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A Study of the Relationship among Performance Contracting, Measurement and Public Service Delivery in Kenya  [PDF]
Richard E. Ndubai, Isaac M. Mbeche, Ganesh P. Pokhariyal
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102850
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to establish the factors influencing improvement in performance and delivery of public services. Thus, the paper studied the effect of performance contracting and measurement on public service delivery in Kenya. The public services considered in the study included ministries, state corporations, local authorities and tertiary institutions, with a total of 470 public agencies. The cross-sectional survey design was used. The study is based on performance evaluation results compiled over the period between 2004 and 2011. Using regression analysis, it was found that performance measurement was critical to improvement in public service delivery and explained 73.6 percent of improvement in service delivery, as evidenced by independent measurement of customer satisfaction with the services delivered by the public sector.
A Study of the Intervening Effect of Political Stability on the Relationship between Performance Contracting and Measurement, and Public Service Delivery in Kenya  [PDF]
Richard E. Ndubai, Isaac M. Mbeche, Ganesh P. Pokhariyal
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103402
Abstract:
The performance of public agencies is influenced and affected by many factors, both internal and external. The internal factors are in many cases controllable, while external factors tend to fall outside the control of public sector managers. Moreover, the effect may serve to ameliorate performance or intervene to weaken performance and thereby adversely affect delivery of services. This paper explored the intervening effect of political stability, an external factor, on the relationship between performance contracting and measurement, and public service delivery (expressed as customer satisfaction) in Kenya. The study was based on the results of measurement and evaluation of the performance of 470 public agencies that operated under performance contracts between 2004 and 2011. Using regression analysis, it was found initially that on its own, political stability had no significant relationship with or influence on customer satisfaction. It however had an effect on the relationship between performance contracting, measurement and public service delivery, where a unit change in political stability contributed negatively to customer satisfaction by a factor of 0.257, though not statistically significant. Correlation analysis established further that social chaos and turmoil, which result in political instability, negatively impact the attractiveness of a country in the global arena.
A Study of the Joint Effect of Performance Measurement, Political Stability and Global Competitiveness on Customer Satisfaction  [PDF]
Richard E. Ndubai, Isaac M. Mbeche, Ganesh P. Pokhariyal
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104917
Abstract:
The performance of governments in the delivery of services to the pub-lic—which constitutes the customers who are the tax payers, is affected and influenced by a multitude of factors, some controllable and others outside the control of governments. In addition, each of the diverse factors impacts uniquely on performance while others may have only tangential influence. According to Hansen (1989), there are two streams of research regarding the determinants of firm performance. One is based on the economic tradition and emphasizes external market factors that are largely outside the control of firm management, while the other builds on the behavioral and sociological paradigms focusing on organizational factors as they fit into the environment; the latter therefore focuses on factors internal to the firm. A combination of various factors working together however, has the potential to generate a blend of influences, which is a significant departure from the impact of any factor taken on its own. The ensuing study is set out to establish the joint effect of performance measurement, political stability and global competitiveness—critical internal and external factors that affect or influence the performance of governments—on public service delivery and its customer satisfaction derivative in Kenya. The study was based on the results of measurement and evaluation of the performance of 470 public agencies that operated on performance contracts between 2004 and 2011. Using regression analysis, it was found initially that each of the three factors had a uniquely significant effect on the relationship between public service delivery and customer satisfaction, with performance measurement showing a strong positive relationship (R = 0.858) with customer satisfaction. Performance measurement explained 73.6 percent (R2 = 0.736) of customer satisfaction levels with the remaining 26.4 percent accounted for by other factors. Global competitiveness on the other hand, had a weak positive relationship with customer satisfaction. The results showed that global competitiveness explained 0.7 percent (ΔR2 = 0.007) on the direct effect of performance measurement on customer satisfaction and had an average mean of 3.698 on a scale of 1 (very low) and 5 (very competitive). It turned out that there was no significant moderating effect of global competitiveness on the relationship between performance contracting, measurement and public service delivery in Kenya. The performance measurement variable had a t-value of 5.789 and was statistically significant while the effect of global competitiveness was positive although not statistically significant. Preliminary findings established initially that on its own, political stability had no significant relationship with or influence on customer satisfaction. It however had an effect on the relationship between performance contracting, measurement and public service delivery, where a unit change in political stability contributed negatively to customer satisfaction by a factor of 0.235, though not statistically significant. Correlation analysis established further that social chaos and turmoil, which result in political instability, negatively influenced the attractiveness of a country in the global arena. Overall, the results showed that performance measurement, political stability and global competitiveness were positively related to customer satisfaction. The joint effect of the three independent variables explained 78.5 percent (R2 = 0.785) of customer satisfaction levels with the remaining 21.5 percent accounted for by other factors implemented in the public sector.
