, consistent with previous infection.In 2004,433 of the former recruits (mean age 37.5 years, range 35 - 42 years) answered a questionnaire, in order to investigatedevelopment of possible chronic disorders and complaints related to uncomplicated Y.enterocolitica infection. The questionnaire covered per-sonal and demographic data, behavioral risk factors, and possible chronic complaints related to yersiniosis.Among the 433 responders, 51 (11.8%) were seropositive for IgG or IgA in the 1987 survey, 380 were seronegative, and 2 had ambiguous results.No difference was observed between the seropositive and seronegativegroups regarding education, annual income, general behavioral risk factors like smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and dietary parameters; or diagnosed chronic illness. However, the seropositives weresignificantly more likely than the seronegatives to report recurrent diarrhea, painful or swollen joints, and muscle pain. Also, presence of all three complaints was more common among seropositives. Conclusion: The present study shows that uncomplicated Y.enterocolitica O:3 infection is a risk factor regarding future development of chronic complaintssuch as diarrhea, and joint and muscle complaint.
A Modified Treatment Failure Classification System with Complete and Exhaustive Accounting of Any Adverse Events Related to the Previous Percutaneous Coronary Intervention  [PDF]
Anders M. Gall?e, Jrgen L. Jeppesen, S?ren Boesgaard, John Godtfredsen, Niels Bligaard, Jens F. Lassen, Henning Kelb?k, Anders Junker, Jan Ravkilde, Peter Riis Hansen, Carsten T. Larsen, Ghita B. Stephansen, Ulrik Abildgaard
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.49051
Abstract:

Objectives: To determine the clinical outcome related to treatment failure of the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) itself. Background: When considering the addition of PCI to the medical treatment of angina, it is necessary to know the balance between the benefit and the risk of the PCI itself, but the latter remains unknown. The usual outcome measures are imprecise because they contain events unrelated to the previous PCI and because some events clearly caused by PCI treatment failures are omitted. Methods: In total, 2098 unselected patients were randomized to receive either sirolimus-(n = 1065) or paclitaxel-(n = 1033) eluting coronary stents and followed for five years in the SORT OUT II. Any death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis and documented stenosis was classified and combined to a “patient oriented clinical outcome” (POCO), the classical “major adverse cardiac events” (MACE) and the new “PCI-treatment oriented clinical outcome” (TOCO). Results: POCO occurred in 746 patients (35.6%), MACE in 467 patients (22.3%) and TOCO in 293 patients (14.0%), thus TOCO amounted to 39% of the POCO and to 63% of the MACE. Conclusion: By introduction of the present PCI treatment failure classification system, the clinical outcome of PCI-treatment itself may be credulously estimated by the rate of TOCO and eventually PCI is substantially better than what might be perceived from the classically used POCO and MACE rates.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination of mouth swabs during production causing a major outbreak
Bj?rn G Iversen, Hanne-Merete Eriksen, Gjermund B?, Kristian Hagestad, Trond Jacobsen, Eva Engeset, Jrgen Lassen, Preben Aavitsland
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-6-3
Abstract: Environmental investigation with microbiological examination of production, ingredients and product, molecular typing of bacteria and a system audit of production.Of the 1565 swabs examined from 149 different production batches the outbreak strain of P. aeruginosa was detected in 76 swabs from 12 batches produced in 2001 and 2002. In total more than 250 swabs were contaminated with one or more microbial species. P. aeruginosa was detected from different spots along the production line. The audit revealed serious breeches of production regulations. Health care institutions reported non-proper use of the swabs and weaknesses in their purchasing systems.Biofilm formation in the wet part of the production is the most plausible explanation for the continuous contamination of the swabs with P. aeruginosa over a period of at least 30 weeks. When not abiding to production regulations fatal consequences for the users may ensue. For the most vulnerable patient groups only documented quality-controlled, high-level disinfected products and items should be used in the oropharynx.Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative, obligate aerobe rod-shaped bacterium with minimal nutritional requirements. It is often found in moist environment and can cause infections in immunocompromised or otherwise susceptible hosts [1,2]. Numerous outbreaks have been associated with faulty or unclean medical equipment or products [3-9], contaminations from personnel or environmental reservoirs [10-16]. Cross-colonization and cross-contamination within hospitals has been documented [13,17,18].We have reported a major, nationwide outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in 24 Norwegian hospitals [19]. The outbreak comprised of 231 patients with a genotypically identical strain of P. aeruginosa from the period November 2000 to December 2002, of which 39 were blood culture positive. Seventy-one infected patients, all of whom had severe underlying diseases, died while hospitalized. The outbreak strain
Outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Norway caused by stx2-positive Escherichia coli O103:H25 traced to cured mutton sausages
Barbara Schimmer, Karin Nygard, Hanne-Merete Eriksen, Jrgen Lassen, Bj?rn-Arne Lindstedt, Lin T Brandal, Georg Kapperud, Preben Aavitsland
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-8-41
