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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 484047 matches for " Jér?me Y. Gaugris "
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Floristic Composition, Diversity and Structure of the Rainforest in the Mayoko District, Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Margaretha W. van Rooyen, Noel van Rooyen, Edmond S. Miabangana, Gilbert Nsongola, Caroline Vasicek Gaugris, Jérme Y. Gaugris
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2019.91002
Abstract: Botanically, the Mayoko district is known only through anecdotal descriptions made in the colonial era. The present study was undertaken as part of the prerequisite for a mining feasibility study where a benchmark of the floristic composition, diversity and structure of the vegetation was needed to evaluate potential biodiversity offset areas and to guide species selection for post-mining re-vegetation. The study area comprised approximately 160,000 ha and 235 sample sites were surveyed using the Braun-Blanquet method of phytosociology. Diversity of each plant association was expressed in terms of various diversity parameters. Twelve associations were described and mapped. The associations ranged from highly disturbed and degraded to fairly intact forest associations. A wet to dry gradient and permanently inundated to temporary inundated gradient could also be distinguished. The approach followed here proved remarkably robust in illustrating the complexity in a topographically complex region of the Chaillu Massif. The data provided a high level of insight into the possible dynamics of the rainforest and indications as to possible successional pathways. This information provides a better level of understanding of forest structure and evolution potential than studies limited to trees, remote sensing carbon assessments, or time change series.
Proteomic analysis of shoot tissue during photoperiod induced growth cessation in V. riparia Michx. grapevines
Kim J Victor, Anne Y Fennell, Jérme Grimplet
Proteome Science , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-8-44
Abstract: Protein profiles were characterized in V. riparia shoot tips during active growth or SD induced growth cessation to examine physiological alterations in response to differential photoperiod treatments. A total of 1054 protein spots were present on the 2D gels. Among the 1054 proteins, 216 showed differential abundance between LD and SD (≥ two-fold ratio, p-value ≤ 0.05). After 7 days, 39 protein spots were more abundant in LD and 30 were more abundant in SD. After 28 days, 93 protein spots were more abundant in LD and 54 were more abundant in SD. MS/MS spectrometry was performed to determine the functions of the differentially abundant proteins.The proteomics analysis uncovered a portion of the signal transduction involved in V. riparia grapevine growth cessation and dormancy induction. Different enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle and glutamate synthetase isoforms were more abundant either in LD or SD treatments. In LD tissues the significantly differentially more abundant proteins included flavonoid biosynthesis and polyphenol enzymes, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and TCP-1 complexes. In the SD tissue photorespiratory proteins were more abundant than in the LD. The significantly differentially more abundant proteins in SD were involved in ascorbate biosynthesis, photosystem II and photosystem I subunits, light harvesting complexes, and carboxylation enzymes.Viticulture and enology have a rich history beginning over 7,000 years ago. With the growth of civilization grapevines became a prominent fruit crop and are now the most widely grown and economically important in the world. Even though the majority of wine production takes place in Mediterranean or oceanic climate areas, vineyards of continental regions contribute greatly to the diversity of viticulture. Grapevines grown in these temperate climates must be adapted to cold, dry winters in order to survive. Vitis riparia, the only grape species native to the upper Midwest region of the United States, is particu
Stockage de carbone et flux de gaz à effet de serre en prairie (synthèse bibliographique)
Jérme, E.,Beckers, Y.,Bodson, B.,Degard, C.
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 2013,
Abstract: Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas fluxes in grassland. A review. Grassland carbon (C) sequestration can play an important role in mitigating total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of livestock production systems. An accurate inventory of livestock production system contribution to GHG emissions requires to think in terms of global budget, by considering both the GHG sources and the mitigation potential trough grassland soil carbon sequestration. There is a huge variability in C and GHG balances of grasslands that is mainly due to management practices and climatic conditions. The present article shows that, to reduce the uncertainties of the results, long term measurements at the field scale are necessary. Also, it shows the importance of taking into account the fluxes of the three main GHGs (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane) into account when calculating the GHG budget. This article also highlights the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms driving the fluxes, in relation to environmental factors and management practices, in order to propose mitigation strategies able to enhance soil carbon sequestration in soils and to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions.