A Survey of Benchmarking Practices in Higher Education in Kenya: The Case of Public Universities
Peterson Obara Magutu,Isaac Meroka Mbeche,Stephen Onserio Nyamwange,Richard Bitange Nyaoga
IBIMA Business Review , 2011,
Abstract: Benchmarking has been used as a tool, a methodology and a technique for continuous improvements in sectoral operations to gain and maintain competitive advantage. This was a survey of benchmarking practices in higher education in Kenya, the case of public universities, whose objectives were; to document the benchmarking activities in the public universities; to establish the challenges facing the public universities in benchmarking. Cross sectional survey was used in this study to collect data from the six public universities with their respective campuses/schools in the population of interest. The respondents were senior administrators and the academic staff. Of the 53 informants who were sampled, 31 responded, thus, a response rate was of 58 percent.Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and summarize the data before presenting it in the form of proportions, means, tables and graphs. This was in line with the first and second objectives, which were actually answered in relation to the benchmarking practices in the academic function of public universities in Kenya. The study found out that continuous improvement systems in Kenyan public universities are good, not excellent. The external drivers of change/continuous improvements in public universities are the customers/students as opposed to legislation, while the major internal trigger of change is the actual performance. The public universities effectively and successfully benchmark for continuous improvement. The Kenyan public universities use action research and performance indicators as the sources of referencing information on benchmarks. The most common type of benchmarking in use is development/improvement benchmarking and planning to make use of international benchmarking. Finally, the three critical factors that have influenced the success of benchmarking practices are: time and resource availability: limited duration, comparability and compatibility, which are reasons why the institutions don’t practice international benchmarking.
Areopagitica: Milton’s Influence on Classical and Modern Political and Economic Thought
Isaac M. Morehouse
Libertarian Papers , 2009,
Abstract: This article draws general economic arguments against central planning, state licensure and regulation from Milton’s Areopagitica, a 17th Century pamphlet on free-speech. Though Milton’s work was written primarily as a defense for moral man and a warning against religious encroachment by government it provides some of the best and most foundational general arguments, both moral and practical, against government intervention in any field. Milton’s accessible and persuasive style and his ability to combine practical and moral arguments made his work a monumental case against censorship. However, the work has more to offer than a defense of free-speech. Libertarian economists can find in Milton many compelling arguments against central planning, licensure and regulation which have been and should continue to be reiterated.
Independent Events in a Simple Random Experiment and the Meaning of Independence
Isaac M. Sonin
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We count the number and patterns of pairs and tuples of independent events in a simple random experiment: first a fair coin is flipped and then a fair die is tossed. The first number, equal to 888,888, suggest that there are some open questions about the structure of independence even in a finite sample space. We discuss briefly these questions and possible approaches to answer them.
A Survey of New Methods for Production of Some Radionuclides, at Laboratory Scale, through Secondary Reactions in Nuclear Reactors  [PDF]
Isaac M. Cohen, Sandra Siri, Maria C. Fornaciari Iljadica
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2014.43033
Abstract:

The studies performed in the frame of a project destined for the search of new (t,n) and (p,n) reactions of interest in nuclear reactors are described. Experimental evidences of the observations of the reactions: 46Ti(t,n)48V, 48Ti(p,n)48V, 52Cr(t,n)54Mn, 56Fe(p,n)56Co, 72Ge(t,n)74As and 74Ge(p,n)74As, are presented. Additional data on some secondary reactions, already characterised for the production of 7Be, 56Co, 58Co, 65Zn and

A Note on the Precision of Stratified Systematic Sampling  [PDF]
Akeem O. Kareem, Isaac O. Oshungade, Gafar M. Oyeyemi
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2015.52013
Abstract: Conflicting views had greeted the use of systematic sampling for sample selection and estimation in stratified sampling in terms of the precision of the population mean base on the inherent characteristics of the population. These conflicting views were analyzed using Cochran data (1977, p. 211) [1]. When the population units are ordered, variance of systematic sampling for all possible systematic samples provides equal, non-negative and most precise estimates for all the variance functions considered i.e.\"\" , unlike when a single systematic sample is used and when variance of simple random sampling is used to estimate selected systematic samples.
