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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 454617 matches for " Jérémy Besnard "
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Impaired Executive Function in Everyday Life: A Predictor of OCD Relapse?  [PDF]
Nathalie Fournet, Ouafae Achachi, Arnaud Roy, Jérémy Besnard, Céline Lancelot, Didier Le Gall, Martine Bouvard
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2019.93008
Abstract: Objectives: In the present study, we set out to establish whether executive function in everyday life is impaired in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients, and if it is more impaired (or not) in patients who relapsed after cognitive behavioural therapy than in treatment-na?ve obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. Method: The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function— Adult Version (BRIEF-A) was used to measure executive function in everyday life in three groups of 19 participants: treatment-na?ve obsessive-compulsive disorderpatients, obsessive-compulsive disorder patients having relapsed after CBT, and healthy controls. Results: The BRIEF-A results revealed an impairment in executive function in the treatment-na?ve and relapsed obsessive-compulsive disorder groups, relative to the healthy control group. There was no significant difference in executive function between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: These results show that impaired executive function is not associated with relapse in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder having undergone cognitive behavioural therapy.
Application of RNAi to Genomic Drug Target Validation in Schistosomes
Alessandra Guidi?,Nuha R. Mansour?,Ross A. Paveley?,Ian M. Carruthers?,Jérémy Besnard,Andrew L. Hopkins?,Ian H. Gilbert?,Quentin D. Bickle
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003801
Abstract: Concerns over the possibility of resistance developing to praziquantel (PZQ), has stimulated efforts to develop new drugs for schistosomiasis. In addition to the development of improved whole organism screens, the success of RNA interference (RNAi) in schistosomes offers great promise for the identification of potential drug targets to initiate drug discovery. In this study we set out to contribute to RNAi based validation of putative drug targets. Initially a list of 24 target candidates was compiled based on the identification of putative essential genes in schistosomes orthologous of C. elegans essential genes. Knockdown of Calmodulin (Smp_026560.2) (Sm-Calm), that topped this list, produced a phenotype characterised by waves of contraction in adult worms but no phenotype in schistosomula. Knockdown of the atypical Protein Kinase C (Smp_096310) (Sm-aPKC) resulted in loss of viability in both schistosomula and adults and led us to focus our attention on other kinase genes that were identified in the above list and through whole organism screening of known kinase inhibitor sets followed by chemogenomic evaluation. RNAi knockdown of these kinase genes failed to affect adult worm viability but, like Sm-aPKC, knockdown of Polo-like kinase 1, Sm-PLK1 (Smp_009600) and p38-MAPK, Sm-MAPK p38 (Smp_133020) resulted in an increased mortality of schistosomula after 2-3 weeks, an effect more marked in the presence of human red blood cells (hRBC). For Sm-PLK-1 the same effects were seen with the specific inhibitor, BI2536, which also affected viable egg production in adult worms. For Sm-PLK-1 and Sm-aPKC the in vitro effects were reflected in lower recoveries in vivo. We conclude that the use of RNAi combined with culture with hRBC is a reliable method for evaluating genes important for larval development. However, in view of the slow manifestation of the effects of Sm-aPKC knockdown in adults and the lack of effects of Sm-PLK-1 and Sm-MAPK p38 on adult viability, these kinases may not represent suitable drug targets.
Cyclones and Societies in the Mascarene Islands 17th-20th Centuries  [PDF]
Emmanuel Garnier, Jérémy Desarthe
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2013.21001
Abstract:

The recent IPCC-SREX report focuses on the impact of extreme weather events on societies and underlines the absence of reliable data to assert a solid link between them and the current global climate change. Thanks to the unpublished materials that are contained in historic archives, this article suggests studying the cyclones which affected the Mascarene islands between 1654 and 2007 and which supply us with a catalog of hitherto unpublished events. Inspired by the Simpson-Saffir hurricanes Wind Scale, the research proposes a relative evaluation of the extremes of the region. It underlines the big fluctuations in the last three centuries and partially answers the current debate on the reliability of the data in relation to hurricanes and their link with the contemporary climate. The available archives show that this type of meteorological event has occurred frequently during the relevant historical period and that for that reason, has given rise to original strategies of adaptation on the part of the societies affected. The results presented here constitute new and reliable data which could make an important contribution to the decision-makers and to climatologists trying to design strategies which the populations of small islands facing the climatic hazards of the future will have to adopt.

