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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1712 matches for " Isaac Mwanzo "
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Community perceptions and response to flood risks in Nyando District, Western Kenya
Hellen Nyakundi,Stephen Mogere,Isaac Mwanzo,Andre Yitambe
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v3i1.35
Abstract: In Kenya, the ability of local people to resist the impact of disasters has not been given adequate attention. A descriptive cross sectional study sought to investigate community perceptions and responses to flood risks in low and high risk areas of the Nyando District, Western Kenya. A total of 528 households, six government officials and have project managers of Community Based Organizations (CBOs) and Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) were interviewed. Additionally, seven Focus Group Discussions(FGDs) involving three women, two male and two teacher groups were conducted. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Program. The Chi-square test was used to determine associations and di'erences between variables. In the study, 83% of the respondents were aware of Traditional Flood Knowledge (TFK) and 80% acknowledged its use. Perception of the risk is influenced by several variables, most notably past experience of major floods and having survived them. Residents in the high risk areas had signfficantly higher levels of awareness and use of traditional flood knowledge. they were more aware of the nature of the flood related health risks they were exposed to and appeared better prepared for future flood risk. They were, however, more dependent on external aid. On the other hand, residents living in the low risk area reported better success with their response mechanisms.
Predictors of Extra-Marital Partnerships among Women Married to Fishermen along Lake Victoria in Kisumu County, Kenya
Zachary Kwena, Isaac Mwanzo, Chris Shisanya, Carol Camlin, Janet Turan, Lilian Achiro, Elizabeth Bukusi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095298
Abstract: Background The vulnerability of women to HIV infection makes establishing predictors of women's involvement in extra-marital partnerships critical. We investigated the predictors of extra-marital partnerships among women married to fishermen. Methods The current analyses are part of a mixed methods cross-sectional survey of 1090 gender-matched interviews with 545 couples and 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 59 couples. Using a proportional to size simple random sample of fishermen as our index participants, we asked them to enrol in the study with their spouses. The consenting couples were interviewed simultaneously in separate private rooms. In addition to socio-economic and demographic data, we collected information on sexual behaviour including extra-marital sexual partnerships. We analysed these data using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. For FGDs, couples willing to participate were invited, consented and separated for simultaneous FGDs by gender-matched moderators. The resultant audiofiles were transcribed verbatim and translated into English for coding and thematic content analysis using NVivo 9. Results The prevalence of extra-marital partnerships among women was 6.2% within a reference time of six months. Factors that were independently associated with increased likelihood of extra-marital partnerships were domestic violence (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI 1.09–1.92), women reporting being denied a preferred sex position (aOR, 3.34; 95% CI 1.26–8.84) and spouse longer erect penis (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI 1.00–1.78). Conversely, women's age – more than 24years (aOR, 0.33; 95% CI 0.14–0.78) and women's increased sexual satisfaction (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI 0.87–0.96) were associated with reduced likelihood of extra-marital partnerships. Conclusion Domestic violence, denial of a preferred sex positions, longer erect penis, younger age and increased sexual satisfaction were the main predictors of women's involvement in extra-marital partnerships. Integration of sex education, counselling and life skills training in couple HIV prevention programs might help in risk reduction.
Short-Term Mobility and the Risk of HIV Infection among Married Couples in the Fishing Communities along Lake Victoria, Kenya
Zachary A. Kwena, Carol S. Camlin, Chris A. Shisanya, Isaac Mwanzo, Elizabeth A. Bukusi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054523
Abstract: Objective Mobility has long been associated with high HIV prevalence. We sought to assess sex differences in the relationship between mobility and risk for HIV infection among married couples in the fishing communities. Methods We conducted 1090 gender-matched interviews and rapid HIV testing with 545 couples proportionally representing all the different sizes of the fish-landing beaches in Kisumu County. We contacted a random sample of fishermen as our index participants and asked them to enrol in the study together with their spouses. The consenting couples were separated into different private rooms for concurrent interviews and thereafter reunited for couple rapid HIV counselling and testing. In addition to socio-economic and behavioural data, we collected information on overnight travels and divided couples in 4 groups as follows both partners not mobile, both partners mobile, only woman mobile, and only man mobile. Other than descriptive statistics, we used X2 and U tests to compare groups of variables and multivariate logistic regression to measure association between mobility and HIV infection. Results We found significant differences in the number of trips women travelled in the preceding month (mean 4.6, SD 7.1) compared to men (mean 3.3, SD 4.9; p<0.01) and when the women did travel, they were more likely to spend more days away from home than their male partners (mean 5.2 [SD 7.2] versus 3.4 SD 5.6; p = 0.01). With an HIV prevalence of 22.7% in women compared to 20.9% among men, mobile women who had non-mobile spouses had 2.1 times the likelihood of HIV infection compared to individuals in couples where both partners were non-mobile. Conclusion The mobility of fishermen’s spouses is associated with HIV infection that is not evident among fishermen themselves. Therefore, interventions in this community could be a combination of sex-specific programming that targets women and combined programming for couples.
Insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership, usage, and malaria transmission in the highlands of western Kenya
Harrysone E Atieli, Guofa Zhou, Yaw Afrane, Ming-Chieh Lee, Isaac Mwanzo, Andrew K Githeko, Guiyun Yan
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-113
Abstract: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted on ITN ownership (possession), compliance (actual usage among those who own ITNs), and malaria infections in occupants of randomly sampled houses in the dry and the rainy seasons of 2009.Despite ITN ownership reaching more than 71%, compliance was low at 56.3%. The compliance rate was significantly higher during the rainy season compared with the dry season (62% vs. 49.6%). Both malaria parasite prevalence (11.8% vs. 5.1%) and vector densities (1.0 vs.0.4 female/house/night) were significantly higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Other important factors affecting the use of ITNs include: a household education level of at least primary school level, significantly high numbers of nuisance mosquitoes, and low indoor temperatures. Malaria prevalence in the rainy season was about 30% lower in ITN users than in non-ITN users, but this percentage was not significantly different during the dry season.In malaria hypo-mesoendemic highland regions of western Kenya, the gap between ITNownership and usage is generally high with greater usage recorded during the high transmission season. Because of the low compliance among those who own ITNs, there is a need to sensitize households on sustained use of ITNs in order to optimize their role as a malaria control tool.Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) used for protection against mosquito bites have proven to be a practical, highly effective, and cost-effective intervention against malaria [1]. The evidence of the public health impact of ITNs, supporting their wide-scale use in Africa, is drawn from areas of stable malaria transmission where Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in the community is often over 40% [1,2]. Community-based randomized controlled trials (RCT) in these regions have documented average reductions of 20% in all causes of mortality in children under 5 years old within 2 years of increasing ITN use from 0 to 50-70% [3-8]. Scaling up ITN cover
Topography as a modifier of breeding habitats and concurrent vulnerability to malaria risk in the western Kenya highlands
Harrysone E Atieli, Guofa Zhou, Ming-Chieh Lee, Eliningaya J Kweka, Yaw Afrane, Isaac Mwanzo, Andrew K Githeko, Guiyun Yan
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-241
Abstract: Four villages each measuring 9 Km2 lying between 1400-1700 m above sea level in the western Kenya highlands were categorized into a pair of broad and narrow valley shaped terrain sites. Larval, indoor resting adult malaria vectors and infection surveys were collected originating from the valley bottom and ending at the hilltop on both sides of the valley during the rainy and dry seasons. Data collected at a distance of ≤500 m from the main river/stream were categorized as valley bottom and those above as uphill. Larval surveys were categorized by habitat location while vectors and infections by house location.Overall, broad flat bottomed valleys had a significantly higher number of anopheles larvae/dip in their habitats than in narrow valleys during both the dry (1.89 versus 0.89 larvae/dip) and the rainy season (1.66 versus 0.89 larvae/dip). Similarly, vector adult densities/house in broad valley villages were higher than those within narrow valley houses during both the dry (0.64 versus 0.40) and the rainy season (0.96 versus 0.09). Asymptomatic malaria prevalence was significantly higher in participants residing within broad than those in narrow valley villages during the dry (14.55% vs. 7.48%) and rainy (17.15% vs. 1.20%) season. Malaria infections were wide spread in broad valley villages during both the dry and rainy season, whereas over 65% of infections were clustered at the valley bottom in narrow valley villages during both seasons.Despite being in the highlands, local areas within low gradient topography characterized by broad valley bottoms have stable and significantly high malaria risk unlike those with steep gradient topography, which exhibit seasonal variations. Topographic parameters could therefore be considered in identification of high-risk malaria foci to help enhance surveillance or targeted control activities in regions where they are most needed.One fifth of the African population lives in malaria epidemic prone areas (desert fringes and high
Newton’s Method and an Exact Opposite That Average into Halley’s Method  [PDF]
Isaac Fried
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/am.2017.810103
This note is mainly concerned with the creation of oppositely converging and alternatingly converging iterative methods that have the added advantage of providing ever tighter bounds on the targeted root. By a slight parametric perturbation of Newton’s method we create an oscillating super-linear method approaching the targeted root alternatingly from above and from below. Further extension of Newton’s method creates an oppositely converging quadratic counterpart to it. This new method requires a second derivative, but for it, the average of the two opposite methods rises to become a cubic method. This note examines also the creation of high order iterative methods by a repeated specification of undetermined coefficients.