Kinetic characterisation of arylamine N-acetyltransferase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Isaac M Westwood, Edith Sim
BMC Biochemistry , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2091-8-3
Abstract: We have determined that NAT from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which has been described as a model for NAT from M. tuberculosis, follows a Ping Pong Bi Bi kinetic mechanism. We also describe substrate inhibition by 5-aminosalicylic acid, in which the substrate binds both to the free form of the enzyme and the acetyl coenzyme A-enzyme complex in non-productive reaction pathways. The true kinetic parameters for the NAT-catalysed acetylation of 5-aminosalicylic acid with acetyl coenzyme A as the co-factor have been established, validating earlier approximations.This is the first reported study investigating the kinetic mechanism of a bacterial NAT enzyme. Additionally, the methods used herein can be applied to investigations of the interactions of NAT enzymes with new chemical entities which are NAT ligands. This is likely to be useful in the design of novel potential anti-tubercular agents.Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs, E.C. 2.3.1.5) are a family of enzymes (30–34 kDa) found in a range of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. NATs catalyse the transfer of an acetyl group from a donor, such as acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) to an aromatic or heterocyclic amine, hydrazine, hydrazide or N-hydroxylamine acceptor substrate.The NAT enzymes in prokaryotes, particularly NAT from S. typhimurium [1], have been important in studies of the metabolism of carcinogens. Recent evidence suggests that prokaryotic NATs may also have an endogenous role. For example, a NAT-like protein in Amycolatopsis mediterranei (RifF) is responsible for the final ring-closure step in the biosynthesis of the rifamycin precursor, proansamycin X [2]. Although the precise endogenous function of NAT in mycobacteria has not been established, genetic studies suggest strongly that NAT has a role in cell wall complex lipid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium bovis BCG [3]. It has been proposed that NAT represents a good anti-tubercular target, since ablation of the nat gene results in increased intracellular killing of mycobacter
Validity and reliability of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) frequency scale: a cross-sectional study of adolescents in Uganda
Anne ?str?m, Isaac Okullo
BMC Oral Health , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-3-5
Abstract: 1146 adolescents (mean age 15.8, response rate 87%) attending secondary schools in Kampala (urban) and Lira (rural) completed a survey instrument designed to measure subjective oral health indicators including the eight-item OIDP frequency scores. A clinical examination was conducted among 372 students (mean age 16.3, response rate 72%) and caries was assessed following the World Health Organisation criteria (1997).62% of the students experienced at least one oral impact during the 6 months preceding the survey. Cronbach's alpha for the OIDP frequency items was 0.91 and the corrected item-total correlation ranged from 0.62 to 0.75. Discriminant and construct validity were demonstrated in that the OIDP scores varied systematically in the expected direction with missing teeth and self-report indicators of oral health status, respectively. Socio-demographics and dental attendance did not predict OIDP through interaction with clinical indicators but varied systematically and independently with OIDP frequency scores in the multivariate analysis.the OIDP frequency score have acceptable psychometric properties in the context of an oral health survey among Ugandan adolescents. Some evidence of the importance of social and personal characteristics in shaping adolescents' responses to oral disorders was provided.In response to the growing recognition of quality of life measurement in health care, socio-dental indicators, designed to assess the functional and psychological outcomes of oral disorders, have been developed and tested in various populations [1,2]. Most of the research on oral health related quality of life has been performed with adults and older people and there are only few studies from outside North-America and Europe [1-3,5,6]. Uncertainty remains as to the use of socio-dental indicators in youth populations generally and to their applicability in non-western cultural settings, specifically.The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) scale [5] assesses impact
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