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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 861 matches for " Isabella Monne "
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H5N1 Virus Evolution in Europe—An Updated Overview
Giovanni Cattoli,Alice Fusaro,Isabella Monne,Ilaria Capua
Viruses , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/v1031351
Abstract: Since its emergence in South East Asia in 2003, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) A/H5N1 has reportedly caused outbreaks in poultry and/or wild birds in 62 countries, of which 24 were in Europe. Interestingly, out of the many genetic clades circulating in Asia, the westward spread of HPAI A/H5N1 to Central Asia, the Middle East, Europe and Africa was dominated by one single clade, namely clade 2.2. In this paper, we review and update through phylogenetic and gene migrational analysis the information concerning the evolution and the molecular epidemiology of HPAI A/H5N1 on the European continent.
Environmental Correlates of H5N2 Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Outbreak Heterogeneity in Domestic Poultry in Italy
Lapo Mughini-Gras, Lebana Bonfanti, Paolo Mulatti, Isabella Monne, Vittorio Guberti, Paolo Cordioli, Stefano Marangon
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086788
Abstract: Italy has experienced recurrent incursions of H5N2 avian influenza (AI) viruses in different geographical areas and varying sectors of the domestic poultry industry. Considering outbreak heterogeneity rather than treating all outbreaks of low pathogenicity AI (LPAI) viruses equally is important given their interactions with the environment and potential to spread, evolve and increase pathogenicity. This study aims at identifying potential environmental drivers of H5N2 LPAI outbreak occurrence in time, space and poultry populations. Thirty-four environmental variables were tested for association with the characteristics of 27 H5N2 LPAI outbreaks (i.e. time, place, flock type, number and species of birds affected) occurred among domestic poultry flocks in Italy in 2010–2012. This was done by applying a recently proposed analytical approach based on a combined non-metric multidimensional scaling, clustering and regression analysis. Results indicated that the pattern of (dis)similarities among the outbreaks entailed an underlying structure that may be the outcome of large-scale, environmental interactions in ecological dimension. Increased densities of poultry breeders, and increased land coverage by industrial, commercial and transport units were associated with increased heterogeneity in outbreak characteristics. In areas with high breeder densities and with many infrastructures, outbreaks affected mainly industrial turkey/layer flocks. Outbreaks affecting ornamental, commercial and rural multi-species flocks occurred mainly in lowly infrastructured areas of northern Italy. Outbreaks affecting rural layer flocks occurred mainly in areas with low breeder densities in south-central Italy. In savannah-like environments, outbreaks affected mainly commercial flocks of galliformes. Suggestive evidence that ecological ordination makes sense genetically was also provided, as virus strains showing high genetic similarity clustered into ecologically similar outbreaks. Findings were informed by hypotheses about how ecological interactions among poultry populations, viruses and their environments can be related to the observed patterns of H5N2 LPAI occurrence. This may prove useful in enhancing future interventions by developing site-specific, ecologically-grounded strategies.
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H5N1 in Africa: A Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Isolates
Giovanni Cattoli, Isabella Monne, Alice Fusaro, Tony M. Joannis, Lami H. Lombin, Mona M. Aly, Abdel S. Arafa, Katharine M. Sturm-Ramirez, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Joseph A. Awuni, Komla B. Batawui, Kodzo A. Awoume, Gilbert L. Aplogan, Adama Sow, Andrè C. Ngangnou, Iman M. El Nasri Hamza, Djibo Gamatié, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Joseph M. Domenech, Ilaria Capua
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004842
Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/H5N1 was first officially reported in Africa in early 2006. Since the first outbreak in Nigeria, this virus spread rapidly to other African countries. From its emergence to early 2008, 11 African countries experienced A/H5N1 outbreaks in poultry and human cases were also reported in three of these countries. At present, little is known of the epidemiology and molecular evolution of A/H5N1 viruses in Africa. We have generated 494 full gene sequences from 67 African isolates and applied molecular analysis tools to a total of 1,152 A/H5N1 sequences obtained from viruses isolated in Africa, Europe and the Middle East between 2006 and early 2008. Detailed phylogenetic analyses of the 8 gene viral segments confirmed that 3 distinct sublineages were introduced, which have persisted and spread across the continent over this 2-year period. Additionally, our molecular epidemiological studies highlighted the association between genetic clustering and area of origin in a majority of cases. Molecular signatures unique to strains isolated in selected areas also gave us a clearer picture of the spread of A/H5N1 viruses across the continent. Mutations described as typical of human influenza viruses in the genes coding for internal proteins or associated with host adaptation and increased resistance to antiviral drugs have also been detected in the genes coding for transmembrane proteins. These findings raise concern for the possible human health risk presented by viruses with these genetic properties and highlight the need for increased efforts to monitor the evolution of A/H5N1 viruses across the African continent. They further stress how imperative it is to implement sustainable control strategies to improve animal and public health at a global level.
