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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7479 matches for " Ivan; "
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Cyclic Operator Decomposition for Solving the Differential Equations  [PDF]
Ivan Gonoskov
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2013.31A025
Abstract:

We present an approach how to obtain solutions of arbitrary linear operator equation for unknown functions. The particular solution can be represented by the infinite operator series (Cyclic Operator Decomposition), which acts the generating function. The method allows us to choose the cyclic operators and corresponding generating function selectively, depending on initial problem for analytical or numerical study. Our approach includes, as a particular case, the perturbation theory, but generally does not require inside any small parameters and unperturbed solutions. We demonstrate the applicability of the method to the analysis of several differential equations in mathematical physics, namely, classical oscillator, Schrodinger equation, and wave equation in dispersive medium.

Improvement of the Relation between Existing Techniques of Product and Food Protection and Drugs Safety Management  [PDF]
Ivan Spirydonau
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.411003
Abstract:
The goal of this paper is to assess the existing methods of food and drugs safety man-agement from the standpoint of product packaging and labeling. Several methods of safety management have been introduced in order to protect both supply chains and consumers from fake commodities, yet their effectiveness is a relevant question since counterfeiters keep up with the development and implementation of advanced protec-tive means. Since verifying drugs’ authenticity is a crucial issue nowadays and fake commodities represent significant economic and societal challenges, a new set of counter-measures must be put in place to address the advancing growth of the counterfeit threat. A conceptual model will be used to assess the existing problems of food and drug safety, and practical implications will be derived out of the real life situations that occurred with pharmaceutical manufactures. Analysis of the existing ways of how essential commodities are protected and propositions on how these ways could be upgraded will improve the understanding of food and drugs safety management. The improved system of food and drug safety management implies a set of actions that have to be undertaken in order to form a solid, unified system and thus provide complete assurances of a product’s safety. Not only does the security of supply chains and product traceability systems need improvement, but also existing public policies regarding compulsory food and pharmaceutical certifications need to be reviewed.
Dyscirculatory Angiopathy of Alzheimer's Type  [PDF]
Ivan V. Maksimovich
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2011.12008
Abstract: Purpose: We assess the significance of dyscirculatory angiopathy of Alzheimer’s type (DAAT) in identify- ing the predisposition to the development and diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) different stages. Meth- ods: 108 patients took part in the research:1) 49 aged 34-79 suffering from AD or running an increased risk of its development (those not diagnosed with AD but having growing memory disorders without any mani- festations of dementia or specific cognitive impairments, and having 2 or more immediate relatives with AD) - Test Group; 2) 59 aged 28-78 suffering from different types of brain lesions accompanied by dementia but not suffering from AD or corresponding to their age norm - Control Group. All the patients underwent MRI, CT with subsequent calculation of the temporal lobes atrophy degree, brain scintigraphy (SG), rheoencepha- lography (REG), and MUGA. Results: Characteristic features of patients with an increased risk of AD as well as at its various stages are: 1) Temporal lobes and hippocampus atrophy ranging from 4% among those with an increased risk of AD to 62% among those at its advanced stages; 2) DAAT manifestations: reduction of the capillary bed in the temporal and frontoparietal regions with the development of multiple arterioven- ous shunts of the same localization and correspondent early venous discharge accompanied by venous stasis on the border of the frontal and parietal region; 3) DAAT phenomena equally develop both among those with an increased risk of developing AD and those at various AD stages. Similar changes are not observed among Control Group patients with other brain lesions, regardless of the severity of dementia, as well as among practically healthy people of the corresponding age group. Conclusion: Timely identification of the above- mentioned changes can reveal a predisposition to AD development long before its initial manifestations, and it allows differentiating AD from other diseases attended by dementia. In both cases, timely diagnosis allows beginning timely treatment and thus achieving more stable results.
