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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297952 matches for " J?rg Grandl "
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Single Residues in the Outer Pore of TRPV1 and TRPV3 Have Temperature-Dependent Conformations
Sung Eun Kim, Ardem Patapoutian, Jrg Grandl
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059593
Abstract: Thermosensation is mediated by ion channels that are highly temperature-sensitive. Several members of the family of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are activated by cold or hot temperatures and have been shown to function as temperature sensors in vivo. The molecular mechanism of temperature-sensitivity of these ion channels is not understood. A number of domains or even single amino acids that regulate temperature-sensitivity have been identified in several TRP channels. However, it is unclear what precise conformational changes occur upon temperature activation. Here, we used the cysteine accessibility method to probe temperature-dependent conformations of single amino acids in TRP channels. We screened over 50 amino acids in the predicted outer pore domains of the heat-activated ion channels TRPV1 and TRPV3. In both ion channels we found residues that have temperature-dependent accessibilities to the extracellular solvent. The identified residues are located within the second predicted extracellular pore loop. These residues are identical or proximal to residues that were shown to be specifically required for temperature-activation, but not chemical activation. Our data precisely locate conformational changes upon temperature-activation within the outer pore domain. Collectively, this suggests that these specific residues and the second predicted pore loop in general are crucial for the temperature-activation mechanism of these heat-activated thermoTRPs.
Demand and Supply of Water for Agriculture: Influence of Topography and Climate in Pre-Alpine, Mesoscale Catchments  [PDF]
Jürg Fuhrer, Karsten Jasper
Natural Resources (NR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2012.33019
Abstract: With climate change, water may become limited for intensive agriculture even in regions presently considered “water-rich”. Information about the potential water requirement and its temporal and spatial variability can help to develop future water management plans. A case study was carried out for Switzerland with its highly complex pre-alpine topography and steep gradients in climate. The hydrological model WaSiM-ETH was used to simulate net irrigation requirement (NIR) for cropland, grassland and orchards using criteria to define irrigation periods based either on the water stress level (expressed by the ratio of actual (aET) to potential evapotranspiration ((pET) (Method 1) or on thresholds for soil water potential (Method 2). Simulations for selected catchments were carried out with a daily time step for the period 1981-2010 using a 500 × 500 m spatial resolution. Catchment-scale NIR ranged between 0 and 4.3 million m3 and 0 and 7.3 million m3 for the two methods, respectively, with no trend over the observation period in any catchment. During the heat wave in 2003, NIR increased by a factor of 1.5 to 2.3 relative to the mean, and in catchments where discharge is directly dependent on precipitation, NIR in the summer of 2003 reached the limits of river water availability. In contrast, in a region with water supply from glacier melt water, highest NIR in 2003 still remained far below total river discharge. The results show that NIR varies strongly between years and across the landscape, and even in a presently cool-temperate climate, irrigation may put pressure on regional water resources under extreme climatic conditions that may become more frequent by the end of the 21st century.
Energy-Minimizing Curve Fitting for High-Order Surface Mesh Generation  [PDF]
Karsten Bock, Jrg Stiller
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.521309
Abstract: We investigate different techniques for fitting Bézier curves to surfaces in context of high-order curvilinear mesh generation. Starting from distance-based least-squares fitting we develop an incremental algorithm, which incorporates approximations of stretch and bending energy. In the process, the algorithm reduces the energy weight in favor of accuracy, leading to an optimized set of sampling points. This energy-minimizing fitting strategy is applied to analytically defined as well as triangulated surfaces. The results confirm that the proposed method straightens and shortens the curves efficiently. Moreover the method preserves the accuracy and convergence behavior of distance-based fitting. Preliminary application to surface mesh generation shows a remarkable improvement of patch quality in high curvature regions.
LDA Study of Particulate Flow in a Channel with Deformed Surface Locations and with Flow Conditioner  [PDF]
Mehdi Azimian, Hans-Jrg Bart
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2015.54035
Abstract: Hydroabrasion in particulate flows plays an important role in various industrial and natural processes. To predict the effects of particulate flow and the resulting phenomena such as erosion/abrasion in a pipeline, channel or a fitting, it is essential to characterize the effects in a simple standardized geometry. For this purpose, it is vital to initially understand the particulate flow behavior and motion in such geometries. In the present work, two series of experimental works by application of the LDA measurement technique were successfully conducted. First, the particulate flow behavior at downstream of a flow conditioner inside a channel with square cross-section was investigated. Shorter lengths for fully development of velocity profile by using the self-constructed flow conditioner were observed. Moreover, the flow at downstream of the conditioner was modeled with the CFD tool (ANSYS-CFX V. 14.57) and the simulation results were compared and validated by the LDA experimental data. Better agreement between the simulation results and experimental data was observed in the fully developed region. However, there are some deviations due to the actual pressure loss through the experimental loop and the calculated pressure loss value, which includes some assumptions for the loss coefficients. Furthermore, the particulate flow behavior and vortex generation inside the deformed locations of a channel surface were studied in detail. With the help of the Matlab program, it was possible to calculate and visualize the velocity vectors for each measured point inside the channel accurately.
