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Whither the Community? Lessons Madagascar Can Learn from Israel’s Water Policy  [PDF]
Richard R. Marcus
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.410094
Abstract: Madagascar wrote a fundamentally new Water Code in 1998. It focused on maximizing the number of people with access to clean water through a process of decentralized water management and cost recovery. This paper is concerned with the policy problem this presents at the community level—is Malagasy water law the best possible for the country? Combining community-level focus group studies and policy analysis, this study examines Malagasy water policy shifts focusing on localization of water governance to parallel localization efforts in Israel. This study concludes that Madagascar’s water policy is flawed. Using a case study from the arid south this study explores the impact of these alternatives to ineffective state-centric policies. Comparing to Israel’s policy process this study finds that the Malagasy policy process has not been a process at all, the institutions are not in place, and the requisite levels of investment are not forthcoming. Rather than empowering communities as stewards of their own resources, community level management has been undermining effective governance by allowing the state to recede, and minimizing economic resources, while ignoring local capacity, local will, and increasing local water poverty.
The Legitimacy of Using Excessive Force during Civil Policing among Israel’s Border Guard Police Officers  [PDF]
Efrat Shoham, Shirley Yehosha Stern
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2012.32003
Abstract: This research aims to examine two main issues: What is the level of legitimacy attributed to the use of excessive force during civil policing among Border Guard Police officers, compared to ordinary police officers and civilians, and how legitimate is it to involve external supervisory bodies when there is a suspicion of unreasonable or unjustified use of force? Every democratic state faces the need to find a balance between two theoretical and normative models: on the one hand the “Due Process Model” which aims to protect the rights of suspected, accused or convicted individuals and, on the other, the “Crime Control Model”, mainly based on an efficient and economical judicial system, and the need to provide society with a sense of security on a daily basis. The research assumption is that police officers as a whole, and specifically members of the Border Police who handle disturbances of peace as well as legal violations, alongside the necessity to combat security threats, tend to hold closer to the “Crime Control Model” and less to the “Due Process Model”, which the police officers find hinders their ability to effectively manage crime. In order to examine this assumption, an attitude questionnaire was constructed, examining the degree of legitimacy for the use of excessive force on the one hand, and supervision of the use of excessive force in police work on the other. The questionnaire was distributed to 140 Border Guard officers and ordinary police officers serving in the Southern Command of the Israeli Police. In addition, 60 questionnaires were distributed to ordinary civilians. Our findings show a high level of support among police officers and civilians alike for the use of excessive force in civil policing operations. The highest level of legitimacy towards the use of excessive force was found, as expected, among the Border Guard officers. The research concludes that the attitudes of the police officers, especially those of the Border Guard who are fighting a constant battle against security threats alongside the war against crime, greatly restrict the power of external and internal supervision mechanisms to effectively supervise the use of unreasonable force during civilian policing.
The Role of the Press in the Unilateral Disengagement Plan of Israel from Gaza Strip  [PDF]
Yaron Katz
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2013.31002

The Disengagement Plan is the name assigned to the plan enacted in the summer of 2005 to evict all Israelis and military bases from Gaza Strip and four isolated settlements in northern Samaria and to withdraw unilaterally. The plan was controversial, yet it won the support of the majority of the cabinet and the Knesset members, as well as the support in Israel and the world. The eviction process of the residents was accompanied by vast activities of the army and police forces in fear of violent acts by the evacuees, and by extensive media coverage. It was one of the longest and most covered events in the history of Israel and intensified the conflict between security needs and free press. In democracies such as Israel, which faces security needs on permanent basis, the media are expected to carry social responsibility duties of not publishing information that is sensitive to national security. It is commonly agreed that although Israel is a democratic state where freedom of speech and freedom of the press are cornerstones of its existence, in all that relates to security things should be different, and security issues are above the need of the media to publish and the need of the public to know. The position of the press in the disengagement and the way they dealt with this dilemma are analyzed in this study based on covering reports in the main Israeli daily newspaper—Yediot Achronot—during the period from January 1, 2005 through August 24, 2005, when the evacuation of all Israelis from Gaza Strip was completed.

Technology and Innovation in Israel: Advancing Competitive Position in a Global Environment  [PDF]
Yaron Katz
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2018.84033
Abstract: The question that stands at the heart of this research is, based on the Israeli experience: how technology is changing society? Such question is extremely important, as countries seek to advance in their competitive position in a global environment. The assumption made here is that competition between countries has accelerated with the development of technology, as the distinc-tion between developed and developing countries became apparent. That brings up the question: what is needed to build comparative advantages and be successful in a global world? Israel is a remarkable example of global competition, as high-tech development has been based on the performance of the country in the field of innovation. However, as the research demon-strates, the contradiction in Israel’s status is evident in the supremacy of the country in technological advancement and the weaknesses in so-cial-economic development. This proves the dilemma countries face in ad-vancing technology: while it is obvious that both technology and globaliza-tion have a great and positive impact around the world, they have been nega-tive for the socio-economic gaps and inequality. This is where the role of developing countries is apparent in establishing a successful high-tech in-dustry and a growing global economy, despite social disadvantages.