Helping Oncology Nurses Advise Younger Patients about Self Care: Feasibility of Using Animated and DVD Formats for Nurse Instruction  [PDF]
Ivan Beale, Vivien Lane
Creative Education (CE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2010.11008
Abstract: This study explored the perceptions of oncology nurses about the usefulness of a video-game or an animated DVD intervention designed to teach young patients about self care. The study also measured the effects of these interventions on nurses’ cancer knowledge and perceived self-efficacy to communicate with patients about self-care. Twenty-two oncology nurses were randomly assigned either to use a video game “Re-Mission” or to view instructional animations from the game on DVD. They completed tests and rating scales before and after, then rated the acceptability of the game or DVD. Only ten participants completed the study. For these ten, ratings of the acceptability and credibility of the game or DVD were moderately positive, regardless of age or nursing experience. Self-efficacy for communicating to patients about self-care increased following use of the game or DVD. Cancer knowledge was not affected. It was concluded that oncology nurses in Australia are not generally enthusiastic about the concept of instruction via video game and animated DVD formats, although those who participated rated the experience positively.
Endovascular Application of Low-Energy Laser in the Treatment of Dyscirculatory Angiopathy of Alzheimer’s Type  [PDF]
Ivan V. Maksimovich
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.21008
Abstract: Purpose: We propose an analysis of dyscirculatory angiopathy of Alzheimer’s type (DAAT) endovascular treatment method based on transcatheter revascularization and recovery of collateral and microvascular bed of the brain by means of low-energy transluminal laser irradiation as well as its comparison with traditional Alzheimer’s disease (AD) treatment methods. Methods: The research involved 81 patients aged 34 - 79 (average age 67). 46 (46.8%) patients were treated using endovascular method—Test Group. 35 (43.2%) patients were given conventional treatment—Control Group. Patients were subdivided: Group (CDR-0): 9 (11.1%), pre-clinical stage or increased AD risk; Group (CDR-1): 24 (29.6%), mild dementia and cognitive impairment; Group (CDR-2): 31 (38.3%), moderate dementia and persistent cognitive impairment; Group (CDR-3): 17 (21.0%), severe dementia and cognitive impairment. Research plan included CT or MRI with subsequent temporal lobes volume calculation, brain scintigraphy (SG), rheoencephalography (REG), and cerebral MUGA. There were indications and contraindications for treatment in Test Group. In Group CDR-0, endovascular intervention was prophylactic, against the background of increasing memory impairment; in Groups CDR-1, CDR-2, CDR-3, it was conducted in 1 to 12 years period from AD symptoms appear-ance. Conservative treatment with Memantin and Rivastigmine was carried out in Control Group. Results: In Test Group, positive outcome accompanied by prolonged dementia decline, cognitive impairment decrease, and patients’ transition to CDR group of an earlier stage, was obtained in all cases. In Control Group, patients’ temporary stabilization in their own CDR group was achieved. Conclusions: Endovascular treatment of patients with AD different stages can not only reduce DAAT phenomena but can also cause AD regression possibly accompanied by regenerative processes in the cerebral tissue. Conservative treatment only allows stabilizing the patient’s condition for a while.
