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Profile of Patients with Stroke and Disorders of the Vocal Tract  [PDF]
Lina Claudia Pereira Lopes, Daniel Almeida da Costa, Marcus Vinicius de Mello Pinto, Aline Ronis Sampaio, Lamara Laguardia Valente Rocha, Isabela Nardoni Bernardes, Rafael Batista Ferreira, Elias Sobreira Sathler, R. R. B. T. Vieira
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2017.71008
Abstract: Background: The present work aims to characterize the profile of patients with stroke treat at a hospital located in the Region of the Mata of Minas Gerais, Brazil, considering the findings of the clinical vocal tract, kind of stroke, age and gender of such patients. Methodology: To obtain data, the clinical profile of 133 patients with a clinical or tomography diagnosis of stroke was analyzed, and the results were presented in percentage. For quantitative data average and analysis the tests were done with associations that held χ2 test, and for significance it was considered p < 0.05. Results: From the total of patients, 63 were women, accounting for 47.4% and the other 52.6% were males. Clinically, they were characterized with the highest percentage for ischemic stroke (89.4%) compared to the hemorrhagic type (10.6%). Most of them were referred for computed tomography (86.5%) and remained hospitalized for an average of 6.496 ± 7.372 days. Similar percentages were obtained in the analysis of the population in question, when considering if they had (54.1%) or not (49.6%) any damage in their speech, language skills or swallowing. There were different types of disabilities in patients with stroke. Men with an average age of 69.8 ± 13.9 presents mostly ischemic stroke, and the majority of patients with stroke had hemiplegia and abnormalities of the vocal tract, dysphasia, and aphasia. While older patients had an ischemic stroke and were presented with left hemiplegia, the younger ones suffered from hemorrhagic strokes that caused a disability characterized as right hemiplegic. Conclusion: Our results show important conclusions regarding the clinical evolution of the vocal tract of patients who suffered strokes during the period of the analysis, being useful for better comprehension of how the vocal tract from these patients evolved according to the kind of stroke, sex and age also allowing a contraposition with other future statistics periods available in literature. It can also be pointed out the difficulties in diagnosing the stroke and the concern with the immediate care, but not with its continuance or with its multidisciplinary approach, giving an evident life risk through dysphasia and the increase of permanent damage when there isn’t an appropriate work done with the patients.
Main Microbial Genres and Its Profile of Resistance and Sensitivity to Antimicrobials Used in the Treatment of Oncological Patients with Febril Neutropenia  [PDF]
Hélvecio Cardoso Póvoa, Richard Raphael Borges Tavares Vieira, Elias Sobreira Sathler, Isabela Nardoni Bernardes, Rafael Batista Ferreira, Mário Henrique Couto Lima, Thiago Sande Miguel, Nayrton Kalys Cruz dos Anjos, Lamara Laguardia Valente Rocha, Daniel Almeida da Costa
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.61005
Abstract: Objective: To determine the main microbial genotypes and their antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility profile commonly used in the treatment of oncologic patients with febrile neutropenia, carried out through the review of the clinical histories of the patients’ medical records at the Hospital do Cancer de Muriaé-Fundacao Cristiano Varella. Methods: Quantitative research, determined the susceptibility profile of microorganisms in patients with febrile neutropenia from April 2007 to April 2008 by reviewing clinical histories of patients’ medical records at the referred hospital. Results: Of the total of 8 patients evaluated with Gram-negative microorganisms, 50% of the patients were female and 50% were male. Of the 18 patients evaluated with Gram-positive microorganisms 66% were female and 34% male. Gram-positive bacteria are prevalent and cause around 60% of documented bacteremias, although Gram-negative bacteria are more common in febrile neutropenic patientes. Conclusion: Exaggerated use of antimicrobials in hospitalized patients leads to the suppression of drug-sensitive microorganisms from the intestinal flora and promotes the persistence and growth of resistant bacteria. The antibiotic should be used in a curative manner with other therapeutic measures with the determined bacterial infection.