Replication and Transmission of H9N2 Influenza Viruses in Ferrets: Evaluation of Pandemic Potential
Hongquan Wan, Erin M. Sorrell, Haichen Song, Md Jaber Hossain, Gloria Ramirez-Nieto, Isabella Monne, James Stevens, Giovanni Cattoli, Ilaria Capua, Li-Mei Chen, Ruben O. Donis, Julia Busch, James C. Paulson, Christy Brockwell, Richard Webby, Jorge Blanco, Mohammad Q. Al-Natour, Daniel R. Perez
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002923
Abstract: H9N2 avian influenza A viruses are endemic in poultry of many Eurasian countries and have caused repeated human infections in Asia since 1998. To evaluate the potential threat of H9N2 viruses to humans, we investigated the replication and transmission efficiency of H9N2 viruses in the ferret model. Five wild-type (WT) H9N2 viruses, isolated from different avian species from 1988 through 2003, were tested in vivo and found to replicate in ferrets. However these viruses achieved mild peak viral titers in nasal washes when compared to those observed with a human H3N2 virus. Two of these H9N2 viruses transmitted to direct contact ferrets, however no aerosol transmission was detected in the virus displaying the most efficient direct contact transmission. A leucine (Leu) residue at amino acid position 226 in the hemagglutinin (HA) receptor-binding site (RBS), responsible for human virus-like receptor specificity, was found to be important for the transmission of the H9N2 viruses in ferrets. In addition, an H9N2 avian-human reassortant virus, which contains the surface glycoprotein genes from an H9N2 virus and the six internal genes of a human H3N2 virus, showed enhanced replication and efficient transmission to direct contacts. Although no aerosol transmission was observed, the virus replicated in multiple respiratory tissues and induced clinical signs similar to those observed with the parental human H3N2 virus. Our results suggest that the establishment and prevalence of H9N2 viruses in poultry pose a significant threat for humans.
Evidence of Infection by H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Healthy Wild Waterfowl
Nicolas Gaidet equal contributor ,Giovanni Cattoli equal contributor,Saliha Hammoumi,Scott H. Newman,Ward Hagemeijer,John Y. Takekawa,Julien Cappelle,Tim Dodman,Tony Joannis,Patricia Gil,Isabella Monne,Alice Fusaro,Ilaria Capua,Shiiwuua Manu,Pierfrancesco Micheloni,Ulf Ottosson,John H. Mshelbwala,Juan Lubroth,Joseph Domenech,Fran?ois Monicat
PLOS Pathogens , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000127
Abstract: The potential existence of a wild bird reservoir for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been recently questioned by the spread and the persisting circulation of H5N1 HPAI viruses, responsible for concurrent outbreaks in migratory and domestic birds over Asia, Europe, and Africa. During a large-scale surveillance programme over Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, we detected avian influenza viruses of H5N2 subtype with a highly pathogenic (HP) viral genotype in healthy birds of two wild waterfowl species sampled in Nigeria. We monitored the survival and regional movements of one of the infected birds through satellite telemetry, providing a rare evidence of a non-lethal natural infection by an HP viral genotype in wild birds. Phylogenetic analysis of the H5N2 viruses revealed close genetic relationships with H5 viruses of low pathogenicity circulating in Eurasian wild and domestic ducks. In addition, genetic analysis did not reveal known gallinaceous poultry adaptive mutations, suggesting that the emergence of HP strains could have taken place in either wild or domestic ducks or in non-gallinaceous species. The presence of coexisting but genetically distinguishable avian influenza viruses with an HP viral genotype in two cohabiting species of wild waterfowl, with evidence of non-lethal infection at least in one species and without evidence of prior extensive circulation of the virus in domestic poultry, suggest that some strains with a potential high pathogenicity for poultry could be maintained in a community of wild waterfowl.
Trust between Boundary-Spanning Agents: The Role of Relational Competencies  [PDF]
Isabella Hatak, Dietmar Roessl
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.33001
Abstract:

Against the background of principal-agent and transaction-cost theoretical considerations, this study addresses the question whether relational competencies relate to trust within cooperative relationships, taking into account also situational and personal factors. In its conclusion, the study presents an experimentally confirmed model (n = 282) that shows the strong causal relationship between relational competencies and trust allowing boundary-spanning agents to exert influence on the development and maintenance of complex cooperative relationships characterized by long-term objectives.

