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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 154 matches for " Ivy Mushamiri "
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Diverse Secreted Effectors Are Required for Salmonella Persistence in a Mouse Infection Model
Afshan S. Kidwai, Ivy Mushamiri, George S. Niemann, Roslyn N. Brown, Joshua N. Adkins, Fred Heffron
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070753
Abstract: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes typhoid-like disease in mice and is a model of typhoid fever in humans. One of the hallmarks of typhoid is persistence, the ability of the bacteria to survive in the host weeks after infection. Virulence factors called effectors facilitate this process by direct transfer to the cytoplasm of infected cells thereby subverting cellular processes. Secretion of effectors to the cell cytoplasm takes place through multiple routes, including two separate type III secretion (T3SS) apparati as well as outer membrane vesicles. The two T3SS are encoded on separate pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and -2, with SPI-1 more strongly associated with the intestinal phase of infection, and SPI-2 with the systemic phase. Both T3SS are required for persistence, but the effectors required have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, mutations in 48 described effectors were tested for persistence. We replaced each effector with a specific DNA barcode sequence by allelic exchange and co-infected with a wild-type reference to calculate the ratio of wild-type parent to mutant at different times after infection. The competitive index (CI) was determined by quantitative PCR in which primers that correspond to the barcode were used for amplification. Mutations in all but seven effectors reduced persistence demonstrating that most effectors were required. One exception was CigR, a recently discovered effector that is widely conserved throughout enteric bacteria. Deletion of cigR increased lethality, suggesting that it may be an anti-virulence factor. The fact that almost all Salmonella effectors are required for persistence argues against redundant functions. This is different from effector repertoires in other intracellular pathogens such as Legionella.
O plágio, a cópia e a intertextualidade na produ o acadêmica
Ivy Judensnaider
Revista Espa?o Acadêmico , 2011,
Abstract: A ocorrência cada vez mais frequente do plágio nos trabalhos discentes enseja a discuss o sobre a sua prática, em especial quando resultante da falta de compreens o sobre o real significado do caráter intertextual da produ o acadêmica. Na investiga o sobre os possíveis diálogos entre as várias camadas do texto cientifico, esse artigo procura estabelecer distancia entre eles e a prática do plágio ou da cópia, assim o fazendo por meio da análise da constru o de sentido a partir da leitura e da escrita como exercício da leitura de mundo e do processo dialógico entre discursos e sujeitos.
Ivy Schipper
Revista Tamoios , 2010,
Abstract: Pretendemos neste relato registrar a segunda experiência de desenvolvimento da metodologia de leitura da a o social através da constru o de mapas na escola (rede de ensino público estadual) que reuniu parte das equipes do LABORATóRIO DA CONJUNTURA SOCIAL: TECNOLOGIA E TERRITóRIO – LASTRO – IPPUR / UFRJ e do LABORATóRIO DE ESTUDOS DO LESTE METROPOLITANO – LEME – FFP / UERJ (S o Gon alo) nas pessoas de Ivy Schipper; e Paola Machado de Oliveira e Luis de Souza Jr, respectivamente.
An Exact Analysis of the Fundamental and First Higher Order Mode in Graded Index Fibers with Direct Power Series Method  [PDF]
Anirban Roy Chowdhury, Ivy Dutta, Dharmadas Kumbhakar
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2013.32028

An exact and fast analytic method based on power series is established to predict the modal field distributions, Petermann-2 spot size, the normalized propagation constant corresponding to fundamental and first higher order mode in graded index fibers with any arbitrary power law profile. The variation of normalized cut-off frequencies of some LPlm modes in graded index fibers with different profile exponents are also shown here and an empirical relation between them is determined.

FDTD Simulation of Three Photon Absorption and Realization of NAND Gate with GaAs Wire Waveguide  [PDF]
Ivy Dutta, Anirban Roy Chowdhury, Dharmadas Kumbhakar
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2013.35048

GaAs has high three photon absorption (3PA) co-efficient at mid-infrared wavelength like2.2mm and waveguides can be formed with this material like silicon nano-wires. It is shown that three-photon-absorption in GaAs wire waveguide can be utilized to form NAND gate. Three-photon-absorption is incorporated in one-dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) equations. The evolution of a probe pulse under the influence of a pump pulse through crossabsorption in a waveguide is investigated using FDTD simulation, where the dominant process is nonlinear three-photon-absorption. Output probe power dependence on input pump power shows that GaAs waveguide NAND gate has higher extinction ratio in comparison to NAND gate using two-photon-absorption in silicon waveguide.