Study of Effects of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), in Scar-Induced Skin Wounds in Rats Wistar: The New Clinical Perspective for Ulcers  [PDF]
Marcus Vinicius de Mello Pinto, Aline Ronis Sampaio, Reggiani Vilela Gon?alves, Carlos Eduardo Tenório da Veiga, Lamara Laguardia Valente Rocha, Daniel Almeida da Costa, Lina Claudia Pereira Lopes, Rafael Batista Ferreira, Pamela Mara Cainelli Valim, Kellen Regina Rodrigues Chaveiro, Elias Sobreira Sathler, Richard Raphael Borges Tavares Vieira, Isabela Nardoni Bernardes
Modern Research in Inflammation (MRI) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/mri.2017.61001
Abstract: Photodynamic therapy today is becoming an important role in the healing of lacerated tissues, since it has therapeutic resources capable of accelerating this process. One treatment option is the clinical phototherapy, and Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is being widely used. This study aims to evaluate the effect of PDT on the healing of skin wounds in rats. We used a sample of 39 male rats Wistar divided into three groups, a control, a PDT-treated green and red with the last PDT. After 24 hours before the surgical incisions, PDT was used in both groups for 6 minutes and was evaluated in histological level, the inflammatory reaction and the repair process. The results showed that the granulation tissue was more developed in the irradiated group than in the control group and the amount of chronic inflammatory cells (monocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells) predominated with green phototherapy. The epithelialization in the wound margins and scarring with better quality occurred with red PDT (640 nm), which the higher deposition was of collagen. However, phototherapy not collimated of 640 nm (red) resulted in better anti-inflammatory effects. Given these answers with phototherapy not collimated green (525 nm) and red (640 nm), we conclude that the use of these wavelengths is possible with benefits, mainly with red LED.
Imunopatologia da hanseníase: a complexidade dos mecanismos da resposta imune do hospedeiro ao Mycobacterium leprae
Goulart, Isabela Maria Bernardes;Penna, Gerson Oliveira;Cunha, Gabriel;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822002000400014
Abstract: leprosy, whose etiologic agent mycobacterium ieprae, is an illness of ample clinical and immunopathological spectrum. its clinical manifestations are correlated with distinct immunologic forms, varying from a vigorous immune response mediated by cells to m. ieprae, with th1 standard in the tuberculoid polar region, to an absence of specific cellular response to antigens of m. ieprae in the lepromatous polar region, with predominance of th2 response and exacerbation of humoral response. it is probable that different polymorphic genes determine susceptibility to m. ieprae. additional studies are necessary to clarify the complex interactions between cytokines and the role of the phenotypic diversity of cells network that contribute to the host defense. the comprehension of such mechanisms will provide new insights for the identification of agonists and/or antagonists for pro- or anti-inflammatory effects, and also will indicate possible situations for its appropriate use in immunologic and/or immunotherapeutic interventions.
Imunopatologia da hanseníase: a complexidade dos mecanismos da resposta imune do hospedeiro ao Mycobacterium leprae
Goulart Isabela Maria Bernardes,Penna Gerson Oliveira,Cunha Gabriel
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2002,
Abstract: A hanseníase, cujo agente etiológico Mycobacterium Ieprae, é doen a de amplo espectro clínico e imunopatológico. Suas apresenta es clínicas est o correlacionadas com padr es imunológicos distintos, variando de uma vigorosa resposta imune mediada por células ao M. Ieprae, com padr o Th1 no pólo tuberculóide, a uma ausência de resposta celular específica aos antígenos do M. Ieprae no pólo lepromatoso, com predomínio da resposta Th2 e exacerba o da resposta humoral. é provável que a suscetibilidade ao M. Ieprae é determinada por diferentes genes polimórficos. Estudos adicionais s o necessários para esclarecer os mecanismos das intera es complexas entre as citocinas e a participa o da diversidade fenotípica da rede de células que contribuem para a defesa do hospedeiro. O entendimento de tais mecanismos poderá oferecer novas abordagens para identificar agonistas e/ou antagonistas para os efeitos pró- ou anti-inflamatórios e em quais circunstancias sua utiliza o seria apropriada para interven es imunológicas e/ou imunoterapeuticas.
