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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297858 matches for " Iwona J. Bujalska "
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Regulation of Lipogenesis by Glucocorticoids and Insulin in Human Adipose Tissue
Laura L. Gathercole, Stuart A. Morgan, Iwona J. Bujalska, David Hauton, Paul M. Stewart, Jeremy W. Tomlinson
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026223
Abstract: Patients with glucocorticoid (GC) excess, Cushing's syndrome, develop a classic phenotype characterized by central obesity and insulin resistance. GCs are known to increase the release of fatty acids from adipose, by stimulating lipolysis, however, the impact of GCs on the processes that regulate lipid accumulation has not been explored. Intracellular levels of active GC are dependent upon the activity of 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and we have hypothesized that 11β-HSD1 activity can regulate lipid homeostasis in human adipose tissue (Chub-S7 cell line and primary cultures of human subcutaneous (sc) and omental (om) adipocytes. Across adipocyte differentiation, lipogenesis increased whilst β-oxidation decreased. GC treatment decreased lipogenesis but did not alter rates of β-oxidation in Chub-S7 cells, whilst insulin increased lipogenesis in all adipocyte cell models. Low dose Dexamethasone pre-treatment (5 nM) of Chub-S7 cells augmented the ability of insulin to stimulate lipogenesis and there was no evidence of adipose tissue insulin resistance in primary sc cells. Both cortisol and cortisone decreased lipogenesis; selective 11β-HSD1 inhibition completely abolished cortisone-mediated repression of lipogenesis. GCs have potent actions upon lipid homeostasis and these effects are dependent upon interactions with insulin. These in vitro data suggest that manipulation of GC availability through selective 11β-HSD1 inhibition modifies lipid homeostasis in human adipocytes.
A Switch in Hepatic Cortisol Metabolism across the Spectrum of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Adeeba Ahmed, Elizabeth Rabbitt, Theresa Brady, Claire Brown, Peter Guest, Iwona J. Bujalska, Craig Doig, Philip N. Newsome, Stefan Hubscher, Elwyn Elias, David H. Adams, Jeremy W. Tomlinson, Paul M. Stewart
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029531
Abstract: Context Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver disease ranging from reversible hepatic steatosis, to non alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. The potential role of glucocorticoids (GC) in the pathogenesis of NAFLD is highlighted in patients with GC excess, Cushing's syndrome, who develop central adiposity, insulin resistance and in 20% of cases, NAFLD. Although in most cases of NAFLD, circulating cortisol levels are normal, hepatic cortisol availability is controlled by enzymes that regenerate cortisol (F) from inactive cortisone (E) (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, 11β-HSD1), or inactivate cortisol through A-ring metabolism (5α- and 5β-reductase, 5αR and 5βR). Objective and Methods In vitro studies defined 11β-HSD1 expression in normal and NASH liver samples. We then characterised hepatic cortisol metabolism in 16 patients with histologically proven NAFLD compared to 32 obese controls using gas chromatographic analysis of 24 hour urine collection and plasma cortisol generation profile following oral cortisone. Results In patients with steatosis 5αR activity was increased, with a decrease in hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity. Total cortisol metabolites were increased in this group consistent with increased GC production rate. In contrast, in patients with NASH, 11β-HSD1 activity was increased both in comparison to patients with steatosis, and controls. Endorsing these findings, 11β-HSD1 mRNA and immunostaining was markedly increased in NASH patients in peri septal hepatocytes and within CD68 positive macrophages within inflamed cirrhotic septa. Conclusion Patients with hepatic steatosis have increased clearance and decreased hepatic regeneration of cortisol and we propose that this may represent a protective mechanism to decrease local GC availability to preserve hepatic metabolic phenotype. With progression to NASH, increased 11β-HSD1 activity and consequent cortisol regeneration may serve to limit hepatic inflammation.
Cortisol Biosynthesis in the Human Ocular Surface Innate Immune Response
Radhika Susarla, Lei Liu, Elizabeth A. Walker, Iwona J. Bujalska, Jawaher Alsalem, Geraint P. Williams, Sreekanth Sreekantam, Angela E. Taylor, Mohammad Tallouzi, H. Susan Southworth, Philip I. Murray, Graham R. Wallace, Saaeha Rauz
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094913
Abstract: Innate immune responses have a critical role in regulating sight-threatening ocular surface (OcS) inflammation. While glucocorticoids (GCs) are frequently used to limit tissue damage, the role of intracrine GC (cortisol) bioavailability via 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in OcS defense, remains unresolved. We found that primary human corneal epithelial cells (PHCEC), fibroblasts (PHKF) and allogeneic macrophages (M1, GM-CSF; M2, M-CSF) were capable of generating cortisol (M1>PHKF>M2>PHCEC) but in corneal cells, this was independent of Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. While PolyI:C induced maximal cytokine and chemokine production from both PHCEC (IFNγ, CCL2, CCL3, and (CCL4), IL6, CXCL10, CCL5, TNFα) and PHKF (CCL2, IL-6, CXCL10, CCL5), only PHKF cytokines were inhibited by GCs. Both Poly I:C and LPS challenged-corneal cells induced M1 chemotaxis (greatest LPS-PHKF (250%), but down-regulated M1 11β-HSD1 activity (30 and 40% respectively). These data were supported by clinical studies demonstrating reduced human tear film cortisol:cortisone ratios (a biomarker of local 11β-HSD1 activity) in pseudomonas keratitis (1:2.9) versus healthy controls (1:1.3; p<0.05). This contrasted with putative TLR3-mediated OcS disease (Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, Mucous membrane pemphigoid) where an increase in cortisol:cortisone ratio was observed (113.8:1; p<0.05). In summary, cortisol biosynthesis in human corneal cells is independent of TLR activation and is likely to afford immunoprotection under physiological conditions. Contribution to ocular mucosal innate responses is dependent on the aetiology of immunological challenge.