Des monts et des mondes: ce que le corps des marcheurs solitaires fait à la sociologie
Jérémy Damian
m@gm@ , 2009,
Abstract: En faisant de l’expérience de la marche solitaire un détour permettant d’éclairer les racines sensibles et la dimension corporelle du vivre-ensemble que la culture moderne refoule et rend inopérantes, l’enjeu de notre propos est le suivant: caractériser la manière dont l’expérience sensible participe à la formation de collectifs . Les marcheurs solitaires, par leur désir de fuite (récréation sociale), recomposent dans l’environnement de la marche tout un tissu de relations aux êtres et aux choses qu’ils croisent et avec lesquels ils se sentent liés (re-création sociale). C’est à l’examen de ce lien, entre fantasme et réalité, que nous nous livrerons: au-delà de la récréation sociale ce serait bien la joie du corps, d’une part celle de se redécouvrir un corps plein de vitalité à partir duquel sentir pleinement le monde, et de l’autre celle de se vivre comme articulé à une multitude d’ autres , qui constituerait le fondement de l’expérience solitaire de la marche. Les marcheurs se vivent comme de simples composantes d’un ensemble plus vaste au sein duquel aucune discrimination véritable n’est établie entre humains et non-humains. Pour qu’il y ait société, il faut qu’il y ait du (des) corps, il faut également des passions, de l’affect. A tenir compte d’une assemblée élargie de tels corps (humains, vivants, matériels, naturels…), se forment sous les yeux du marcheurs et du sociologue, avec évidence, de nouveaux collectifs hybrides où le naturel et le culturel s’indéterminent l’un l’autre pour se fondre et se rendre tolérant l’un à l’autre.
Blake et le Laoco n : pour une poétique du Mouvement
Jérémy Lambert
Image and Narrative : Online Magazine of the Visual Narrative , 2010,
Abstract:
Caodaism and its global networks: An Ethnological Analysis of a Vietnamese Religious Movement in Vietnam and abroad Le caoda sme et ses réseaux mondiaux : une analyse ethnologique d’un mouvement religieux vietnamien au Viêt Nam et à l’étranger
Jérémy Jammes
Moussons : Recherche en Sciences Humaines sur l’Asie du Sud-Est , 2009,
Abstract: Born in the 1920’s in Cochinchina, Caodaism is a religious movement that has had important political repercussions in southern Vietnam, and suffered suspicion and censure from different governments throughout the 20th century. Today, overseas Caodai communities present a space for ideological projections and for political action. Between two and four million Caodaists worship today in Vietnam, compared to 13,000-15,000 overseas. Contrary to expectation, the international framework of these overseas Caodaist networks has still not been studied. Such an “absence” contrasts with the numerous case studies carried out in countries who have welcomed exiled Southeast Asian populations. Spreading its influence to Western countries, the association Cao Dai Overseas Missionary federates the most important number of overseas followers. It has developed an original strategy for negotiating its place in contemporary society, in particular in evolving relationship between the Vietnamese government, the sacred center or “Holy See” of Caodaism (in Tay Ninh province) and its different establishments overseas. My anthropological approach describes how this missionary organization has developed a dynamic position both in Vietnam and overseas by choosing a consensual approach with the local authorities. Apparu dans les années 1920 en Cochinchine, le caoda sme est un mouvement religieux qui a eu des répercussions politiques importantes au Viêt Nam méridional, faisant par conséquent l’objet de soup on récurrent parmi les différents gouvernements coloniaux comme vietnamiens. Aujourd’hui, les communautés d’outre-mer caoda stes présentent un espace singulier de projection idéologique et d’action politique de ce mouvement. Si entre deux et quatre millions de personnes pratiquent le culte caoda ste aujourd’hui au Viêt Nam, entre 13 000 et 15 000 vivent à l’étranger. La structure internationale de ces réseaux caoda stes outre-mer n’a pour l’instant pas fait l’objet d’une étude approfondie. Une telle absence contraste avec les nombreuses études de cas dans les pays accueillant les populations exilées du Sud-Est asiatique. Exer ant son influence dans les pays occidentaux, l’association Cao Dai Overseas Missionary fédère le plus grand nombre d’adeptes hors du Viêt Nam. Sa direction a développé une stratégie originale pour négocier son r le dans la société vietnamienne contemporaine, notamment en posant la communauté caoda ste de la diaspora comme un partenaire incontournable dans les relations entre le gouvernement de la République socialiste du Viêt Nam et le Saint-Siège his
Dire sans entraves !