Abstract: A case was defined as a child with diarrhoea-associated HUS or any person with an infection with the outbreak strain of E. coli O103 (defined by the multi-locus variable number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) profile) both with illness onset after January 1st 2006 in Norway. After initial hypotheses-generating interviews, we performed a case-control study with the first fifteen cases and three controls for each case matched by age, sex and municipality. Suspected food items were sampled, and any E. coli O103 strains were typed by MLVA.Between 20 February and 6 April 2006, 17 cases were identified, of which 10 children developed HUS, including one fatal case. After pilot interviews, a matched case-control study was performed indicating an association between a traditional cured sausage (odds ratio 19.4 (95% CI: 2.4–156)) and STEC infection. E. coli O103:H25 identical to the outbreak strain defined by MLVA profile was found in the product and traced back to contaminated mutton.We report an outbreak caused by a rare STEC variant (O103:H25, stx2-positive). More than half of the diagnosed patients developed HUS, indicating that the causative organism is particularly virulent. Small ruminants continue to be important reservoirs for human-pathogen STEC. Improved slaughtering hygiene and good manufacturing practices for cured sausage products are needed to minimise the possibility of STEC surviving through the entire sausage production process.Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) can cause bloody diarrhoea which in 2–15% of cases, particularly in children, develop into haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) which can lead to renal failure and death [1]. More than 90% of diarrhoea-associated HUS cases are due to STEC infections. Routine diagnosis and surveillance of STEC-infections was originally developed for serotype O157:H7 of STEC. However, non-O157 E. coli infections are in certain geographic regions considered to be at least equally important, but may in general be underdiag
Long-term survival for COPD patients receiving noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure
Titlestad IL,Lassen AT,Vestbo J
International Journal of COPD , 2013,
Abstract: Ingrid L Titlestad,1 Annmarie T Lassen,2 J rgen Vestbo1,3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Odense University Hospital, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; 3Respiratory Research Group, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University Hospital South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Implementation of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) as an add-on treatment has been routinely used in a non-intensive care setting since 2004 for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute hypercapnic respiratory failure at a university hospital in Denmark. Although randomized controlled trials show lowered mortality rates in highly selected patients with acute exacerbation and respiratory failure, there are only few reports on long-term survival after receiving NIV. We present long-term all-cause mortality data from patients receiving NIV for the first time. Method: Data from medical records were retrospectively retrieved from all patients receiving NIV for the first time after being admitted acutely to an acute medical ward and further transfer to a respiratory ward with respiratory failure and a diagnosis of COPD in the period January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007; patients were followed until January 2012. Demographic data collected included age, sex, diagnoses at discharge, and, when present, FEV1; a “not-to-intubate” order was also registered when listed. Results: In total, 253 patients (143 female, 110 male) received NIV for the first time. The median age was 72 years (range 46–91 years). The 30-day mortality rate was 29.3%. The 5-year survival rate was 23.7%. Women showed a trend towards better survival than men (25.7% vs 19.2%, P = 0.25), and the trend was even more pronounced for patients with COPD. Conclusion: The mortality rate of patients receiving NIV is high, as expected in a real-life setting, but with a 5-year survival rate of 23.7% with a trend towards more female than male long-term survivors. Keywords: COPD, acute respiratory failure, NIV, long-term survival
Operator Splitting Method for Coupled Problems:Transport and Maxwell Equations  [PDF]
Jürgen Geiser
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2011.13019
Abstract: In this article a new approach is considered for implementing operator splitting methods for transport problems, influenced by electric fields. Our motivation came to model PE-CVD (plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition) processes, means the flow of species to a gas-phase, which are influenced by an electric field. Such a field we can model by wave equations. The main contributions are to improve the standard discretization schemes of each part of the coupling equation. So we discuss an improvement with implicit Runge- Kutta methods instead of the Yee’s algorithm. Further we balance the solver method between the Maxwell and Transport equation.
Development of a computer vision system to monitor pig locomotion  [PDF]
Jrgen Kongsro
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.33038
Abstract: Avoiding lameness or leg weakness in pig production is crucial to reduce cost, improve animal welfare and meat quality. Detection of lameness detection by the use of vision systems may assist the farmer or breeder to obtain a more accurate and robust measurement of lameness. The paper presents a low-cost vision system for measuring the locomotion of moving pigs based on motion detection, frame-grabbing and multivariate image analysis. The first step is to set up a video system based on web camera technology and choose a test area. Secondly, a motion detection and data storage system are used to build a processing system of video data. The video data are analyzed measuring the properties of each image, stacking them for each animal and then analyze these stacks using multivariate image analysis. The system was able to obtain and decompose information from these stacks, where components could be extracted, representing a particular motion pattern. These components could be used to classify or score animals according to this pattern, which might be an indicator of lameness. However, further improvement is needed with respect to standardization of herding, test area and tracking of animals in order to have a robust system to be used in a farm environment.
