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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 481 matches for " Isao Kamae "
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A Warning Index Used in Prescreening for Alzheimer’s Disease, Based on Self-Reported Cognitive Deficits and Vascular Risk Factors for Dementia in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Toshioki Matsuzawa,Toshihiro Takata,Koichi Yokono,Hiroo Ueda,Kensuke Moriwaki,Isao Kamae,Katsuya Urakami,Takashi Sakurai
International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/124215
Abstract: Background/Aims. Diabetes might increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). For detecting dementia, it is typical to obtain informants’ perceptions of cognitive deficits, but such interviews are usually difficult in routine care. We aimed to develop a model for predicting mild to moderate AD using a self-reported questionnaire and by evaluating vascular risk factors for dementia in elderly subjects with diabetes. Methods. We recruited 286 diabetic and 155 nondiabetic elderly subjects. There were 25 patients with AD and 261 cognitively normal individuals versus 30 with AD and 125 normal subjects, respectively. Each participant answered subjective questions on memory deficits and daily functioning. Information on vascular risk factors was obtained from clinical charts, and multivariate logistic regression was used to develop a model for predicting AD. Results. The predicted probabilities used in screening for AD in diabetic subjects constituted age, education, lower diastolic blood pressure, subjective complaints of memory dysfunction noticeable by others, and impaired medication, shopping, and travel outside a familiar locality. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed a satisfactory discrimination for AD specific for diabetic elderly subjects, with 95.2% sensitivity and 90.6% specificity. Conclusion. This is the first useful index that can prescreen for AD in elderly subjects with diabetes. 1. Introduction The link between vascular risk factors and dementia has recently attracted considerable attention and the impact of diabetes on a significant correlation of such factors with dementia is consistent [1–4]. However, mild cognitive dysfunction remains undetected and untreated in a considerable proportion of patients, resulting in several difficulties when treating diabetic elderly individuals. In screening for dementia-related disorders, handy cognitive tests such as the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the Hasegawa dementia scale-revised (HDS-R) are available. We have proposed screening indices for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using some weighted subscales of the MMSE and HDS-R, which are useful to discriminate early AD in diabetic elderly subjects [5, 6]. However, even such brief neuropsychological tests impose burdens on practitioners in ambulatory care, because the number of patients with diabetes is increasing markedly in Japan [7]. A more simple and succinct prescreening procedure is thus needed to identify individuals with high risks for cognitive decline among diabetic elderly subjects. In the diagnostic workup for patients with
Multicountry Burden of Chronic Hepatitis C Viral Infection among Those Aware of Their Diagnosis: A Patient Survey
Marco daCosta DiBonaventura, Yong Yuan, Benedicte Lescrauwaet, Gilbert L’Italien, Gordon G. Liu, Isao Kamae, Josephine A. Mauskopf
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086070
Abstract: Background The World Health Organization has called for global and regional assessments of the burden of hepatitis C (HCV) along with country-specific patient profiles to better inform healthcare policy. The present investigated the characteristics and burden of patients reporting a diagnosis of HCV infection in the US, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK, urban China, and Japan using a consistent methodology of patient-reported surveys. Methods The 2010 5EU (N = 57,805), 2009 US (N = 75,000), 2008/2009 Japan (N = 37,683), and 2009/2010 urban China (N = 33,261) waves of the National Health and Wellness Survey were used as the data source. Within each country, patients with a self-reported diagnosis of HCV were compared with those who did not report a diagnosis of HCV on sociodemographics, health behaviors, comorbidities, and health outcomes (e.g., Short Form-12v2). The effect of HCV was examined using regression analysis applying sampling weights. Results The prevalence of HCV ranged from 0.26% (China) to 1.42% (Italy). Patients in Japan and Italy (61.60 and 61.02 years, respectively) were the oldest, while patients in the US were the most likely to be obese (39.31%) and have concomitant anxiety (38.43%) and depression (46.05%) compared with other countries. Pooling countries and adjusting for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and comorbidities, HCV was associated with significantly lower physical component summary scores (b = ?2.51) and health utilities (b = ?0.04) and greater overall work impairment (b = 8.79), physician visits (b = 2.91), and emergency department visits (b = 0.30) (all p<.05). The effects on health status were strongest in the US and UK while the effects on healthcare resource use were strongest in Japan. Conclusions HCV was associated with a significant humanistic and economic burden. These results suggest that the manifestation of the HCV burden, and the profile of the patients themselves, varied dramatically by country. Successful disease management should be cognizant of region-specific unmet needs.
