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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14163 matches for " Isah Muhammad Ahmad "
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Behaviour of People Living with HIV Aids in Northeastern Nigeria  [PDF]
Mohammed Tahiru Bolori, Mary Olubisi Amodu, Isah Muhammad Ahmad, Haruna Yusuph, Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103944
Introduction: Human Behavior is important as one of the determinants of transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The risk of getting infected with HIV as well as subsequent developments and reactions after the infection has a direct bearing on human behavior. Positive behavior change of HIV infection prevention is less than the level of awareness and knowledge pertaining the disease among PLWHA. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on PLWHA attending clinic at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data by systematic random sampling technique. The objective of the research was to understand more about the behaviour of PLWHA and make recommendations on how to improve the behavioral change communications among PLWHA to curb the menace of HIV infection. Results: The people living with HIV/AIDs may be knowledgeable and having high awareness on HIV/AIDS but may not necessarily reflect into good behaviors concerning, taking the right steps to prevent menaces of HIV infection. The behavior of PLWHA was found to have gaps that portend danger in regard to making life more miserable to victims and portend more risk of getting others infected. The gaps are mainly related to psychological issues (e.g., lack of enjoyment or with condom use), beliefs, stigma and financial issues. Conclusion: Counselling should be used to inculcate technic, good morals, attitude and practices among PLWHA to prevent them from deliberate or spontaneous attempts to infect others with the virus. Safer and satisfying sex can be promoted through expanding knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS and removing stigma among the general populace through community health education as well as through schools’ curricula. Empowerment of the youths in public and private settings discourages exchanging sexual intercourse for financial gains.
Health Risk Assessment from Exposure to Heavy Metals in Surface and Groundwater Resources within Barkin Ladi, North Central Nigeria  [PDF]
Joyce Ayuba Ramadan, Ahmad Isah Haruna
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.72001
Abstract: Concentration of heavy metals from surface and groundwater within the communities were determined in order to assess the health risks linked to the use/consumption of same. Furthermore, the cancer risk for adults in surface water revealed medium to high cancer risk for arsenic (As); low to medium cancer risk for cadmium (Cd) and very high cancer risk for chromium (Cr). In addition, the cancer risk for adults in groundwater is as follows: high cancer risk for As; low cancer risk for Cd and very high cancer risk for Cr while that for children is very high cancer risk for As and Cr and then low cancer risk for Cd. The findings from this research confirm that the inhabitants within the study area are at direct health risk (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic) due to the alternate use of surface and groundwater without any form of treatment.
Malnutrition among Children under 5 Does Not Correlate with Higher Socio Economic Status of Parents in Rural Communities  [PDF]
Ahmad Isah Muhammad, Isa Yunusa, Mohammed Tahiru Bolori, Lawrence Uchenna Sunday Ezeanyika, Hamisu Abdullahi Walla, Zulaihat Mukhtar Gidado
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103906
Introduction: Understanding the socioeconomic characteristics of families with undernourished children is very critical to providing solution to the menace especially in rural communities where there is complexity in the relationship between economic activities, education and parental care and the undernutrition. Objectives: The study is aimed at understanding the nutritional status of children under the age of 5 years in relation to the socio economic status of the family so as to determine causes of vulnerability. Methods: Hospital based cross sectional study was carried among 505 children under the age of 5 years, taking measurement of their Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) using standard techniques and also taking records of their families’ socioeconomic data using structured questionnaire. Results: Record of nutritional status of the children sampled shows that undernourished children were 345 (68.3%) and the nourished were 160 (31.7%). The number of times each child felt sick within the last one year shows that out of the total 505 children, 140 (27.72%) fell sick once, 155 (30.69%) fall sick twice in the previous year, 65 (12.87%) felt sick three times, 55 (10.89%) felt sick four times due to either malaria, undernutrition or other factors. Children born to farmers, constituting 51.5% of the sampled children have as high as 69.2% prevalence of undernutrition, compared to those born to beggars (0%). The highest prevalence is recorded in children born to petty traders (80%), followed by government workers and commercial motorcyclist with 75% each. Prevalence of 100% was recorded in the sampled children whose father attains tertiary level of education, followed by those who attain only secondary level of education (68%). Conclusion: There is high prevalence of undernutrition among children in rural communities which is often underestimated for the fact that rural dwellers of Kano are mostly farmers and that they are adequate to provide for their children. Frequency of illnesses among the children of rural dwellers is associated with the nutritional status of the children. Malnutrition is not always dependent on the occupation and educational status of the parents or whether child parents are alive or not. Children of farmers and learned persons are also very susceptible to malnutrition in the rural communities of Kano. Nutritional education and programs should as well target all families with varied socioeconomic status, including farmers, petty traders and those with high educational status without making assumptions that they are less susceptible to malnutrition.
Anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery: Case series and brief review  [PDF]
Muhammad Dilawar, Zaheer Ahmad
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2012.21013
Abstract: Anomalous origin of left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary anomaly. In this study, we present all the ALCAPA patients which were admitted at our institution during April 2007-December 2010. Retrospective review of these patients regarding their clinical presentation and the use of diagnostic modalities will be presented in this series. There were total of five patients, three male and 2 female, with age range of 2 - 12 months. The most common symptoms at presentation were tachypnea (4/5) and poor feeding with irritability (3/5). Electrocardiogram was abnormal in 2/5 cases and chest X ray revealed cardiome-galy with pulmonary congestion in 4/5 patients. Echocardiogram showed mitral valve regurgitation in 5/5 cases (3 with moderate and 2 with mild to moderate), Left ventricular dilatation/dysfunction in 4/5 patients, echogenic left ventricular papillary muscles in 4/5 patients and prominent right coronary with strong suspecision of ALCAPA in 4/5 patients. Coronary angiography was performed in 4/5 cases to confirm the diagnosis. We conclude that by thorough clinical assessment along with ECG and CXR, the diagnosis of ALCAPA can be strongly suspected. Echocardiogram can almost always make the diagnosis of ALCAPA and coronary angiography can confirm the diagnosis in rare atypical cases.
Safety and efficacy of amplatzer duct occluder for percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defects with tunnel shape aneurysm: Medium term follow up  [PDF]
Muhammad Dilawar, Zaheer Ahmad
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.32035

Objectives: Different devices including Amplatzer duct occluder has been used for percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defects. This study reports our medium term follow up of perimembranous and muscular ventricular septal defects with tunnel shape aneurysm closure using the Amplatzer duct occluder. Materials and Methods: From May 2006-December 2012, we used Amplatzer duct occluder in seven ventricular septal defect patients here atHamad General Hospital,Doha,Qatar. There were 4 male and 3 female patients with an age range of 4 - 32 years with a median of 8 years and weight range of 16 - 63 kgwith a median of33 kg. In this group, 6 were perimembranous and 1 muscular and all these ventricular septal defects had a tunnel shape aneurysm. Transesophageal echocardiographic diameter ranged from 4 - 8 mmand Qp/Qs was 1 - 1.6. Angiographically, the diameter on the left ventricular side measured 3.5 - 10 mmand on right ventricular side 2.4 - 5 mm. 8/6 mmAmplatzer duct occluder was used to close these ventricular septal defects. Results: There were no major complications and immediately after the procedure there was no residual shunt in any of these patients and all the patients remained in normal sinus rhythm. One patient was expatriate and no further follow up was available. The rest of the 6 patients had 1 - 80 months with a median of 54 months follow up and none of these patients had any residual shunt and all remained in normal sinus rhythm. Two patients developed trivial aortic valve regurgitation immediate post procedure, one remained unchanged and the 2nd has progressed to mild at this latest follow up. Conclusion: Amplatzer duct occluder is feasible and a safe device for percutaneous closure of selective tunnel shape aneurysmal perimembranous and muscular ventricular septal defects.

Effect of Energy Market Globalization over Power Sector of GCC Region: A Short Review  [PDF]
Armaghan Ahmad, Muhammad Babar
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2013.43032
Abstract: Globalization of energy market in GCC countries is deepening not only through free-flowing international trade but also through foreign investment, market-driven domestic economies and industrialization. GCC nations are transforming their energy industry and market around the world which is promising their economic efficiency and technology development. Nevertheless, this open energy market across the world has raised a question about energy security and power demand. This energy market globalization has pushed the GCC Nations to pay attention to the control of supply and demand of power. Interconnection of power network between the GCC Region is optimistic pace to secure the future anticipated power fallouts. And also installation of Renewable Energy projects will support GCC to accommodate their increasing power demand. This paper discusses about how the energy market globalization has effect the power supply and demand of GCC nations, their concerns and recent progress towards its resolution. 
