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Profiles of HIV-Affected Households in Ghana  [PDF]
Amos Laar, Daniel Fiaveh, Matilda Laar, Sandra Boatemaa, James Abugri, Richard Amenyah, Kyeremeh Atuahene, Andrew Anthony Adjei, Isabella Quakyi, Angela El-Adas
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.615235
Abstract: Background: To contribute to a fuller appreciation of Ghana’s HIV epidemic, this paper presents various profiles of the Ghanaian HIV-affected household. To comprehensively tackle the HIV epidemic in Ghana, the profiles would provide stakeholders with ready information for policy formulation. Methods: We used data from a nationally representative survey that measured livelihood activities, household asset wealth, household composition, health, and nutrition variables of 1745 HIV-affected households. From these emerged various profiles. Results: About 50% of the households are headed by females. Households headed by men have an average size of three members, compared to two for female-headed households. There are far more AIDS widows than widowers. The annual death rate among the surveyed households was about 1000 per 100,000-households. Relatively more deaths occurred in male-headed households. Two-thirds of the households were asset poor. Various coping strategies were instituted by the households in reaction to threat of food insecurity. The national prevalence of chronic energy deficiency is 16%. Conclusions: Our data show that age of household head, hosting of a chronically ill member, and average size of household differed by sex of household head. The annual death rate of 1000 per 100,000 households is very high.
Characterization of malaria transmission by vector populations for improved interventions during the dry season in the Kpone-on-Sea area of coastal Ghana
Tchouassi David P,Quakyi Isabella A,Addison Ebenezer A,Bosompem Kwabena M
Parasites & Vectors , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-212
Abstract: Background Malaria is a major public health problem in Ghana. We present a site-specific entomological study of malaria vectors and transmission indices as part of an effort to develop a site for the testing of improved control strategies including possible vaccine trials. Methods Pyrethrum spray catches (PSC), and indoor and outdoor human landing collections of adult female anopheline mosquitoes were carried out over a six-month period (November 2005 - April 2006) at Kpone-on-Sea, a fishing village in southern Ghana. These were morphologically identified to species level and sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex further characterized by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum mosquito infectivity and host blood meal sources. Parity rate was examined based on dilatation of ovarian tracheoles following dissection. Results Of the 1233 Anopheles mosquitoes collected, An. gambiae s.l. was predominant (99.5%), followed by An. funestus (0.4%) and An. pharoensis (0.1%). All An. gambiae s.l. examined (480) were identified as An. gambiae s.s. with a majority of M molecular form (98.2%) and only 1.8% S form with no record of M/S hybrid. A significantly higher proportion of anophelines were observed outdoors relative to indoors (χ2 = 159.34, df = 1, p < 0.0000). Only An. gambiae M molecular form contributed to transmission with a high degree of anthropophily, parity rate and an estimated entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of 62.1 infective bites/person/year. The Majority of the infective bites occurred outdoors after 09.00 pm reaching peaks between 12.00-01.00 am and 03.00-04.00 am. Conclusion Anopheles gambiae M molecular form is responsible for maintaining the status quo of malaria in the surveyed site during the study period. The findings provide a baseline for evidence-based planning and implementation of improved malaria interventions. The plasticity observed in biting patterns especially the combined outdoor and early biting behavior of the vector may undermine the success of insecticide-based strategies using insecticide treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spray (IRS). As such, novel or improved vector interventions should be informed by the local malaria epidemiology data as it relates to vector behavior.
The Antibody Response of Pregnant Cameroonian Women to VAR2CSA ID1-ID2a, a Small Recombinant Protein Containing the CSA-Binding Site
Anna Babakhanyan, Rose G. F. Leke, Ali Salanti, Naveen Bobbili, Philomina Gwanmesia, Robert J. I. Leke, Isabella A. Quakyi, John J. Chen, Diane Wallace Taylor
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088173
Abstract: In pregnant women, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes expressing the VAR2CSA antigen bind to chondroitin sulfate A in the placenta causing placental malaria. The binding site of VAR2CSA is present in the ID1-ID2a region. This study sought to determine if pregnant Cameroonian women naturally acquire antibodies to ID1-ID2a and if antibodies to ID1-ID2a correlate with absence of placental malaria at delivery. Antibody levels to full-length VAR2CSA and ID1-ID2a were measured in plasma samples from 745 pregnant Cameroonian women, 144 Cameroonian men, and 66 US subjects. IgM levels and IgG avidity to ID1-ID2a were also determined. As expected, antibodies to ID1-ID2a were absent in US controls. Although pregnant Cameroonian women developed increasing levels of antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA during pregnancy, no increase in either IgM or IgG to ID1-ID2a was observed. Surprisingly, no differences in antibody levels to ID1-ID2a were detected between Cameroonian men and pregnant women. For example, in rural settings only 8–9% of males had antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA, but 90–96% had antibodies to ID1-ID2a. In addition, no significant difference in the avidity of IgG to ID1-ID2a was found between pregnant women and Cameroonian men, and no correlation between antibody levels at delivery and absence of placental malaria was found. Thus, the response to ID1-ID2a was not pregnancy specific, but predominantly against cross-reactivity epitopes, which may have been induced by other PfEMP1 antigens, malarial antigens, or microbes. Currently, ID1-ID2a is a leading vaccine candidate, since it binds to the CSA with the same affinity as the full-length molecule and elicits binding-inhibitory antibodies in animals. Further studies are needed to determine if the presence of naturally acquired cross-reactive antibodies in women living in malaria endemic countries will alter the response to ID1-ID2a following vaccination with ID1-ID2a.