Story from Canada: An Episode to a New Beginning with L.E.A.P
Ivy Kwan,Jim Parsons
Humanising Language Teaching , 2011, DOI: 17559715
Children's stunting in sub-Saharan Africa: Is there an externality effect of high fertility?
?ystein Kravdal,Ivy Kodzi
Demographic Research , 2011,
Abstract: A positive relationship between the number of siblings and a child's chance of being stunted has been seen in several studies. It is possible that individual stunting risks are also raised by high fertility in the community, partly because of the impact of aggregate fertility on the local economy, but this issue has not been addressed in earlier investigations. In this study we estimate the independent effect of the child dependency ratio in the province (or governorate, region, or larger geopolitical zone within a country), using DHS data on up to 145,000 children in 152 provinces in 23 countries with at least two such surveys. The data design allows inclusion of lagged province variables and province fixed effects (to control for constant unobserved province characteristics). Three types of regression models for a child's chance of being stunted are estimated. Some estimates suggest an adverse effect of the current child dependency ratio, net of the child's number of siblings, while others do not point in this direction. When the child dependency ratio measured in an earlier survey is included instead, no significant effects appear. Thus, we conclude that there is only weak support for the idea that a child's stunting risk may be raised by high fertility in the community.
What has high fertility got to do with the low birth weight problem in Africa?
Ivy Kodzi,?ystein Kravdal
Demographic Research , 2013,
Abstract: BACKGROUND There has been much concern about adverse individual and societal consequences of high fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. One concern is that children of high birth orders may have low birth weight. However, the evidence for such an effect is not strong. OBJECTIVE Our objective is to investigate whether a woman's high parity status might increase her risks of having a baby with low birth weight. METHODS Pooling 60 Demographic and Health Surveys data-sets from 32 sub-Saharan countries, we selected children of mothers who had at least two births of order two or higher within the five years preceding the surveys. We modeled the probability of having a child with low birth weight and controlled for all mother-specific, household, or community characteristics that are constant over the period of analysis, by including fixed-effects for the mother. We also controlled for salient factors including sex, maternal age, preceding birth interval, and whether prenatal care was received. RESULTS We found no adverse effect of increasing parity on the odds of having a child with low birth weight at normative ranges; such effects only manifest at extremely high parities - nine or more children. At moderately high parities, the chance of low birth weight is actually lower than at very low parities. CONCLUSIONS While high fertility may lead to various adverse outcomes for African families, low birth weight appears not to be among these outcomes. Other factors, such as adolescent childbearing, poverty, and inadequate prenatal care may be more important determinants of low birth weight in Africa.
John L. Ivy
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2004,
Abstract: Recovery from prolonged strenuous exercise requires that depleted fuel stores be replenished, that damaged tissue be repaired and that training adaptations be initiated. Critical to these processes are the type, amount and timing of nutrient intake. Muscle glycogen is an essential fuel for intense exercise, whether the exercise is of an aerobic or anaerobic nature. Glycogen synthesis is a relatively slow process, and therefore the restoration of muscle glycogen requires special considerations when there is limited time between training sessions or competition. To maximize the rate of muscle glycogen synthesis it is important to consume a carbohydrate supplement immediately post exercise, to continue to supplement at frequent intervals and to consume approximately 1.2 g carbohydrate·kg-1 body wt·h-1. Maximizing glycogen synthesis with less frequent supplementation and less carbohydrate can be achieved with the addition of protein to the carbohydrate supplement. This will also promote protein synthesis and reduce protein degradation, thus having the added benefit of stimulating muscle tissue repair and adaptation. Moreover, recent research suggests that consuming a carbohydrate/protein supplement post exercise will have a more positive influence on subsequent exercise performance than a carbohydrate supplement.
Cervical cancer screening: knowledge, health perception and attendance rate among Hong Kong Chinese women
Sharron SK Leung, Ivy Leung
International Journal of Women's Health , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S10724
Abstract: vical cancer screening: knowledge, health perception and attendance rate among Hong Kong Chinese women Original Research (5661) Total Article Views Authors: Sharron SK Leung, Ivy Leung Published Date July 2010 Volume 2010:2 Pages 221 - 228 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S10724 Sharron SK Leung1, Ivy Leung2 1School of Nursing, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong; 2Quality Healthcare Medical Services, Hong Kong Purpose: Cervical cancer screening has been consistently shown to be effective in reducing the incidence rate and mortality from cervical cancer. However, cervical screening attendance rates are still far from satisfactory in many countries. Strategies, health promotion and education programs need to be developed with clear evidence of the causes and factors relating to the low attendance rate. The study aims to assess the prediction of cervical screening attendance rate by Chinese women’s knowledge about cervical cancer and cervical screening as well as their perception of health. Patients and methods: A survey with self-reported questionnaires was conducted on 385 Chinese women recruited from a community clinic in Hong Kong. Participants were Chinese women, Hong Kong residents, aged 18–65 years, able to read Chinese or English, and were not pregnant. Results: Women aged 37 years or less, with at least tertiary education, who perceived having control over their own health and had better knowledge on risk factors, were more likely to attend cervical cancer screening. Many participants had adequate general knowledge but were unable to identify correct answers on the risk factors. Conclusion: Health promotion efforts need to focus on increasing women’s knowledge on risk factors and enhancing their perceived health control by providing more information on the link between screening and early detection with lower incidence rates and mortality from cervical cancer.
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