Editorial: Is Electroconvulsive Therapy a Therapy with Future?  [PDF]
Jérme Palazzolo
Open Journal of Depression (OJD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojd.2013.23004
Abstract: Editorial: Is Electroconvulsive Therapy a Therapy with Future?
Statistical study of the location and size of the electron edge of the Low-Latitude Boundary Layer as observed by Cluster at mid-altitudes
Y. V. Bogdanova, C. J. Owen, A. N. Fazakerley, B. Klecker,H. Rème
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2006,
Abstract: The nature of particle precipitations at dayside mid-altitudes can be interpreted in terms of the evolution of reconnected field lines. Due to the difference between electron and ion parallel velocities, two distinct boundary layers should be observed at mid-altitudes between the boundary between open and closed field lines and the injections in the cusp proper. At lowest latitudes, the electron-dominated boundary layer, named the "electron edge" of the Low-Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL), contains soft-magnetosheath electrons but only high-energy ions of plasma sheet origin. A second layer, the LLBL proper, is a mixture of both ions and electrons with characteristic magnetosheath energies. The Cluster spacecraft frequently observe these two boundary layers. We present an illustrative example of a Cluster mid-altitude cusp crossing with an extended electron edge of the LLBL. This electron edge contains 10–200 eV, low-density, isotropic electrons, presumably originating from the solar wind halo population. These are occasionally observed with bursts of parallel and/or anti-parallel-directed electron beams with higher fluxes, which are possibly accelerated near the magnetopause X-line. We then use 3 years of data from mid-altitude cusp crossings (327 events) to carry out a statistical study of the location and size of the electron edge of the LLBL. We find that the equatorward boundary of the LLBL electron edge is observed at 10:00–17:00 magnetic local time (MLT) and is located typically between 68° and 80° invariant latitude (ILAT). The location of the electron edge shows a weak, but significant, dependence on some of the external parameters (solar wind pressure, and IMF BZ- component), in agreement with expectations from previous studies of the cusp location. The latitudinal extent of the electron edge has been estimated using new multi-spacecraft techniques. The Cluster tetrahedron crosses the electron and ion boundaries of the LLBL/cusp with time delays of 1–40 min between spacecraft. We reconstruct the motion of the electron boundary between observations by different spacecraft to improve the accuracy of the estimation of the boundary layer size. In our study, the LLBL electron edge is distinctly observed in 87% of mid-altitude LLBL/cusp crossings with clear electron and ion equatorward boundaries equivalent to 35% of all LLBL/cusp crossings by Cluster. The size of this region varied between 0°–2° ILAT with a median value of 0.2° ILAT. Generally, the size of the LLBL electron edge depends on the combination of many parameters. However, we find an anti-correlation between the size of this region and the strength of the IMF, the absolute values of the IMF BY- and BZ-components and the solar wind dynamic pressure, as is expected from a simple reconnection model for the origin of this region.
Urban Wastewater Treatment by Adsorption of Organic Matters on Modified Bentonite by (Iron-Aluminum)  [PDF]
Me?abih Zohra, Jérme Rose, Daniel Borschneck
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences (JEAS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2014.43008
Abstract: In this research, the natural bentonite clay (from Maghnia, western Algeria) was purified (Na+- montmorillonite, CEC = 91 meq/100 g), noted (puri.bent) and modified with mixed hydroxy-Fe-Al (FeAl-PILC). The purified bentonite clay and FeAl-PILC were heated at 383 K for 2 hr and characte-rized by the chemical analyses data, XRD, and N2 adsorption to 77 K techniques. Puri.bent and FeAl-PILC were applied to fix the organic matter (OM) present in urban wastewater from the city of Sidi Bel-Abbes (western Algeria). The adsorption of organic matter was followed by spectro-photometry at 470 nm, and the adsorption data were a good fit with Freundlich isotherm for pu-ri.bent but for FeA-lPILC, were well fit by Elovitch isotherm model. The maximum adsorption ca-pacity (qm) was 571.6 mg/g for puri.bent and 1120.69 mg/g for FeAl-PLC. The degree of OM removal was 67% for puri.bent and 97% for FeAl-PILC. FeAl-PILC can be considered as a promising adsorbent for the removal of OM from wastewater.
VitisNet: “Omics” Integration through Grapevine Molecular Networks
Jérme Grimplet,Grant R. Cramer,Julie A. Dickerson,Kathy Mathiason,John Van Hemert,Anne Y. Fennell
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008365
Abstract: Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet).
