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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297482 matches for " József "
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The Social Costs of Crime and Crime Control  [PDF]
Klara Kerezsi, József, Szilvia Antal
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2011.22008
Abstract: There is currently no generally accepted method of estimating the costs of crime. After presenting the most commonly used methods of estimating crime, the authors attempt to explore the situation in Hungary. Taking 2009 as a base year, they recon the crime-related social expenditure accounts. The authors, with the help of other Hungarian research data and databases, have also taken into account the costs of the secondary social effects. The results of the calculations depend on the applied approach to crime and the interpretations of the social impacts of the delinquency. According to the authors calculations the social cost caused by crime was about 2.17 billion USA dollar: ($) (1.6 billion euro (EUR) in 2009. The authors deduct the sum that was drawn by the offenders as a benefit/profit from committing crime; therefore the crime caused 1.17 billion $ as a net social damage in 2009 in Hungary. The amount of 1.63 billion $ was spent on the crime control (e.g. law enforcement, judiciary, prison and crime prevention) in 2009. The results show that delinquency caused a total of 3.8 billion $ as a damage, or as an expenditure spent by the government in 2009. The cost of crime control was about 500 million $ higher (1.63 billion $) than the amount of damage caused by crime (1.17 billion $). The offenders benefit/profit from committing crime (= 1 billion $) was only 15% less than the damage they caused to the state and to the citizens (= 1.17 billion $). In other words, the half of the criminal damage shall never be repaid: it will remain at the criminals!
Global Socio-Economic and Environmental Dimensions of GM Maize Cultivation  [PDF]
József Popp, Zoltán Lakner
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.46A002
Abstract: The increased population density, coupled with changes in dietary habits in developing countries towards high quality food and the increasing use of grains for livestock feed is projected to increase demand for food production by 70% by 2050. Crop yields would continue to grow but at a slower rate than in the past. Yield growth will play an important role as only a slow expansion of agricultural land is expected. Future yield increases on lands currently supporting high production levels must come from continued yield enhancing genetic modifications. The most important grain and feed is maize. Genetic improvement has not only contributed to yield increases but also to other desirable plant components such as resistance to lodging and tolerance to increased plant populations, insects, and diseases. Maize production has increased from 200 million tons in 1960 to over 800 million tons in 2011 but has not changed very much recently. The reviews suggest that the overall assessment of farm-level costs and benefits of GM maize has severe limitations. Nonetheless, GM maize is a potential tool to increase farmers’ income and thus might contribute to poverty reduction and sustainable social and rural economic development, especially in developing countries. The results support the contention that the adoption of GM maize leads on average to a higher economic performance, i.e., benefits, for farmers than conventional (non-GM) crops. An important finding of the analysis is that the kind and magnitude of benefits are heterogeneous across crops, traits, countries and regions. However, while the literature on the economic impact of GM crops has grown in recent years there is still a need for more comparative studies across space and time in order to pin down these impacts and allow for a better assessment of the contribution that this technology can make to sustainable development.
On Huygens' Inequalities and the Theory of Means
József Sándor
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/597490
Abstract: By using the theory of means, various refinements of Huygens' trigonometric and hyperbolic inequalities will be proved. New Huygens' type inequalities will be provided, too.
Megyei járványügyi intézményrendszerek az 1831. évi kolerajárvány idején, Baranya és Tolna példáján County health systems in the institution of the 1831st cholera during the year, by Baranya and Tolna example
Havasdi József
Kaleidoscope History , 2011,
Abstract:
Az 1831. évi baranyai kolerahalandóság egyes demográfiai, társadalmi és f ldrajzi vonatkozásai Demographic, social and geographical aspects of cholera death in Baranya in the year 1831
Havasdi József
Kaleidoscope History , 2012,
Abstract:
P-Graph-based Workflow Modelling
József Tick
Acta Polytechnica Hungarica , 2007,
Abstract: Workflow modelling has been successfully introduced and implemented in severalapplication fields. Therefore, its significance has increased dramatically. Several work flowmodelling techniques have been published so far, out of which quite a number arewidespread applications. For instance the Petri-Net-based modelling has become popularpartly due to its graphical design and partly due to its correct mathematical background.The workflow modelling based on Unified Modelling Language is important because of itspractical usage. This paper introduces and examines the workflow modelling techniquebased on the Process-graph as a possible new solution next to the already existingmodelling techniques.