Numerical Solution of Blasius Equation through Neural Networks Algorithm  [PDF]
Iftikhar Ahmad, Muhammad Bilal
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2014.43019

In this paper mathematical techniques have been used for the solution of Blasius differential equation. The method uses optimized artificial neural networks approximation with Sequential Quadratic Programming algorithm and hybrid AST-INP techniques. Numerical treatment of this problem reported in the literature is based on Shooting and Finite Differences Method, while our mathematical approach is very simple. Numerical testing showed that solutions obtained by using the proposed methods are better in accuracy than those reported in literature. Statistical analysis provided the convergence of the proposed model.

The Professional Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: To share the experience of tissue expansion. Study Design: Descriptive. Duration: June 2005 to May 2009. Setting:Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Rawalpindi. Inclusion Criteria: Patients of all ages and sex undergoing tissue expansion. Exclusion Criteria:Patients having acute injuries, burns and defects which were closed primarily. Patients undergoing primarily flap surgery. Materials andMethods: The shape and size of the tissue expander was chosen according to the deformity and expected wound geometry. All the surgerieswere performed under general anaesthesia. Drains were removed after 48 – 72 hours. Slightly filled (20 – 50ml) tissue expanders were used.Tissue expansion was started after 7 – 12 days and were filled twice weekly. Results: Total 19 patients (12 males & 7 females) were included inthe study. The mean age in males was 32.9 years (range 13 – 44 years) and 21.1 years (range 19 – 36 years) in females. The differentdeformities included contractures 31.6%, Postburn scar 21.1%, hypertrophic scar 15.8% followed by congenital naevus 10.5%. The fill volumeranged from a 140 ml to 480 ml over a period of 8–13 weeks. No major complication was noted. Slight loss of distal flap occurred in 2 patients. Noinfection/rupture of tissue expander was seen. Conclusion: Tissue expansion is a safe technique for reconstruction of defects, with an obviousadvantage of the availability of the adjacent skin.
Muhammad Ahmad
The Professional Medical Journal , 2001,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To study the different types of errors made in discharge slips and analyzing variousreasons for that. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Surgical unit II, Bahawal VictoriaHospital, Bahawalpur. DURATION OF STUDY: From 01-02-2000 to 30-11-2000.METHODS: 566 discharge slips were presented in follow-up clinic and were analyzed. Anyerror in discharge slip was identified and noted and separate record of each month was kept. RESULTS:119(21%) discharge slips out of 566 contained 156 errors. These comprised 45(29%) general errors,15(10%) diagnostic errors, 33(21%) operation data errors, 19(12%) cases of insufficient clinical text,27(17%) missed complication and 17(11%) concerning follow-up. CONCLUSION: Given that all thedischarge slips are currently prepared by junior staff, this study suggests that verification of the accuracy ofclinical data should be made essential and user-friendly computers should be used for data collection andaudit.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2002,
Abstract: O BJECTIVE: To study whether the different positions of appendix can affect its susceptibility to acute inflammation.DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Surgical Unit III, Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur. PERIOD:01.02.2000 to 30.10.2000. SUBJECTS & METHODS: 281 cases of acute appendicitis admitted and operated werestudied. Position and condition of appendix were noted including inflamed/highly inflamed and normal. The incidenceof hematuria/pyuria was also noted. RESULTS: The retrocaecal position was the commonest (79%) followed by pelvicposition (14%). Out of 223 cases of retrocaecal appendix, only (7%) were normal whereas (21%) normal appendices werefound in other than retrocaecal position. Advanced appendicitis was more common in retrocaecal position (22%, p-value<0.001) as compared to other positions (10%). There was a considerable overlap between the findings of advancedappendicitis & hematuria/pyuria especially in retrocaecal position(13%). CONCLUSION: The different positions ofappendix present as the variety of signs & symptoms in acute appendicitis. Retrocaecal appendix, in addition to makingthe diagnosis of acute appendicitis more difficult, is also more prone to infection, perforation and gangrene.
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