Validation of the Charleston psychiatric satisfaction scale—Hebrew version adapted for use in Israel  [PDF]
Alexander M. Ponizovsky, David Elisha, Razek Khawaled, Ira Radomislensky
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.22019
Abstract: Objective: This study presents the psychometric properties of the Charleston Psychiatric Outpatient Satisfaction Scale—Hebrew Version adapted for use in Israel. Methods: Two subversions were constructed: one for adult clients—Mental Health Client Satisfaction Scale—Hebrew (MHCSS-H) and one for parents (or other caregivers) accompanying children with mental health problems—Mental Health Parent Satisfaction Scale—Hebrew (MHPSS-H). The scales were administered to representative samples of 453 adult outpatients with severe mental disorders and 255 parents, respectively. Results: Internal consistency was excellent for both scales (Cronbach’s alpha coefficients 0.94 and 0.88, respectively). For both subvertsions, there were moderate to strong correlations between satisfaction with five service domains (Availability/Accessibility, Quality of care, Explanation/ Participation, Staff’s attitude, and Facilities conditions) and anchor items “Overall quality of the care provided” and “Would you recommend this clinic to a friend or relative should they need treatment?”) scores. Clients with more time in treatment were more satisfied with all the service domains, except for the staff's attitude domain. Conclusions: The results suggest that both Hebrew subversions are appropriate for routine satisfaction surveys in mental health outpatient settings and for research purposes in Israel.
Hyphenated Identity Development of Arab and Jewish Teachers: Within the Conflict Ridden Multicultural Setting of the University of Haifa  [PDF]
Rachel Hertz Lazarowitz, Abeer Farah, Moran Yosef- Meitav
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326160
Abstract: The theory of “Hyphenated identity” (HI) argues that people living in complex political-social contexts construct HIs with various sub-identities. The University of Haifa (UH) is a meeting space and experience for people of different nationalities and religious backgrounds. Thus they live “on the hyphen”, between identities found in contrast vs. harmony. This study was initiated and carried out as part of a Cooperative Participatory Action Research (CPAR). Nineteen graduate students, all teachers in a multicultural society ridden with conflicts, were interviewed about their life stories, their family background and the development of their identity as shaping their personal and professional lives. At the end of the interview, they were asked to draw an Identity Drawing Map (IDM) and add an explanatory text. Finding indicated that many women transferred their complex identity in order to create a balanced and a challenge in their life; they became leaders in their communities and empower other women to follow them toward self actualization. The study’s contribution is in broadening the understanding of concepts of HI development, by analyzing the similarities and differences within each ethnic/national group. Since identity development influences significantly people life, we can learn about these processes. Using the creative methods of drawing identity fabricated a deeper understanding and emotional presentation of the person.
Israel’s Social Media Elections  [PDF]
Yaron Katz
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2018.84032
Abstract: Social media has become a major tool to disseminate information, opinions and news, used for political campaigning and offering new opportunities for individuals and politicians alike. The Prime Minister of Israel, Binyamin Netanyahu, has been particularly aggressive in his use of social media to gather political support. Considered as the great survivor of Israeli politics, that flourished in the atmosphere of social protests and emerged from the old political mechanism, he derives his power from social networks, using them as alternative media to the traditional networks. As the research demon-strates, social media has determined dramatic changes in the balance of po-litical power, and although the main channels of information remain the tra-ditional media, the exposure of the public to social media is accelerating with a wide unmediated public debate. With social media, newcomers in Israeli politics could also create a presence and rise to become renowned politi-cians. It is interesting however, that the veteran politician—Netanyahu—was able to take advantage of disseminate information over the Internet and be-come active on his Facebook page, including engaging Internet users in direct dialogue. The paper examines the use of social media by newcomers and veteran politicians in the last two elections and analyzes the way Netanyahu used social media to accomplish his political goals, including high involve-ment of the public and motivating record-high voter turnout to maintain his own reelection and the domination of the Israeli Parliament by the Likud Party.
Technology, Society and the Digital Gap  [PDF]
Yaron Katz
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2019.91005
Abstract: What is more influential—technology or society? While this issue has been in constant dilemma for many researches, the situation in Israel is clear: Israel is a leading high-tech country and technology is leading society in all aspects. In terms of technology, Israel is a technologically advanced market economy. It is known as a “Start-up Nation”, which means that its economic growth is stupendous and leading in high-tech worldwide. On the other hand, Israel is among the most impoverished of the OECD member countries, with a high rate of poverty and a social and digital big gap between its rich and poor. The main issue that this research investigates is the social gap of a developed country and a leading start-up nation which falls behind many countries in major social and policy categories. As the research demonstrates, Israel is a prime example of the domination of technology over society. The country’s development is a product of the digital revolution which situates Israel as a developed country in terms of technology, however also has been negative for the socio-economic inequality, to what this research defines as the digital gap.
Breve historia del pueblo de Israel, ayer y hoy, puede haber una esperanza de paz en ese territorio?
María Hernández-Sampelayo
Historia Actual Online , 2009,
Abstract: La historia del pueblo de Israel, desde la Antigüedad, iniciaría, a partir de su asentamiento en el territorio de Palestina, uno los conflictos más prolongados del siglo XX, aún no resuelto. El objetivo de este artículo es hacer un recorrido por la historia del pueblo de Israel, y profundizar en el análisis del conflicto árabe-israelí, analizando la viabilidad de un proceso de paz hasta hoy no concretado.
A sociologia israelense e a crise do consenso sionista
Domingues, José Maurício;
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-69092010000200009
Abstract: the israeli society has faced a crisis of the zionism that has been the basis of their constitution for decades. a consistent sociological production dating back to the work of shmuel eisenstadt has unfolded in parallel with such crisis, having interacted with it in a critical way. this is expressed in discussions about the character of the jewish colonization of palestine in the works of kimmerling and shafir, as well as in the debate over the "ethnic democracy" proposed by smooha. these discussions are herein reviewed in connection with analyses of the israeli society today. the relationship with the palestinians appears in both all the literature and this article, since it largely overdetermines all the social processes that have characterized the israeli society.
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