The vegetation of Tshanini Game Reserve and a comparison with equivalent units in the Tembe Elephant Park in Maputaland, South Africa
J.Y. Gaugris,W.S. Matthews,M.W. van Rooyen,J. du P. Bothma
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2004, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v47i1.67
Abstract: The Tembe Elephant Park was proclaimed in 1983 after negotiations between the then KwaZulu Bureau of Natural Resources and the Tembe Tribal Authority in consultation with the local communities of northern Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The park boundaries were subsequently fenced and animal numbers started to increase. The fence has kept the utilisation of renewable natural resources by the local communities at bay for the past 19 years. In this period, the vegetation of the park has been utilised only by the indigenous fauna, but it has been affected by management decisions and possibly also regional environmental changes.
Double Star TC-1 observations of component reconnection at the dayside magnetopause: a preliminary study
C. J. Xiao, Z. Y. Pu, Y. Wei, Z. X. Liu, C. M. Carr, T. L. Zhang, K.-H. Glassmeier, H. Rème, I. Dandouras,P. Daly
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2005,
Abstract: From 23:10 to 23:50 UT on 18 March 2004, the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft detected eight flux ropes at the outbound crossing of the southern dawnside magnetopause. A notable guide field existed inside all ropes. In the mean time the Cluster spacecraft were staying in the magnetosheath and found that the events occurred under the condition of southward IMF Bz and dominant negative IMF By. There are six ropes that appeared quasi-periodically, with a repeated period being approximately 1-4 min. The last flux rope lasts for a longer time interval with a larger peak in the BN variations; it can thus be referred to as a typical FTE. The 18 March 2004 event is quite similar to the multiple flux rope event observed by Cluster on 26 January 2001 at the northern duskside high-latitude magnetopause. A detailed comparison of these two events is made in the paper. Preliminary studies imply that both of these multiple flux ropes events seem to be produced by component reconnection at the dayside low-latitude magnetopause.
Fluorescence Enhancement Factors on Optical Antennas: Enlarging the Experimental Values without Changing the Antenna Design
Jérme Wenger
International Journal of Optics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/828121
Abstract: Plasmonic antennas offer promising opportunities to control the emission of quantum objects. As a consequence, the fluorescence enhancement factor is widely used as a figure of merit for a practical antenna realization. However, the fluorescence enhancement factor is not an intrinsic property of the antenna. It critically depends on several parameters, some of which are often disregarded. In this contribution, I explore the influence of the setup collection efficiency, emitter's quantum yield, and excitation intensity. Improperly setting these parameters may significantly alter the enhancement values, leading to potential misinterpretations. The discussion is illustrated by an antenna example of a nanoaperture surrounded by plasmonic corrugations. 1. Introduction Plasmonic antennas are receiving a large interest to interface light with nanoscale quantum emitters on dimensions much beyond the optical wavelength [1, 2]. Recent developments involve squeezing light into nanoscale volumes [3], enhancing the excitation and emission rate of individual emitters [4–8], tuning the luminescence spectrum [9, 10], polarization [11], and directivity properties [12–16]. Several plasmonic systems are being investigated to enhance the luminescence emission of fluorescent molecules or quantum dots, such as metallic nanoparticles [4, 5, 17–20], core-shell particles [21], thin films [22, 23], nanoantennas [6, 7, 15, 24], nanowires [16], nanoporous gold [25], nanopockets [26], metallic gratings [27], nanoaperture arrays [28], and single nanoapertures [29, 30]. A general review on surface-enhanced fluorescence can be found in [31]. A natural question while performing experiments on nanoantenna-enhanced luminescence deals with the quantification of the luminescence enhancement factor , which is commonly defined as the ratio of the detected radiation power per emitter with the antenna to the reference radiation power per emitter without the antenna. determines how many extra photons are detected for each emitter thanks to the use of the optical antenna. It is well known that this factor critically depends on several parameters: the antenna material and geometry, its spectral resonance, and overlap with the emitter’s absorption and luminescence spectra, as well as the emitter’s orientation and location respective to the antenna [32]. These many parameters often hide the influence of other parameters: the collection efficiency used in the experiments, the emitter’s quantum yield in the absence of the antenna, and the excitation intensity respective to the saturation process.
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