Expression of p27(Kip1), a Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Is Inversely Associated with Potential Carcinogenic Risk in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Individuals Relative to Lean Normal Controls  [PDF]
Isao Eto
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2014.43013

Introduction: The consensus report issued jointly by the American Diabetes Association and the American Cancer Society stated that “type 2 diabetes and cancer share many risk factors, but potential biologic links between the two diseases are incompletely understood”. Interestingly, however, a recent report suggested that the expression of p27(Kip1), a cell cycle repressor protein, in the rodent liver was inversely associated with potential carcinogenic risk in the genetic rodent models of diabetic obesity. p27 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that, when down-regulated, allows the progression of the cell cycle from G1 to S phase, thereby increasing the risk of developing cancer. Objective: The objective of the study described below was to extend the results of the recent report on the expression of p27 in the livers of obese, diabetic rodents to the humans and investigate whether the expression of p27 in the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) might also be inversely associated with potential carcinogenic risk in obese type 2 diabetic individuals relative to the lean normal controls. Methods: Western immunoblot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p27 and the two most relevant upstream molecular signaling pathways of the expression of p27, namely 4E-BP1 and MNK1, in human PBMCs obtained from obese type 2 diabetic individuals relative to the lean normal controls. Results: First, expression of p27 in human PBMCs was significantly down-regulated in obese type 2 diabetic individuals relative to the lean normal controls. Secondly, expression of p27 in human PBMCs was also significantly down-regulated in obese type 2 diabetic African Americans relative even to the obese type 2 diabetic Caucasian Americans. Conclusions: Expression of p27 in human PBMCs was inversely associated with potential carcinogenic risk in obese type 2 diabetes relative to the lean normal controls.

Expression of p27Kip1, A Cell Cycle Repressor Protein with Dual Roles for Both Cancer Prevention and Promotion, Is Regulated Primarily at the Level of Unusual p27Kip1 mRNA—A Short Concept Proposal  [PDF]
Isao Eto
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2018.83016
Abstract: The p27Kip1 is a cell cycle repressor protein that regulates primarily the cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase and hence the DNA replication is in the S phase and cell division in the M phase. Expression of p27Kip1 protein has dual roles for both cancer prevention and promotion. For example, numerous nutritional and chemopreventive anti-cancer agents specifically increase the expression of p27Kip1 protein without directly affecting the expression of any other cell cycle regulatory proteins. On the other hand, pro-cancer agents (like glucose, insulin and other growth factors frequently seen in obesity and/or diabetes) specifically decrease the expression of p27Kip1 protein without directly affecting the expression of any other cell cycle regulatory proteins. Unlike expression of any other cell cycle regulatory proteins, expression of p27Kip1 protein is very unusual. The mRNA of p27Kip1 has a very long and unusual 5’-untranslated region (from -575 to -1 in human). It appears that the 5’-untranslated region of p27Kip1 mRNA forms two alternative secondary structures. One increases the expression of p27Kip1 protein when anti-cancer agents are added and another decrease the expression of p27K1p1 when pro-cancer agents are added. For this short concept proposal, Dr. Albert Einstein’s “visualized thought experiments (German: Gedanken experiment) were used as a fundamental tool for understanding how either anti- or pro-cancer agents bring the primary structure of the 5’-untranslated region of p27Kip1 mRNA into two alternative secondary structures, thereby either increasing or decreasing, respectively, the translation initiation of p27Kip1 protein.