The tomography dementia rating scale (TDR)—The rating scale of Alzheimer’s disease stages  [PDF]
Ivan V. Maksimovich
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.429111
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to develop a morphologically determined scale—the Tomography Dementia Rating scale (TDR) to diagnose AD stages, based on the measurement of the severity of voluminal atrophic changes of the temporal lobes of the brain detected among patients during CT and MRI at various stages of the disease. The research included 140 patients aged 28 - 79. Test Group comprised 81 patients aged 34 - 79 suffering from various AD stages. Control Group consisted of 59 patients aged 28 - 78 who had various types of brain lesions with manifestations of dementia and cognitive impairment but who did not suffer from AD. CT and MRI data obtained has made it possible to create a scale that allows determining the severity of atrophic changes in the temporal lobes at each stage of AD development: 1) Pre-clinical AD stage—TDR-0: temporal lobes atrophy with a 4% - 8% decrease in tissue mass (corresponds to 26 - 28 MMSE points); 2) Early AD Stage—mild dementia—TDR-1: temporal lobes atrophy with a 9% - 18% decrease in tissue mass (corresponds to CDR-1 and to 20 - 25 MMSE points); 3) Middle AD stage—moderate dementia—TDR-2: temporal lobes atrophy with a 19% - 32% decrease in tissue mass (corresponds to CDR-2 and to 12 - 19 MMSE points); 4) Late AD stage—heavy dementia—TDR-3: temporal lobes atrophy with a 33% - 62% decrease in tissue mass (corresponds to CDR-3 and to 7 - 11 MMSE points). Thereby, the developed Tomography Dementia Rating scale (TDR) complements the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) and allows a correct and objective determination of AD stages as well as an easy differentiation of existing lesions with neurodegenerative changes characteristic for other diseases accompanied by dementia and cognitive impairment.
Vascular factors in Alzheimer’s disease  [PDF]
Ivan V. Maksimovich
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.429114
Abstract: The vascular factor in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), affecting its development and progression, is one of the most urgent problems of modern neuroangiology. The research investigates the characteristics of cerebral angioarchitectonics identified at different stages of AD. The research included 106 patients: 1) The Test Group—47 patients suffering from various stages of AD; 2) The Control Group—59 patients suffering from the most common lesions of the brain accompanied by neurodegenerative changes, the development of dementia and cognitive impairment, but not having AD. All the patients underwent: the testing of cognitive functions (MMSE), the determination of severity of dementia (CDR) and AD stages (TDR), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), scintigraphy of the brain (SG), rheoencephalography (REG), and cerebral multigated angiography (MUGA). Patients with AD different stages showed the following changes in angioarchitectonics and microcirculation: Absence of pronounced atherosclerotic lesions of intracranial vessels, reduction of the capillary bed in the temporal and temporo-parietal regions, development of multiple arteriovenous shunts in the same areas, early venous discharge, abnormal expansion of venous trunks that receive blood from arteriovenous shunts, venous congestion at the border of the frontal and parietal region, increased looping of intracranial arteries. Control Group patients had no combination of the abovementioned changes. These vascular changes are specific for AD and are in fact the vascular factor of this disease; they may also be called dyscirculatory angiopathy of Alzheimer’s type (DAAT). Patients suffering from other diseases that are accompanied by neurodegenerative changes in the brain, dementia and cognitive impairment do not have them.
Transcatheter treatment of atherosclerotic lesions of the brain complicated by vascular dementia development  [PDF]
Ivan V. Maksimovich
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2012.24031
Abstract: The research focuses on the effectiveness of transluminal laser revascularization of the brain in the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions accompanied by vascular dementia development. 1125 patients aged from 29 to 81 (average age 75) suffering from various kinds of atherosclerotic lesions of cerebral vessels were examined during the research. The examination plan included: computed tomography of the brain (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), scintigraphy of the brain (SG), rheoencephalography (REG), cerebral multi-gated angiography (MUGA). 665 (59.11%) patients suffered from diseases accompanied by the development of vascular dementia. To perform transcatheter treatment, 639 patients were selected: Group 1 (CDR-1)—352 patients, Group 2 (CDR-2)—184 patients, Group 3 (CDR-3)—103 patients. To conduct revascularization of main intracranial arteries high-energy laser systems were used; for revascularization of the distal intracranial branches low-energy laser systems were used. The clinical outcome depended on the severity of dementia and the timing of the intervention. A good clinical outcome in Group 1 was obtained in 281 (79.82%) cases, in Group 2 in 81 (44.02%) cases, in Group 3 in 9 (8.73%) cases. A satisfactory clinical outcome in Group 1 was obtained in 53 (15.34%) cases, in Group 2 in 62 (33.70%) cases, in Group 3 in 31 (30.09%) cases. A relatively satisfactory clinical outcome in Group 1 was obtained in 17 (4.83%) cases, in Group 2 in 41 (22.28%) cases, in Group 3 in 63 (61.16%) cases. No negative effect was observed after the intervention. Evaluating the data obtained it can be concluded that the method of transluminal laser revascularization of cerebral blood vessels is an effective one for the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions of the brain accompanied by dementia.