Note-Taking Assisted with Computers—A Practical Method to Build a Connection between Chinese Pinyin & Characters  [PDF]
Wu Yang, Isabella Kam
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2018.74026
Abstract: Chinese beginners often find themselves in struggling for learning complicated Chinese characters (also known as Hanzi), after the acquisition of Chinese pronunciation (Chinese Phonetic Alphabets, also called Pinyin). Actual experience of living and studying in China exposes a fact that people on daily basis are not using Pinyin to assist pronunciation. All means of social media only have Hanzi for people to recognize. The connection between Pinyin and Hanzi is a difficult part to accomplish for Chinese language beginners. Based on several years of teaching experience of Chinese language to speakers of other languages and working memory drill in English-Chinese interpretation, the author explores a practical way to build this connection between Pinyin and Hanzi by taking-notes using computers and mobile phones in class. In alliance with fun language teaching methodologies, i.e., the Audiolingual method, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) to reassure the memory rehearsal drill in association with imaginary situations. The research experiment results show that this method can stimulate beginners’ learning enthusiasm and arouse their confidence and initiative in the long-run Chinese language learning process and it can facilitate Chinese beginners to better communicate in the fast-changing social media.
On Laminar Flow in Microfabricated Channels with Partial Semi-Circular Profiles  [PDF]
William J. Federspiel, Isabella Valenti
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2012.21003
Abstract: Soft and hard micromachining techniques used to develop microfluidic devices can yield microchannels of many different cross-sectional profiles. For semi-circular microchannels, these techniques often produce only partialsemicircular (PSC) cross-sections. This study investigated fully developed laminar flow in PSC microchannels as a function of a circularity index, κ, defined as the ratio of the radiuses along the curved and flat surfaces of the PSC profile. A correction factor, K, to the Hagen-Poiseuille relation was determined and was well-fitted by the power-law relationship K=5.299/κ2.56. Actual correction factors were compared to estimates based on several hydraulic models for flow in microchannels of arbitrary cross-section, as well as the half-ellipsoid cross-section. The level of wall shear stress, when normalized by the pressure drop per unit length, increased approximately linearly with increase in the circularity index, κ.
Accommodation Status and Gender Based Analysis at Public Universities in Tanzania: Case of Ardhi University  [PDF]
Isabella Wilfred Mtani, Said Nuhu
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.74003
Abstract: Higher education institutions in Tanzania like many other developing countries are facing various challenges. Among other things, the increase of enrollments, does not comply with quantity of accommodations in public universities. Both male and female students have been impacted by inadequate accommodation. Thus, this study is aiming at examining which sex is highly vulnerable to the scarcity of in-campus accommodation. Mixed methods were employed in this study with a combination of survey questionnaire and in-depth interview. Questionnaire was the mainly employed instrument used to collect data from the selected students. Apart from that, an in-depth interview was employed to collect data from the key informants including staff from the Dean of Student’s Office (DoSO) coupled with measurement and observations to determine rooms quality and sizes. The findings indicate that there is a yearly increase in student’s enrollment: and cumbersome loans and registration procedures which, aggravated students’ accommodation problems. Moreover, the houses rented by off-campus students have no reflection to the student’s requirements and financial capability. Overall, the study disclosed that female students are highly affected by the inadequacy of on-campus accommodation as compared to their male counterparts. This situation potentially makes them vulnerable to health and social related problems, which affects in a great extent their academic performance. The paper recommends that the government through its public universities should involve private investors in constructing more halls and hostels to accommodate the increasing demand of student hostels and to intervene in the search for proper off-campus accommodation for students.
Identidade e alteridade entre os Ese Ejja da Bolívia setentrional
Lepri, Isabella;
Mana , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-93132005000200005
Abstract: this paper explores the construction of self-identity in relation to others in a bolivian amazon society, through the lens of the ambivalent attitudes of the ese ejja towards non-indigenous bolivians. i argue that the ese ejja's ambivalence reflects the mutable, contextual and relational nature of identity, understood as self-image. the relationship described here is characterised by self-debasement on the part of the ese ejja. this is partly attributable to historical, economic and political factors, but is also consistent with the indigenous strategy of avoiding direct confrontation with dangerous entities. moreover, it is suggested that this stance towards powerful foreigners can also be read in terms of indigenous socio-cosmological notions of otherness and of other-becoming and of the ese ejja's own sense of being in history
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