Numeration systems as dynamical systems -- introduction
Teturo Kamae
Mathematics , 2006, DOI: 10.1214/074921706000000220
Abstract: A numeration system originally implies a digitization of real numbers, but in this paper it rather implies a compactification of real numbers as a result of the digitization. By definition, a numeration system with $G$, where $G$ is a nontrivial closed multiplicative subgroup of ${\mathbb{R}}_+$, is a nontrivial compact metrizable space $\Omega$ admitting a continuous $(\lambda\omega+t)$-action of $(\lambda,t)\in G\times{\mathbb{R}}$ to $\omega\in\Omega$, such that the $(\omega+t)$-action is strictly ergodic with the unique invariant probability measure $\mu_{\Omega}$, which is the unique $G$-invariant probability measure attaining the topological entropy $|\log\lambda|$ of the transformation $\omega\mapsto\lambda\omega$ for any $\lambda\ne 1$. We construct a class of numeration systems coming from weighted substitutions, which contains those coming from substitutions or $\beta$-expansions with algebraic $\beta$. It also contains those with $G={\mathbb{R}}_+$. We obtained an exact formula for the $\zeta$-function of the numeration systems coming from weighted substitutions and studied the properties. We found a lot of applications of the numeration systems to the $\beta$-expansions, Fractal geometry or the deterministic self-similar processes which are seen in \cite{K4}. This paper is based on \cite{K3} changing the way of presentation. The complete version of this paper is in \cite{K4}.
Prevention of type 2 diabetes in a primary healthcare setting: Three-year results of lifestyle intervention in Japanese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance
Naoki Sakane, Juichi Sato, Kazuyo Tsushita, Satoru Tsujii, Kazuhiko Kotani, Kokoro Tsuzaki, Makoto Tominaga, Shoji Kawazu, Yuzo Sato, Takeshi Usui, Isao Kamae, Toshihide Yoshida, Yutaka Kiyohara, Shigeaki Sato, Hideshi Kuzuya, Japan Diabetes Prevention Program (JDPP) Research Group the for
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-40
Abstract: Through health checkups in communities and workplaces, 304 middle-aged IGT subjects with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 24.5 kg/m2 were recruited and randomized to the intervention group or control group. The lifestyle intervention was carried out for 3 years by public health nurses using the curriculum and educational materials provided by the study group.After 1 year, the intervention had significantly improved body weight (-1.5 ± 0.7 vs. -0.7 ± 2.5 kg in the control; p = 0.023) and daily non-exercise leisure time energy expenditure (25 ± 113 vs. -3 ± 98 kcal; p = 0.045). Insulin sensitivity assessed by the Matsuda index was improved by the intervention during the 3 years. The 3-year cumulative incidence tended to be lower in the intervention group (14.8% vs.8.2%, log-rank test: p = 0.097). In a sub-analysis for the subjects with a BMI > 22.5 kg/m2, a significant reduction in the cumulative incidence was found (p = 0.027).The present lifestyle intervention program using existing healthcare resources is beneficial in preventing diabetes in Japanese with IGT. This has important implications for primary healthcare-based diabetes prevention.UMIN000003136The incidence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Japan [1]. Although Japanese have a lower prevalence of obesity than Westerners, a tendency to gain weight due to lifestyle changes coupled with an aging of the population seems to be closely related to the rapid expansion of the diabetic population [1]. There is thus an urgent need for effective public health strategies to combat this situation in Japan.There is now substantial evidence that the development of type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed in high-risk subjects through lifestyle intervention [2-8]. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS) [4] and the US Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) [5] have clearly shown that, in obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), lifestyle changes associated with a 5-7% decrease in body weight resulted in a 58
Synthesis and Solvatochromic Behavior of Hexaphenylbenzenes and Indeno[1,2-b]fluorene Derivatives with Hydroxy Groups  [PDF]
Isao Yamaguchi, Kenta Tsuchie
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2012.23027
Abstract: Hexakis(4-methoxyphenyl)benzene (HPB-OMe(1)) and hexakis(2,6-dimethyl-4-methoxyphenyl)benzene (HPB-OMe(2)) were synthesized via organometallic complex catalysis. The treatment of HPB-OMe(1) with FeCl3 caused cyclodehydrogenation at two positions to yield an oligophenylene with an indeno[1,2-b]fluorene structure (IF-OMe). Deprotection of the methoxy groups of these compounds was conducted by treatment with BBr3. Deprotonation of the OH groups of HPB-OH(1), HPB-OH(2), and IF-OH through treatment with NaH caused a bathochromic shift in the absorption and photoluminescence (PL) peaks. The bathochromic shift of the deprotonated species increased with the donor number (DN) of the solvents. These observations can be explained as the consequence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) from the ONa groups to the inner benzene rings.
