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An analysis of the minimum air temperature behavior was carried out for the southern tip of South America and the western side of the Antarctica Peninsula. Punta Arenas shows an overall annual warming of 0.15°C per decade during the 1960-2010 period, although this occurred mainly in the summer and winter seasons. The trend of the air temperature in the western side of the Antarctic Peninsula shows an increase until around 2000, but the warming rate during the last 2001-2010 decade has been less than previous decades; in particular, meteorological stations in King George Island show slight cooling. The lineal annual warming per decade as shown by Bellingshausen, Verndsky/Faraday and Rothera stations are 0.26°C ± 0.75°C, 0.55°C ± 1.26°C and 0.69°C ± 1.31°C; for the respectively, 1969-2010, 1951-2010 and 1978-2010 periods. These rates of warming are slightly lower than those found for the same stations but for the 1969-2000, 1951-2000 and 1978-2000 periods.
Climate change alters all sustainable development dimensions for a given nation or region, there- fore, decreasing emission of GHG not only is an environmental issue, but also has implication on the economic, social and political matters. In 2009, the Copenhagen Accord adopted the 2°C global warming increase limit as an international policy, being this threshold of the maximum allowable warming to avoid dangerous and irreversible anthropogenic interference in the climate system. The observed monthly average CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere crossed the 400 parts per million thresholds, for the first time in April and May 2013. The energy sector is the single largest source of climate changing GHG emissions, and therefore moving from fossil fuel to clean energy production should be a priority challenge for all countries. For that, it is necessary to develop a low carbon economy for confronting the climate change.