Jérémy Perrin
Flaubert : Revue Critique et Génétique , 2010,
Abstract: Madame Bovary est le roman des dialogues ratés : la défiance de Flaubert envers la parole s'exprime notamment dans le célèbre passage du chaudron fêlé . Cet article explore cinq variétés de discours inefficaces, qui renvoient tout au long de l'intrigue à cette mésestime du langage. Il montre également en quoi ces discours, par l'aliénation sociale qu'ils font entrevoir, annoncent chez Flaubert certains thèmes structuralistes et situationnistes. Madame Bovary is the novel of failed dialogs: Flaubert’s mistrust of the spoken word is manifest in particular in the famous passage about the “cracked caldron”. This article explores the five varieties of ineffective speeches that reflect throughout the plot the low esteem in which language is held. It also shows how these speeches, by hinting at the alienation from society, herald certain structuralist and situationist themes in Flaubert.
D'ombre et de lumière. Double et ipséité dans l' uvre d'Henri Bauchau
Jérémy Lambert
?édille : Revista de Estudios Franceses , 2011,
Abstract:
Dynamics of tsetse natural infection rates in the Mouhoun river, Burkina Faso, in relation with environmental factors
Jérémy Bouyer
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2013.00047
Abstract: In Burkina Faso, the cyclical vectors of African animal trypanosomoses (AAT) are riverine tsetse species, namely Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (G.p.g.) and Glossina tachinoides Westwood (G.t.) (Diptera: Glossinidae). Experimental work demonstrated that environmental stress can increase the sensitivity of tsetse to trypanosome infection. Seasonal variations of the tsetse infection rates were monitored monthly over 17 months (May 2006–September 2007) in two sites (Douroula and Kadomba). In total, 1423 flies were dissected and the infection of the proboscis, middle intestine and salivary glands was noted. All the positive organs were analyzed using monospecific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. To investigate the role of different environmental factors, fly infection rates were analyzed using generalized linear mixed binomial models using the species, sex, and monthly averages of the maximum, minimum and mean daily temperatures, rainfalls, Land Surface Temperature day (LSTd) and night (LSTn) as fixed effects and the trap position as a random effect. The overall infection rate was 10% from which the predominant species was T. congolense (7.6% of the flies), followed by T. vivax (2.2% of the flies). The best model (lowest AICc) for the global infection rates was the one with the maximum daily temperature only as fixed effect (p < 0.001). For T. congolense, the best model was the one with the tsetse species, sex, maximum daily temperature and rainfalls as fixed effect, where the maximum daily temperature was the main effect (p < 0.001). The number of T. vivax infections was too low to allow the models to converge. The maturation rate of T. congolense was very high (94%), and G. t. harbored a higher maturation rate (p = 0.03). The results are discussed in view of former laboratory studies showing that temperature stress can increase the susceptibility of tsetse to trypanosomes, as well as the possibility to improve AAT risk mapping using satellite images.
Black-Box Optimization Using Geodesics in Statistical Manifolds
Jérémy Bensadon
Entropy , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/e17010304
Abstract: Information geometric optimization (IGO) is a general framework for stochastic optimization problems aiming at limiting the influence of arbitrary parametrization choices: the initial problem is transformed into the optimization of a smooth function on a Riemannian manifold, defining a parametrization-invariant first order differential equation and, thus, yielding an approximately parametrization-invariant algorithm (up to second order in the step size). We define the geodesic IGO update, a fully parametrization-invariant algorithm using the Riemannian structure, and we compute it for the manifold of Gaussians, thanks to Noether’s theorem. However, in similar algorithms, such as CMA-ES (Covariance Matrix Adaptation - Evolution Strategy) and xNES (exponential Natural Evolution Strategy), the time steps for the mean and the covariance are decoupled. We suggest two ways of doing so: twisted geodesic IGO (GIGO) and blockwise GIGO. Finally, we show that while the xNES algorithm is not GIGO, it is an instance of blockwise GIGO applied to the mean and covariance matrix separately. Therefore, xNES has an almost parametrization-invariant description.
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