Pliant Arithmetics and Pliant Arithmetic Operations
József Dombi
Acta Polytechnica Hungarica , 2009,
Abstract: Fuzzy arithmetic based α -cuts, where the result of the α -cuts represent aninterval. The arithmetic can be understand as an interval arithmetic of the α -cuts. Insteadof dealing with intervals we are dealing with left and right hand sided soft inequalitieswhich define the interval. We offer a new calculation procedure of arithmetics, when thesesoft inequalities meet certain properties (i.e. strict monotonously increasing functionrepresent the inequality). We show that the result of linear combinations of linear is alsolinear and the linear combination of sigmoid is also sigmoid function (i.e. they are closedunder linear combination). We give the result of other operation, too. The soft inequalitiesdefine an interval by using proper conjunctive and disjunctive operator. We give suchoperations, too.
Level Crossing Probabilities of the Ornstein – Uhlenbeck Process
József Dénes
Acta Polytechnica Hungarica , 2006,
Abstract: The Ornstein Uhlenbeck process is a Gaussian process t X with independentincrements and autocorrelation ( )2st t sE X X e + = . First the Laplace transform of theprobability density P(X x X p) t = = 0 is computed. Using this, the Laplace transformof t X first time reaching a given value x is derived. It is proved that these results agreewith the special case derived earlier by Bellman and Harris (Pacific J. Math. 1, 1951).
Ein Blick auf die Forschungsgeschichte und Methodik der Wortfelduntersuchungen
József Tóth
Tidsskrift for Sprogforskning , 2004,
Abstract: The present study makes an attempt to outline the continuity of the research into word fields, pointing out its six stages and highlighting the significance of this topical issue. Since an onomasiologic collection of verbal components of word fields allows no insight into the meaning structures of the verbs in either languages, and in an effort to explore new ways of their adequate analysis, the paper is therefore trying to provide an overview of and demonstrate how modern theories of word semantics such as componential analysis and the prototype theory contribute to the further development of word field theory. I illustrate the findings of my research by using the verbal word field components 'Geschehen'/'happening'. I elaborate on the definitions of word fields, notion circle and happening, and I also touch upon the working methods employed in the course of the interlingual analysis of German and Hungarian verbs, which is then followed by an interligual semantic analysis. The use of word fields in language learning and in lexicographical research is a pivotal issue if one looks into the topic. In the case of the latter one, I point out the necessity to compile a German-Hungarian, Hungarian-German dictionary of verbal word fields.
Technische Festigkeiten der ’Pannonia’ Pappel (Populus x euramericana cv. Pannonia) und der Zerreiche (Quercus cerris L.)
SZALAI, József
Acta Silvatica & Lignaria Hungarica , 2005,
Abstract: Im Institut für Technische Mechanik und Tragwerke der Westungarischen Universit t wurde – durch die Unterstützung von OTKA (T 34107) (Ungarischer F rderungsfonds der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung)) – seit mehreren Jahren eine theoretische und experimentelle Untersuchung durchgeführt. Im Rahmen dieser Untersuchung werden die Grundlagen der statischen Bemessung von Holzkonstruktionselementen ausgearbeitet und jene Materialkonstanten für verschiedene Holzarten experimentell ermittelt, welche für eine theoretisch einwandfreie statische Bemessung ben tigt werden.Bei der Bemessung von lasttragenden Holzkonstruktionen – besonders dann, wenn im geprüften Punkt ein zusammengesetzter Spannungszustand herrscht – braucht man eine anisotrope Festigkeitshypothese. Diese Festigkeitskriterien sind mathematisch gesehen Polynome, in deren Gleichungen die Koeffizienten materialabh ngige Gr en sind. In diesem Artikel werden die Komponenten des Festigkeitstensors und die sogenannten technischen Festigkeiten für die Pannonia Pappel und Zerreiche zusammengefasst. Es handelt sich dabei um Laubh lzer, die bei Neuaufforstungen im Rahmen der Umstrukturierung der ungarischen Land- und Forstwirtschaft bevorzugt zur Anpflanzung gelangen sollen.
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