Certain new aspects of etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease  [PDF]
Ivan V. Maksimovich
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2012.13009
Abstract: The research focuses on the possibility of early detection of AD-specific vascular and atrophic brain changes in families which have a tendency to inherit the disease. The research includedthree families with AD inheritance. All patientsunderwent: cognitive function assessment(MMSE),determination of dementia severity(CDR) and AD stages (TDR), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), scintigraphy of the brain (SG), rheoencephalography (REG), and cerebral multigated angiography (MUGA). All patients with different AD stages, as well as their descendants, have specific atrophic changes in the temporal lobes of the brain. The degree of these changes increases as AD becomes more severe and ranges from 4% - 8% (TDR-0) to 33% - 62% (TDR-3) of the total mass of a healthy person’s temporal lobes. Simultaneously, thepatients examined have changes of microcirculation manifested by reduction of the capillarybed in the temporal and frontalparietal regions,the development of multiple arteriovenousshunts in the same areas, early venous dumping, anomalous expansion of venoustrunks that receive blood from the arterialvenous shunts, venous stasis on the frontoparietal boundary. Similar changes are found among AD patients’ descendants aged 8 - 11, the only difference being in the degree of temporal lobes atrophy which is 4.7%. This proves that microcirculatory disorders are primary and atrophic changes of the temporal lobes are secondary in AD development. The data obtained indicate that the examination of AD patients’ relatives should begin well before the possible manifestations of the disease, even in childhood. It will allow to reveal the possibility of inheritance and the signs of the disease at the earliest possible stage and to begin its treatment in time.
Possibilities of transcatheter treatment of patients after extensive ischemic stroke  [PDF]
Ivan V. Maksimovich
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2013.33022
Abstract:

The research investigates the efficacy of brain transcatheter laser revascularization in patients who have had extensive ischemic stroke. 1125 patients aged 29 - 81 (average age 75) with cerebral atherosclerosis were examined. The examination plan included: CT brain scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), brain scintigraphy (SG), rheoencephalography (REG), cerebral multi-gated angiography (MUGA), laboratory tests, assessment of severity of dementia (CDR), cognitive impairment (MMSE) and activities of daily living (IB). 93 patients suffered extensive ischemic stroke of whom 7 (7.53%) had 10 - 15 IB points, 25 (26.88%)—20 - 30 IB points, 61 (65.59%)—35 - 45 IB points. 69 patients underwent transcatheter treatment (Test Group). 24 patients underwent conservative treatment (Control Group). High-energy laser systems were used for revascularization of major intracranial arteries; lowenergy laser systems were used for revascularization of distal intracranial branches. Test Group: 67 (97.10%) patients had good immediate angiographic outcome manifested in the restoration of lumen and patency of the affected vessels as well as in collateral revascularization. 12 - 24 months later the following positive trend was observed: 14 (20.59%) patients demonstrated good clinical outcome (IB 90 - 100); 26 (38.24%) patients had satisfactory clinical outcome (IB 75 - 85); 28 (41.18%) patients showed relatively satisfactory clinical outcome (IB 60 - 70); relatively positive clinical outcome (IB < 60) was not obtained in any case. Control Group: 4 (16.67%) patients showed relatively satisfactory clinical outcome (IB 60 - 70), relatively positive clinical outcome (IB < 60) was achieved in 20 (83.33%) cases. Evaluating the data obtained, it can be concluded that the method of transluminal laser revascularization of cerebral blood vessels is an effective one for the treatment of extensive ischemic strokes. The effect is maintained for a long time; it causes regression of mental, intellectual and motor disorders, promotes regression of

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