Interdisciplinaridade e complexidade no curso de gradua??o em Administra??o
Amboni, Nério;Andrade, Rui Otávio Bernardes de;Lima, Arnaldo José de;Muller, Isabela Regina Fornari;
Cadernos EBAPE.BR , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1679-39512012000200005
Abstract: the general aim of this paper is to discuss the bases, operationalization methodology, and results of the program for horizontal and vertical integration of syllabi implemented in the 2nd semester of 2009 in the undergraduate management course from a state public university at southern brazil. the concepts and characteristics of the traditional and emergent paradigms of science and their impacts on education are discussed, besides, the issue of interdisciplinarity, and its respective modalities and classifications, is considered in the theoretical framework. the research is exploratory, descriptive, and interpretive. data and information were collected through bibliographical survey, participative observation, and documental analysis. they were organized and systematized according to indicatives from teaching plannings (disciplines goals, syllabi, teaching-learning methodologies, evaluation systems, and bibliographical references). data and information were described and interpreted according to the authors' experience in the management undergraduate course, supplemented by the theoretical and practical grounding discussed by scholars from this field. the program was operationalized through systemic and complementary integration during sensitization meetings, pedagogical meetings, and socialization meetings, as well as feedback sessions. the program revealed that: a) managers, professors, and students must be focused and committed to understand and realize the consequences of the cartesian paradigm, as well as the relevance of the complexity paradigm foundations, in the implementation of programs concerning interdisciplinarity; b) interdisciplinarity identifies and designates a possible mediation between knowledge and skills, ensuring a creative interaction with differences, as noticed in the identification of shared themes and concepts; and c) the interdisciplinary practice represents a pedagogical possibility to instigate, investigate, and intervene, as observed d
Unveiling healthy carriers and subclinical infections among household contacts of leprosy patients who play potential roles in the disease chain of transmission
Araújo, Sérgio;Lobato, Janaína;Reis, érica de Melo;Souza, Dulcinéa Oliveira Bernardes;Gon?alves, Maria Aparecida;Costa, Adeilson Vieira;Goulart, Luiz Ricardo;Goulart, Isabela Maria Bernardes;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762012000900010
Abstract: leprosy transmission still occurs despite the availability of highly effective treatment. the next step towards successfully eliminating leprosy is interrupting the chain of transmission of the aetiological agent, mycobacterium leprae. in this investigation, we provide evidence that household contacts (hhcs) of leprosy patients might not only have subclinical infections, but may also be actively involved in bacilli transmission. we studied 444 patients and 1,352 contacts using anti-phenolic glycolipid-i (pgl-i) serology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) to test for m. leprae dna in nasal swabs. we classified the patients according to the clinical form of their disease and the contacts according to the characteristics of their index case. overall, 63.3% and 34.2% of patients tested positive by elisa and pcr, respectively. for hhcs, 13.3% had a positive elisa test result and 4.7% had a positive pcr test result. the presence of circulating anti-pgl-i among healthy contacts (with or without a positive pcr test result from nasal swabs) was considered to indicate a subclinical infection. dna detected in nasal swabs also indicates the presence of bacilli at the site of transmission and bacterial entrance. we suggest that the concomitant use of both assays may allow us to detect subclinical infection in hhcs and to identify possible bacilli carriers who may transmit and disseminate disease in endemic regions. chemoprophylaxis of these contacts is suggested.