Newton, Halley, Pell and the Optimal Iterative High-Order Rational Approximation of √N  [PDF]
Isaac Fried
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/am.2018.97059
In this paper we examine single-step iterative methods for the solution of the nonlinear algebraic equation f (x) = x2 - N = 0 , for some integer N, generating rational approximations p/q that are optimal in the sense of Pell’s equation p2 - Nq2 = k for some integer k, converging either alternatingly or oppositely.
Entropy of Living versus Non-Living Systems  [PDF]
Isaac C. Sanchez
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.27077
Abstract: Using a careful thermodynamic analysis of unfertilized and fertilized eggs as a paradigm, it is argued that neither classical nor statistical thermodynamics is able to adequately describe living systems. To rescue thermodynamics from this dilemma, the definition of entropy for a living system must expand to acknowedge the latent genetic information encoded in DNA and RNA.As a working supposition, it is proposed that gradual unfolding (expression) of genetic information contributes a negative entropy flow into a living organism that alleviates apparent thermodynamic inconsistencies. It is estimated that each coding codon in DNA intrinsically carries about -3k in negative entropy. Even prior to the discovery of DNA and the genetic code, negative entropy flow in living systems was first proposed by Erwin Schrödinger in 1944.
Cardiac Immobilization in Beating Heart Surgery Using Pericardial Bands  [PDF]
Srikrishna Sirivella, Isaac Gielchinsky
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2012.22005
Abstract: A novel technique of stabilization of the coronary targets with autogenous pericardial bands is described in off pump coronary revascularizations. Pericardial bands are placed across the coronary targets and snared to the pericardial well for local cardiac immobilization. This technique can be used as an alternate to mechanical stabilizers for immobilization of the coronary targets.
Hemodynamic Changes during Off-Pump Coronary Ar-tery Bypass Graft Surgery: Experience Using Pericardial Bands for Target Stabilization  [PDF]
Srikrishna Sirivella, Isaac Gielchinsky
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2013.38045
Abstract: Background: The off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (OPCAB) may produce significant hemodynamic instability necessitating conversion to on-pump surgery. This study evaluated the hemodynamic parameters in patients undergoing OPCAB using pericardial bands for stabilization of the coronary target sites. Methods: In 250 patients undergoing OPCAB the hemodynamic parameters including continuous cardiac output and systemic venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) were recorded at baseline after pericardiotomy, during each coronary artery anastomosis at 3, 5, 10, 15 min, and after release of the pericardial bands used for target stabilization. Vasopressors were used to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP) > 60 mmHg. Results: SvO2 and cardiac index (CI) decreased significantly after target stabilization and during all coronary anastomoses with greater decreases noted during obtuse marginal branch of left circumflex (OM) anastomosis. The MAP and heart rate were maintained without significant change but central venous pressure increased significantly during all coronary anastomoses. The significant increase in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and mean pulmonary artery pressure were noted only during anastomosis of the left anterior descending artery. The highest dose of vasopressor was used during OM anastomosis. Conclusions: During OPCAB surgery using pericardial bands for coronary target stabilization, MAP was maintained constantly, but SvO2 and CI decreased immediately after target stabilization and reduced further during all coronary artery anastomoses. During OM anastomosis SvO2 and CI were significantly lower as compared to that of LAD and right coronary artery. Careful monitoring and management of hemodynamic variables are warranted to avoid conversion to on-pump technique.
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