The Motley World of “International Values”: Modes of Production on the World Market  [PDF]
Jrgen Sandemose
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.63058
Abstract: I venture to describe the world market from the viewpoint of those different extant modes of production which deliver commodities in “foreign” trade. The world market is, then, understood strictly in its basic feature, as a market for material products, all called commodities. The term “exchange”, which has to be used with some indeterminacy to begin with, is explained in greater detail as I proceed. In this regard, the most important sections are nos. 2 and 3. The term “modes of production” will also be clarified in due place, and primarily in Sections 9 and 10. I find such a concept necessary for an adequate background description of the products which are poured onto any market. I primarily analyze the capitalist mode of production through the concept of intensity of labour (cf. 4 and 9), which plays a main role even in Marx’s theory of the “modifications” of the law of value on the world market. Also, I find what is often labelled “Karl Marx’s theory of international values” to be correct in its foundations, and I will take a point of departure in it—especially apparent in sections 1, 2 and 3. A target for criticism in this article is the modern mainstream theory of “factors of production” in so far as it is found feasible for an analysis of the movements on the world market. This is briefly done in Section 8. In Section 6, I consider David Ricardo’s theory of “comparative advantages” as a counter-example to that theory. I use some terrain to show that the real historical and social background of the economic functioning of the so-called “factors”—capital, land and labour—must be a measuring rod for whether a factor theory is viable or not. To do this, I depend (cf. again Sections 9 and 10) to a high degree of Marx’s theory of those factors considered as forms of organized class forces—a viewpoint which played a central role in his preparing of the three volumes of Capital. While the Marxian theory insofar is adequate, it is also useful in analyzing the aborted or undeveloped state of those modes of production which, beneath the advanced capitalist one, supply the world market with material products. This ought to become clear especially in Sections 10 and 11. As my text expands, I try to show how the said inconsistency in the Ricardian model is based on
On the Exposition of the Transformation of Commodity-Values into Production Prices in the Third Volume of Capital—A Textual Analysis  [PDF]
Jrgen Sandemose
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.65098
Abstract: The article is about the exposition of the Karl Marx’s concept of production prices in his main work Capital. It focuses on the structure of the central text in question, Chapter 9 of the third volume, on “transformation [Verwandlung] of commodity-values into production prices”. The actual content and structure of the chapter has to some degree been overlooked or distorted in the literature. The aim of the article is to establish (or re-establish) a sound view of the chapter, freed from prejudices nurtured by—especially—a theory of price formation which, albeit “modernized” by i.a. Walras, dates back to Steuart and Ricardo. These prejudices have had an immense significance for misunderstandings of the Marxian theory of measure of value and standard of prices reflected in the text of the chapter mentioned. For this reason, the article is furnished with an Appendix, underlining the difficult situation for Marxist-minded research today. It should be noted that it is not an objective of the article to discuss any extant interpretation of Marx’s exposition. However, the paradigm of criticism that was introduced early in the 20th century by Ladislaus von Bortkiewicz is used as a perspective. Specific references—other than to Marx’s own texts—are held at a minimum in the article proper. I have chosen such a mode of approach because I find that misunderstandings of the chapter are evenly distributed among authors regardless of how their views on the “transformation” collide. On the other hand, such a consciousness of “misunderstandings” among commentators certainly does imply that the author should at least shortly clarify his own view of the main problems in the paradigmatic criticism mentioned above. In the first section, I point out the importance of Marx’s way of presenting his concept of the composition of capital. In the next, I make some remarks on the concept of the socially necessary labour time and its relation to abstract labour. In the third and fourth, I investigate Marx’s different models of analysis. In the fifth section, it will be shown how Marx, contrary to
Paradoxes, Self-Referentiality, and Hybrid Systems: A Constructive Approach  [PDF]
Jürgen Klüver
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2017.71004
Abstract:
Since the discovery of the paradoxes of self-referentiality or self-reference respectively logicians and mathematicians tried to avoid self-reference when constructing formal systems. Yet “real” complex systems like the mind are characterized by self-reference and can accordingly only be modeled by formal systems that are also basically self-referential. In this article I show that and how self-referential computer programs, understood as algorithmic formal systems, are not only possible but also since some time quite common in special branches of computer science. Examples for this argument are neural networks and so-called hybrid systems, i.e. combination of different sub systems. The hybrid system SOCAIN, a combination of a cellular automaton, a neural network and a genetic algorithm is an example for the fruitfulness of using self-reference in a systematic way. In particular, such systems consist of mutually dependent sub systems, i.e. form no static hierarchy.
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