Numerical Investigation of Particle Rebound Characteristics with Finite Element Method  [PDF]
Mehdi Azimian, Hans-Jrg Bart
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2017.73020
Abstract: In this work, investigation of particle rebound characteristics due to impact with surface of a target material is presented. The rebound of a spherical particle after impact on a planar surface was analyzed in detail. Specifically, the coefficient of restitution of the particle under various impact conditions was investigated numerically. This study has been conducted by carrying out a series of FEM-based (finite element method) simulations using ANSYS Autodyn software. First, a summary about the state of the art and the theoretical models for the elastic collisions were reviewed. Afterwards, the impact of an aluminum oxide particle on an aluminum alloy target surface was modeled. Using the Autodyn tool, the results were compared and validated by the experimental results of Gorham and Kharaz [1]. Selection of an appropriate equation of state (EOS) and a strength model for each material had a strong effect on the results. For both materials, the Shock EOS was applied for the final simulations. As the strength model, the Johnson-Cook and the elastic model were used, respectively. The agreement of the obtained numerical results with the experimental data confirmed that the proposed model can precisely predict the real behavior of the particle after the impact, when the material models are properly chosen. Furthermore, the effects of impact velocity and impact angle on the rebound characteristics of the particle were analyzed in detail. It was found that the selection of the exact value of friction coefficient has a drastic effect on the prediction of restitution coefficient values, especially the tangential restitution coefficient.
T Cell Homeostasis and Repertoire Contraction in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Jrg J Goronzy
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 1999, DOI: 10.1186/ar19
Micro- and mesoporous solids: From science to application
Jrg J. Schneider
Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.2.85
Nonlinear transient waves in coupled phase oscillators with inertia
David J. Jrg
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1063/1.4919831
Abstract: Like the inertia of a physical body describes its tendency to resist changes of its state of motion, inertia of an oscillator describes its tendency to resist changes of its frequency. Here we show that finite inertia of individual oscillators enables nonlinear phase waves in spatially extended coupled systems. Using a discrete model of coupled phase oscillators with inertia, we investigate these wave phenomena numerically, complemented by a continuum approximation that permits the analytical description of the key features of wave propagation in the long-wavelength limit. The ability to exhibit traveling waves is a generic feature of systems with finite inertia and is independent of the details of the coupling function.
Protein Acetylation in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryotes
J rg Soppa
Archaea , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/820681
Abstract: Proteins can be acetylated at the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal amino acid (methionine or the penultimate amino acid after methionine removal) or at the epsilon-amino group of internal lysines. In eukaryotes the majority of proteins are N-terminally acetylated, while this is extremely rare in bacteria. A variety of studies about N-terminal acetylation in archaea have been reported recently, and it was revealed that a considerable fraction of proteins is N-terminally acetylated in haloarchaea and Sulfolobus, while this does not seem to apply for methanogenic archaea. Many eukaryotic proteins are modified by differential internal acetylation, which is important for a variety of processes. Until very recently, only two bacterial proteins were known to be acetylation targets, but now 125 acetylation sites are known for E. coli. Knowledge about internal acetylation in archaea is extremely limited; only two target proteins are known, only one of which—Alba—was used to study differential acetylation. However, indications accumulate that the degree of internal acetylation of archaeal proteins might be underestimated, and differential acetylation has been shown to be essential for the viability of haloarchaea. Focused proteomic approaches are needed to get an overview of the extent of internal protein acetylation in archaea.
Functional Genomic and Advanced Genetic Studies Reveal Novel Insights into the Metabolism, Regulation, and Biology of Haloferax volcanii
J rg Soppa
Archaea , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/602408
Abstract: The genome sequence of Haloferax volcanii is available and several comparative genomic in silico studies were performed that yielded novel insight for example into protein export, RNA modifications, small non-coding RNAs, and ubiquitin-like Small Archaeal Modifier Proteins. The full range of functional genomic methods has been established and results from transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies are discussed. Notably, Hfx. volcanii is together with Halobacterium salinarum the only prokaryotic species for which a translatome analysis has been performed. The results revealed that the fraction of translationally-regulated genes in haloarchaea is as high as in eukaryotes. A highly efficient genetic system has been established that enables the application of libraries as well as the parallel generation of genomic deletion mutants. Facile mutant generation is complemented by the possibility to culture Hfx. volcanii in microtiter plates, allowing the phenotyping of mutant collections. Genetic approaches are currently used to study diverse biological questions–from replication to posttranslational modification—and selected results are discussed. Taken together, the wealth of functional genomic and genetic tools make Hfx. volcanii a bona fide archaeal model species, which has enabled the generation of important results in recent years and will most likely generate further breakthroughs in the future.
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