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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2126 matches for " Iran "
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La crisis de confianza y el balance de poder entre Irán y las Grandes Potencias en la “cuestión nuclear”
Moisés Gardu?o
Revista de Estudios Internacionales Mediterráneos , 2011,
Abstract: alks between Great Powers and Iran in the so-called “nuclear issue” have turned an impasse. The failure of this process is attributed to a crisis of confidence between involved parties which has caused low expectations in each meeting since 2005 up to now. But we think that this failure responds more to the breaking balance of power in Middle East and Persian Gulf regions than a simple lack of trust in each other. This imbalance can come with a nuclear Iran which would affect the interest of extraterritorial states in those zones. So, the purpose of this paper will be clarifying these issues.
Breastfeeding Status and Effective Factors in 21 - 27 Months Iranian Infants  [PDF]
Fatemeh Nayeri, Mamak Shariat, Hosein Dalili, Farima Raji, Akram Karimi
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.52024
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the Breastfeeding status among children aged 21 - 27 moths. A cross sectional study was carried out in South Health Center (Tehran-Iran) in 2010. Four hundred 21 - 27 month breastfed infants entered the study. This study compared some variables in 2 groups; weaning before and after 22 months. The level of significance was considered P < 0.05. Mean breastfeeding duration and median (either exclusive or combined) were 19.66 ± 6.40 and 22 months. Among all reasons were cited by mothers, some reasons like insufficient breast milk supply (77.9%), infant restless (77.1%), and Mother’s reluctance (75.6%) were the most common causes of exclusive breastfeeding cessation. A significant relation was seen between breastfeeding duration and gestational age or birth trauma (P Value = 0.031, P Value = 0.04). Breastfeeding training and First mother-infant skin to skin contact had significant roles on breastfeeding duration (P Value < 0.05, P Value = 0.001, respectively). It seems lots of public health efforts and policy are needed to improve breastfeeding rate in our country.
Low Birth Weight in Neonates of Iran 2015  [PDF]
Hossein Kazemeini, Hamid Reza Lornezhad, Ahad Banar
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2017.710016
Background: Low birth weight has been defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as weight at birth of less than 2500 grams. Any baby born prematurely is more likely to be small. However there are other factors that can also contribute to the risk of low birth weight, these include: race, mothers’ age, multiple births, mothers’ health and mothers of lower socioeconomic status. The incidence of low birth weight is monitored through both health system surveillance and household surveys. Among regions, South Asia has the highest incidence of low birth weight, with one in four newborns weighing less than 2500 grams. In a study in Iran the prevalence of LBW was estimated 7 percent (SD 95%), prevalence of LBW is different according to the geographical region. Methods: Demographic data got from mothers and children height and weight measured by trained staffs in and out of hospital and health facilities. Results: Total number of births in Iran in 2015 is 1,509,081 that from this 777,351 are male, 731,014 are female and 716 ambiguous. The percentage of LBW in male, female and ambiguous is 6.5, 7.7 and 53.9 respectively. The highest percent of LBW in female was related to Sistan Blochestan province with 12.6 and the lowest percent to Lorestan province with 5.6 percent. Discussion: According to the guidelines published by World Health Organization (WHO), any neonate with a birth weight less than 2500 grams is considered to be LBW. LBW and PTM are leading causes of adverse perinatal outcomes and are closely related to neonatal diseases and deaths. In the world, there are more than 20 million LBW infants born each year that 95.6% are born in developing countries. In the present study, the number of LBW neonate in male, female and ambiguous was 50,569, 55,972 and 386; the percentage of LBW in male, female and ambiguous was 6.5, 7.7 and 53.9 respectively. Regarding the prognosis of LBW, with development of perinatology, the survival rate of LBW infants has substantially increased. However, some adverse outcomes are still relatively common, especially long-term complications such as cerebral palsy, delayed neurodevelopment and visual and hearing impairments. Conclusions: The incidence of LBW in Iran is higher in deprived provinces such as Sistan Blochestan in southeast of Iran.
The Survey of Graduated Accounting Students’ Interest in Management Accounting: Evidence of Iran  [PDF]
Rezvan Hejazi, Ameneh Bazrafshan
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2013.23011
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of graduated accounting students in universities of Iran regarding their interest in management accounting versus other fields of accounting. Furthermore, this study determines the main factors that influence students’ interest in management accounting. In order to compile the necessary information, a questionnaire was prepared and distributed to 75 graduated accounting students. The results show that accounting students prefer financial accounting and auditing rather than management accounting. Moreover, findings indicate nine factors decline students’ interest in this branch of the accounting. Finally, using factor analysis, the results confirm the significant effect of three factors on students’ interest: education, profession, research. The paper provides additional empirical evidence to clarify which factors cause a low interest in management accounting.
Prevalence of asthma symptoms and smoking behavior among 20 - 44 years old adults in Tehran: A telephone survey  [PDF]
Behnaz Tazesh, Azadeh Shaabani, Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi, Abbas Entezari, Raheleh Dashti, Zahra Pourpak, Mostafa Moin
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.53064