Active Teaching Approach: Teaching and Learning Methods on Historical and Cultural Theory  [PDF]
Maria Eliza Mattosinho Bernardes
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.510086
Abstract: This study is a theoretical synthesis of researches performed in the scholar context aiming to present an active teaching and learning proposal that sees teaching approach as the dialectical unity in concepts of internalization movement. The actions are organized by the professor and carried out by the subjects who are actively involved in the educational process. The field research is based on the assumptions of dialectical and historical materialism, historical and cultural psychology and the action-research. In the theoretical field, the study shows the theoretical and methodological principles of the pedagogical activity and characterizes the triggering situation, the ways of action in the study community, and the means of learning control as the structure of the activity in common existing in the teaching-learning relationship. The results show the teaching organization based on school reality which aims, through the processes of questioning reality and mediating historically elaborated knowledge, to lead the subjects involved in pedagogical activities to the comprehension of what is real and to the development of human potential.

Social Vulnerability Index: A Methodological Proposal for Application in the Cities of Barra do Garcas—MT, Pontal Do Araguaia—MT and Aragarcas—GO, Brazil  [PDF]
Greyce Bernardes de Mello Rezende
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.412004
Abstract: The concept of vulnerability is intrinsically attached to the risks that can affect the balance of life in countless ways. Thus, this paper aimed to determine the sites that present social vulnerability levels in the urban context of the municipalities of Barra do Garcas—MT, Pontal do Araguaia—MT and Aragarcas—GO. The social vulnerability index was calculated using a set of 23 indicators, arranged in 05 subjects: Conditions of breadwinners, family conditions, housing conditions, urban infrastructure and economic dimension. Then these results were inserted in the geographic information system through ARCGIS program for spatial representation of social vulnerability levels. It was found that the social vulnerability indices found for the study area were very low, low and medium, which did not show a very critical situation. In Pontal do Araguaia—MT was found low level of vulnerability. In contrast, in Barra do Garcas—MT, the sectors with greater social vulnerability are located in the western part of the city, which includes neighborhoods with lower family income, and lack of infrastructure. Regarding the Aragarcas city was noted that the socio-territorial segregation of vulnerability is more evident, and the sectors with medium index of vulnerability are located more on the outskirts of the city. The proposed methodology was effective and the socio-economic dimension has been well addressed, which is a diagnostic path that can be used to search for a more efficient urban development through specific public policies, which in turn will increase the resilience of the population involved.
Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Myocastor coypus in a protected Italian wetland
Simona Nardoni, Maria C Angelici, Linda Mugnaini, Francesca Mancianti
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-240
Abstract: The occurrence of the infection was evaluated using a modified agglutination test (MAT) in 74 adult coypus from a naturalized population living in a wetland of Central Italy. Nested PCR (n-PCR) assay was carried out on some of them. Positive T. gondii MAT results were found in 44 animals (59·4%), 30 males (68·2%) and 14 females (31·8%). Antibody titers were ranging from 20 to 40960, while 12 out of 23 (52·2%), examined animals, 8 males (66·7%) and 4 females (33·3%), resulted positive to n-PCR. All n-PCR positive animals were seropositive, showing antibody titers ranging from 640 to 40960.Our results indicate that examined animals are heavily parasitized with Toxoplasma. This suggests that coypus could be a reservoir of this parasite, because they can be eaten both by scavenger animals and by humans, and that these animals would play a role in maintaining the cycle of T. gondii.Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect all warm-blooded animals and is the aetiological agent of toxoplasmosis, a major zoonosis. T. gondii has adapted to an oocyst-oral cycle in herbivores [1,2]. Felines are known to act as definitive hosts and they can shed millions of oocysts in the environment. After a period they sporulate and become highly infectious and resistant to environmental influences, being able to maintain their infectivity in moist soil as well as on fruits and vegetables for long periods [3,4]. Mechanical spread of oocysts by flies, cockroaches, dung beetles and earthworms represents an additional route of infection [1]. The role of filter feeder mussels as casual reservoir has also been established [5,6].Coypus (Myocastor coypus), commonly nutria, are large semi-aquatic invasive rodents, naturalized throughout European countries, including most wetlands of Italy. Coypu is ecologically associated with people due to changes in the ecosystem caused by human activities. It adapts to a wide variety of environmental conditions and persi
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