Trust between Boundary-Spanning Agents: The Role of Relational Competencies  [PDF]
Isabella Hatak, Dietmar Roessl
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.33001

Against the background of principal-agent and transaction-cost theoretical considerations, this study addresses the question whether relational competencies relate to trust within cooperative relationships, taking into account also situational and personal factors. In its conclusion, the study presents an experimentally confirmed model (n = 282) that shows the strong causal relationship between relational competencies and trust allowing boundary-spanning agents to exert influence on the development and maintenance of complex cooperative relationships characterized by long-term objectives.

Note-Taking Assisted with Computers—A Practical Method to Build a Connection between Chinese Pinyin & Characters  [PDF]
Wu Yang, Isabella Kam
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2018.74026
Abstract: Chinese beginners often find themselves in struggling for learning complicated Chinese characters (also known as Hanzi), after the acquisition of Chinese pronunciation (Chinese Phonetic Alphabets, also called Pinyin). Actual experience of living and studying in China exposes a fact that people on daily basis are not using Pinyin to assist pronunciation. All means of social media only have Hanzi for people to recognize. The connection between Pinyin and Hanzi is a difficult part to accomplish for Chinese language beginners. Based on several years of teaching experience of Chinese language to speakers of other languages and working memory drill in English-Chinese interpretation, the author explores a practical way to build this connection between Pinyin and Hanzi by taking-notes using computers and mobile phones in class. In alliance with fun language teaching methodologies, i.e., the Audiolingual method, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) to reassure the memory rehearsal drill in association with imaginary situations. The research experiment results show that this method can stimulate beginners’ learning enthusiasm and arouse their confidence and initiative in the long-run Chinese language learning process and it can facilitate Chinese beginners to better communicate in the fast-changing social media.
On Laminar Flow in Microfabricated Channels with Partial Semi-Circular Profiles  [PDF]
William J. Federspiel, Isabella Valenti
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2012.21003
Abstract: Soft and hard micromachining techniques used to develop microfluidic devices can yield microchannels of many different cross-sectional profiles. For semi-circular microchannels, these techniques often produce only partialsemicircular (PSC) cross-sections. This study investigated fully developed laminar flow in PSC microchannels as a function of a circularity index, κ, defined as the ratio of the radiuses along the curved and flat surfaces of the PSC profile. A correction factor, K, to the Hagen-Poiseuille relation was determined and was well-fitted by the power-law relationship K=5.299/κ2.56. Actual correction factors were compared to estimates based on several hydraulic models for flow in microchannels of arbitrary cross-section, as well as the half-ellipsoid cross-section. The level of wall shear stress, when normalized by the pressure drop per unit length, increased approximately linearly with increase in the circularity index, κ.
Accommodation Status and Gender Based Analysis at Public Universities in Tanzania: Case of Ardhi University  [PDF]
Isabella Wilfred Mtani, Said Nuhu
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.74003
Abstract: Higher education institutions in Tanzania like many other developing countries are facing various challenges. Among other things, the increase of enrollments, does not comply with quantity of accommodations in public universities. Both male and female students have been impacted by inadequate accommodation. Thus, this study is aiming at examining which sex is highly vulnerable to the scarcity of in-campus accommodation. Mixed methods were employed in this study with a combination of survey questionnaire and in-depth interview. Questionnaire was the mainly employed instrument used to collect data from the selected students. Apart from that, an in-depth interview was employed to collect data from the key informants including staff from the Dean of Student’s Office (DoSO) coupled with measurement and observations to determine rooms quality and sizes. The findings indicate that there is a yearly increase in student’s enrollment: and cumbersome loans and registration procedures which, aggravated students’ accommodation problems. Moreover, the houses rented by off-campus students have no reflection to the student’s requirements and financial capability. Overall, the study disclosed that female students are highly affected by the inadequacy of on-campus accommodation as compared to their male counterparts. This situation potentially makes them vulnerable to health and social related problems, which affects in a great extent their academic performance. The paper recommends that the government through its public universities should involve private investors in constructing more halls and hostels to accommodate the increasing demand of student hostels and to intervene in the search for proper off-campus accommodation for students.