Synthesis, Characterization and Charge-Discharge Properties of Layer-Structure Lithium Zinc Borate, LiZnBO3  [PDF]
Isao Tsuyumoto, Akihiro Kihara
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.44030

Layer-Structure lithium zinc borate, LiZnBO3, is prepared by a solid state reaction of LiOH·H2O, ZnO, and H3BO3 at 1000°C for 10 h. Highly preferred orientation and a layer-structure are observed in the powder XRD patterns and the SEM images, respectively. The Rietveld analysis indicates a monoclinic unit cell with space group C2/c, and the lattice parameters are refined as a = 8.827 ?, b = 5.078 ?, c = 6.171 ?, and β = 118.86°. LiZnBO3 shows the capacity of 17 mAh/g between 1.3 V and 4.3 V (vs. Li/Li+) larger than ZnO.

Enhancement of HIFU Effect by Simultaneous Short Course Degarelix for Early Stage Prostate Cancer: A Pilot Study  [PDF]
Teiichiro Aoyagi, Isao Kuroda
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2016.63010
Abstract: Objective: To obtain complete prostatic cell death in the treatment of early stage prostate cancer by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, we use Degarelix (GnRH antagonist) twice simultaneously. Patients and Methods: The first Degarelix subcutaneous injection was made two weeks before HIFU therapy, and second Degarelix was applied two weeks after the HIFU therapy. No additional maintenance Degarelix was used. To confirm the apoptosis induced by Degarelix, specimens obtained by transurethral resection simultaneously on HIFU were stained with caspase 3 and TUNEL. PSA was monitored every three months after this combination therapy as long as two years. These PSA values were compared with those who previously treated with HIFU without Degarelix. Results: Nine T1cN0M0 prostate cancer patients were enrolled to “HIFU + Degarelix” therapy. Pre treatment mean PSA level was 6.11 ± 1.83 ng/ml (SD), and PSA 3 months after the treatment was 0.02 ± 0.02. These low PSA levels continued thereafter (0.16 ng/ml ± 0.19 at 24 months). The mean pretreatment PSA level of the 34 patients underwent HIFU without Degarelix was 11.07 ± 13.9 ng/ml, 3 months post HIFU was 1.68 ± 3.04, (2.80 ± 3.97 at 24 months). Caspase 3 and TUNEL were positive on the glandular cells in TUR specimens of “HIFU + Degarelix” patients, suggesting Degarelix induced apoptosis. Conclusion: Although the number of our patients was small, the results of “Short course Degarelix + HIFU” would be promising for better long-term outcome than HIFU mono-therapy.
Mid-Pliocene global climate simulation with MRI-CGCM2.3: set-up and initial results of PlioMIP Experiments 1 and 2
Y. Kamae,H. Ueda
Geoscientific Model Development (GMD) & Discussions (GMDD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/gmd-5-793-2012
Abstract: The mid-Pliocene (3.3 to 3.0 million yr ago), a globally warm period before the Quaternary, is recently attracting attention as a new target for paleoclimate modelling and data-model synthesis. This paper reports set-ups and results of experiments proposed in Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) using a global climate model, MRI-CGCM2.3. We conducted pre-industrial and mid-Pliocene runs by using the coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) and its atmospheric component (AGCM) for the PlioMIP Experiments 2 and 1, respectively. In addition, we conducted two types of integrations in AOGCM simulation, with and without flux adjustments on sea surface. General characteristics of differences in the simulated mid-Pliocene climate relative to the pre-industrial in the three integrations are compared. In addition, patterns of predicted mid-Pliocene biomes resulting from the three climate simulations are compared in this study. Generally, difference of simulated surface climate between AGCM and AOGCM is larger than that between the two AOGCM runs, with and without flux adjustments. The simulated climate shows different pattern between AGCM and AOGCM particularly over low latitude oceans, subtropical land regions and high latitude oceans. The AOGCM simulations do not reproduce wetter environment in the subtropics relative to the present-day, which is suggested by terrestrial proxy data. The differences between the two types of AOGCM runs are small over the land, but evident over the ocean particularly in the North Atlantic and polar regions.
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