Winter survival of Apodemus flavicollis in Crabapple island (NE Poland)
Gabriela Bujalska,Leszek Grüm
Hystrix : the Italian Journal of Mammalogy , 2006, DOI: 10.4404/hystrix-17.2-4376
Abstract: Riassunto Sopravvivenza invernale di Apodemus flavicollis nell’isola di Crabapple (Polonia nord orientale). Nel corso di nove anni consecutivi (1994-2003), la sopravvivenza invernale di Apodemus flavicollis è stata indagata nell’isola di Crabapple (4 ha) tramite cinque serie annuali di trappolaggi condotte tra Aprile ed Ottobre. Le condizioni climatiche invernali sono state espresse tramite 22 variabili relative a piovosità, temperatura e precipitazioni nevose. La percentuale di animali sopravvissuti è variata dal 5,3% al 51,1%, senza mostrare alcuna relazione con le variabili climatiche e con la consistenza della popolazione a inizio inverno. Tra le variabili individuali considerate (età, stato riproduttivo, massa corporea), la maturità sessuale sembra essere l’unica a favorire la sopravvivenza invernale, in contrasto con le informazioni disponibili in letteratura.
Biometrical Assessment of Interspecific Hybrids of Capsicum Genus
Dorota Olszewska, Iwona J drzejczyk, Pawe Nowaczyk
Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10032-011-0015-5
Abstract: The F1 hybrids obtained as the result of interspecific crosses: C. annuum x C. frutescens, C. frutescens x C. annuum, C. frutescens x C. chinense and C. chinense x C. frutescens were analysed biometrically. The plants were cultured in unheated foil tent. Yield and the number of fruit from plant were qualified. For ten plants of each of the hybrids detailed fruit analysis were performed. The tested traits were: weight of fruit, length, width, technological weight and weight of pericarp, pericarp thickness, the weight of placenta without seeds, the weight of dry seeds and the dry matter content. The analysis of variance was conducted on the obtained results. The tested hybrids were characterised by the large differentiation of the estimated characters. The hybrids obtained from crosses: C. annuum x C. frutescens and C. frutescens x C. annuum seem to be the most valuable material for the future pepper breeding work. Fruits of these hybrids combine high weight, typical for cultivated forms of C. annuum with increased dry matter content characteristic for C. frutescens. These materials will be used as the parental forms of homozygous lines which possess traits valuable in genetic improvement of pepper.
Genetic Variability of the Grey Wolf Canis lupus in the Caucasus in Comparison with Europe and the Middle East: Distinct or Intermediary Population?
Ma?gorzata Pilot, Micha? J. D?browski, Vahram Hayrapetyan, Eduard G. Yavruyan, Natia Kopaliani, Elena Tsingarska, Barbara Bujalska, Stanis?aw Kamiński, Wies?aw Bogdanowicz
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093828
Abstract: Despite continuous historical distribution of the grey wolf (Canis lupus) throughout Eurasia, the species displays considerable morphological differentiation that resulted in delimitation of a number of subspecies. However, these morphological discontinuities are not always consistent with patterns of genetic differentiation. Here we assess genetic distinctiveness of grey wolves from the Caucasus (a region at the border between Europe and West Asia) that have been classified as a distinct subspecies C. l. cubanensis. We analysed their genetic variability based on mtDNA control region, microsatellite loci and genome-wide SNP genotypes (obtained for a subset of the samples), and found similar or higher levels of genetic diversity at all these types of loci as compared with other Eurasian populations. Although we found no evidence for a recent genetic bottleneck, genome-wide linkage disequilibrium patterns suggest a long-term demographic decline in the Caucasian population – a trend consistent with other Eurasian populations. Caucasian wolves share mtDNA haplotypes with both Eastern European and West Asian wolves, suggesting past or ongoing gene flow. Microsatellite data also suggest gene flow between the Caucasus and Eastern Europe. We found evidence for moderate admixture between the Caucasian wolves and domestic dogs, at a level comparable with other Eurasian populations. Taken together, our results show that Caucasian wolves are not genetically isolated from other Eurasian populations, share with them the same demographic trends, and are affected by similar conservation problems.