Identidade e alteridade entre os Ese Ejja da Bolívia setentrional
Lepri, Isabella;
Mana , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-93132005000200005
Abstract: this paper explores the construction of self-identity in relation to others in a bolivian amazon society, through the lens of the ambivalent attitudes of the ese ejja towards non-indigenous bolivians. i argue that the ese ejja's ambivalence reflects the mutable, contextual and relational nature of identity, understood as self-image. the relationship described here is characterised by self-debasement on the part of the ese ejja. this is partly attributable to historical, economic and political factors, but is also consistent with the indigenous strategy of avoiding direct confrontation with dangerous entities. moreover, it is suggested that this stance towards powerful foreigners can also be read in terms of indigenous socio-cosmological notions of otherness and of other-becoming and of the ese ejja's own sense of being in history
Claudia: la revista de la mujer moderna en la Argentina de los a?os sesenta (1957-1973)
Mora (Buenos Aires) , 2011,
Abstract: claudia is remembered as "the" modern woman's magazine of the 1960s. this memory highlights the impact that this venture of the publishing house abril had in 1957 in terms of renovating journalism and the female image. but this memory also obliterates the contradictions in the editorial line with respect to the ideal woman portrayed and the changes it underwent over time. through a historical reconstruction and bearing these ideas in mind, this article aims to examine the double renovation that claudia brought, to journalism and to the image of women. in that sense, it seeks to shed light on the transformations in the editorial line as a result of the interactions that involved the interests of the editorial staff and contributors of claudia, the dynamics of the magazine market and the experiences of women, in particular middle class women with cultural aspirations, in 1960s argentina.
Die Ethnografie eines Online-Rollenspiels: Die Bedeutung virtueller und realer Wettbewerbe in der Konstruktion des Feldes Ethnography of Online Role-Playing Games: The Role of Virtual and Real Contest in the Construction of the Field Etnografía de los juegos de rol en línea: El rol de lo virtual y lo real en la construcción del campo
Simona Isabella
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2007,
Abstract: Der Aufsatz führt Leser(innen) in die Welt der Multi-User-Domains (MUD, http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi_User_Dungeon). Sein Hauptziel besteht in der Analyse von mit computervermittelter Kommunikation verbundenen gesellschaftlichen Fragen, insbesondere im Zusammenhang mit den Konzept des Spiels, den Prozessen von Identit ts- und Personalit tskonstruktion online als Kulmination des "Kommens und Gehens" zwischen Spiel und Wirklichkeit, mit dem Konzept der Gemeinschaft, das sich in den verschiedenen Rahmen entfaltet – dem virtuellen und dem realen –, sowie schlie lich mit dem Konzept von virtueller und physischer "Erfahrung". In der empirischen Untersuchung, die sich dem Vergleich eines interaktiven italienischen und eines kanadischen MUD widmete, wurde erstens auf die virtuelle Ethnografie zurückgegriffen, und zweitens wurden mit Spieler(inne)n Interviews zur Validierung der Forschungsergebnisse geführt. Bei der Erforschung der MUDs traf ich auf einige grundlegende Fragen: Ist das Online-Spiel die einzig zu betrachtende Ebene? Welchen Einfluss üben andere Kommunikationsmedien aus (ICQ, virtuelle Foren, E-Mails, SMS), die von den Muddern zus tzlich eingesetzt werden, um ihre Spiele zu organisieren und sich untereinander kennenzulernen? Ist es erforderlich/sinnvoll, dass Forschende den sozialen Kontext der Spieler(innen) vollkommen au er Acht lassen und sich vollkommen auf die Online-Beziehungen konzentrieren? Das sind einige der Fragen, die dieser Aufsatz zu beantworten versucht, indem ich methodische Probleme der Erforschung des Internet diskutiere, sei es als (Kommunikations-) Medium, sei es als Untersuchungsrahmen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703367 This paper invites the reader into the world of MUDs (Multi User Domains). Its underlying goal is to analyse certain social challenges associated with computer mediated communication (CMC), specifically with respect to the concept of the game; the process involved in the construction of the online Self or personality, potentially perceived as the final culmination of the frequent "comings and goings" between the game and reality; the concept of community that develops between two different frames—the virtual world and the real one; and, finally, the concept of both online and offline "experience". The empirical research, focusing on a comparison between an Italian and a Canadian MUDs interactive game, used online ethnography as the basic premise of study and biographical interviews with the players themselves, as further validation of the phenomenon. A fundamental question faces a researcher when conducting th
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