The Correlates of the Resilience of the Children of Alcoholics  [PDF]
Iwona Grzegorzewska, Marzanna Farnicka
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.412138

Objective: The aim of the article was to describe the process of resilience in school children of alcoholics. Additionally, it was important to determine how risk and protective factors, personal resources and the social environment (within the family and without) determine the occurrence of positive adaptation. Methods: The study involved 182 children in two comparison groups (children of alcoholics and children of non-alcoholics) in aged 9 - 12. The clinical group consisted of 90 children from families with alcohol problems highlighted on the basis of a CAST screening test. The control group comprised 92 people from families without alcohol problems. An expression of the resilience

Electro-Oxidation of Glucose in Alkaline Media on Graphene Sheets Decorated with Gold Nanoparticles  [PDF]
Marek Wojnicki, Magdalena Luty-B?ocho, Iwona Dobosz, Justyna Grzonka, Krzysztof Pac?awski, Krzysztof J. Kurzyd?owski, Krzysztof Fitzner
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.42019

In this study the catalytic properties of gold nanoparticles in electro-oxidation process of glucose, were investigated, taking into account, an influence of catalyst composition. Graphene oxide was applied and for electro-oxidation studies of glucose, cyclic voltamperometry was used. It was found that an application of graphene oxide sheets during catalyst synthesis have an influence on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) size and size distribution. It was confirmed that the application of composite catalyst consisting of graphane-AuNPs significantly changes electro-oxidation of glucose shifting the potential of oxidation to higher positive values and increasing oxidation current.

Expression of the transcription factor, TFII-I, during post-implantation mouse embryonic development
Iwona Fijalkowska, Deva Sharma, Carol J Bult, Sonye K Danoff
BMC Research Notes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-3-203
Abstract: Antibodies to the N-terminus of TFII-I were used to probe embryonic mouse sections. TFII-I protein is widely expressed in the developing embryo. TFII-I is expressed throughout the period from E8-E16. However, within this period there are striking shifts in localization from cytoplasmic predominant to nuclear. TFII-I expression varies in both a spatial and temporal fashion. There is extensive expression in neural precursors at E8. This expression persists at later stages. TFII-I is expressed in developing lung, heart and gut structures. There is no evidence of isoform specific expression. Available data regarding expression patterns at both an RNA and protein level throughout development are also comprehensively reviewed.Our immunohistochemical studies of the temporal and spatial expression patterns of TFII-I in mouse embryonic sections are consistent with the hypothesis that hemizygous deletion of GTF2I in individuals with Williams-Beuren Syndrome contributes to the distinct cognitive and physiological symptoms associated with the disorder.TFII-I, or General Transcription Factor II-I (GTF2-I) is a member of ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional transcription factor family that integrates signals from multiple pathways and mediates cellular response to changes in the external environment [1]. Both the high degree of sequence conservation in TFII-I among species and the lack of individuals with homozygous deletion of GTF2I suggest that its ubiquitous expression and various molecular functions are essential for viability.TFII-I gene (Entrez Gene ID 2969) has been mapped to an interval of the human chromosome 7q11.23 (chr7:73,805,362-73,812,956). This region is commonly deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) (OMIM#194050), which is typically associated with hemizygous microdeletion of a 1.6 Mb region containing about 16 genes [2-5]. In mouse, the gene (Entrez Gene ID 14886, MGI 1202722) is located on chromosome 5qG2 (chr5:134,713,704-134,790,616). Experimentally ge
Wp yw zastosowanych gestagenów w ci g ej hormonalnej terapii zast pczej na wydzielanie insulinotropowego peptydu zale nego od glukozy i peptydu glukanopodobnego 1 u kobiet po menopauzie
Iwona Rogatko,Tomasz Milewicz,Józef Krzysiek,Krystyna Sztefko
Przegl?d Menopauzalny , 2010,
Abstract: Aim of the study: To evaluate GIP and GLP-1 secretion in postmenopausal women on the HRT in relation togestagen used. Material and method: 105 postmenopausal women (mean age 59.0 ±3.4 years) were included in the study.Group I (n = 32) consisted of women treated with oral dydrogesterone and transdermal 17-b- estradiol. Group II(n = 30) was treated with 17-b-estradiol and dydrogesterone orally. Group III (n = 15) received 17-b-estradioltransdermally and medroxyprogesterone orally. Women from group IV (n = 10) received 17-b-estradiol and noretisteroneorally. Blood was taken twice – before and 60 min. after the meal - to the chilled tubes with EDTA andaprotinin. Such a protocol was used before the HRT began and in the 6th month of the HRT. Results: The HRT resulted in diminished plasma concentration of GIP and GLP-1 in both group I and II – beforeand after the meal (p < 0.05). In group III the same tendency in GIP levels was observed but the differenceswere not statistically significant. The GLP-1 concentrations were not affected by HRT, as well as GIP and GLP-1levels in group IV. Conclusion: The plasma concentration of incretins (GIP and GLP-1) depends on the route of HRT delivery andon the kind of gestagen used.
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