Background and Objective: Asthma is a major health problem and a high-burden disease in the world. Unfortunately the prevalence of asthma in adult populations in Iran is not determined precisely. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of asthma symptoms and it’s relation with ages, gender and smoking behaviour in city of Tehran. Methods: A telephone interview survey was conducted among 7150 randomly selected telephone numbers in city of Tehran. A questionnaire adapted from The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) with additional two questions about smoking behaviour and hookah. Results: From 7150 eligible telephone numbers dialled there were 5500 responses (76.92%). The study populations included 3412 female (62%), 2088 men (38%) and the mean age of responder were 31.15 ± 7.33. Their smoking behaviour were; 71.6% non smoker, 11.9% active smoker, 16.5% passive smoker and 7.8% used hookah. The prevalence of “wheezing in the last 12 months”, “dyspnea with wheezing” and “wheezing and two nocturnal symptoms” were 24%, 10.8% and 5% respectively. Prevalence of asthma symptoms was significantly greater in smokers than non-smokers groups. Conclusion: In this study by using symptom based questionnaire (ECRHS), we concluded the prevalence of asthma in Tehran adult population was between 5% to 10%. Also this study may made cross-national comparison of our findings with other ECRHS studies possible; rates of “wheezing in the last 12 months”, “dyspnea with wheezing” and “nocturnal dyspnea” were higher than the European Community Respiratory Health Survey median. Role of air pollution, smoking and other risk factors for asthma should be considered.

Separation of Alteration Zones on ASTER Data and Integration with Drainage Geochemical Maps in Soltanieh, Northern Iran  [PDF]
Faranak Feizi, Edris Mansuri
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2013.32017

The Soltanieh area is a part of Tarom volcano-plutonic zone that is located in north-west of Zanjan province in northwest of Iran. Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image processing have been used for mapping hydrothermal alteration zones in studied area. To separate the alternation zones; False Color Composite (FCC), Least Square Fit (LS-Fit), Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Spectral Angel Mapper (SAM) techniques have been applied on ASTER data and iron oxide, argillic, phyllic and propylitic zones have been separated. At last, the final alteration map is integrated with drainage geochemical maps of Cu, Zn and Pb minerals for introducing the probable high potential zones.

Assessment of Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network Using Cluster Analysis, Shib-Kuh Plain, Shur Watershed, Iran  [PDF]
Hamid Hosseinimarandi, Mohammad Mahdavi, Hassan Ahmadi, Baharak Motamedvaziri, Abdolali Adelpur
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.66060

In addition to failure in monitoring water quality in the study area, the monitoring networks are not designed based on standard guidelines; moreover, there is no ongoing assessment of these networks. The great or small number of sites in the monitoring networks will cause problems. This paper aims to evaluate the monitoring networks of the changes in groundwater quality of the Shib-Kuh aquifer established in 2005 in South West of Iran. The aim of this study is to improve the monitoring networks and save expenses. In this aquifer, the groundwater main chemical anions, cations, EC, TDS, TH, SAR and pH are measured in 20 sites. The statistical cluster analysis methods are used and observations, variables and sampling sites are analyzed and evaluated. The results showed the probability of about 25 percent reduction in the sites. It also proved that it was possible for some of the measuring parameters to have been removed. Cluster analysis method is a suitable way to evaluate the quality of establishment as well as the function of the monitoring networks of water resources. Through the application of this method, the number of sites, variables, or both of these factors can be optimized and this optimization leads to upgrading of monitoring networks.

The impact of culture on AIDS nurses in Iran  [PDF]
Hoda Fotovvat, Mohammad Zahedi Asl
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.38A010

AIDS is one of the medical professional’s or young person ventures in third world countries like Iran. The growth of AIDS victims in the recent years has made a lot of global worries about cure process and other related issues to HIV problems in these countries. One of the effective groups in the study of AIDS patients is nurses who are in direct contact with patients. Our investigation led to study two variables “consciousness” and “vision” of nurses working in Imam Khomeini hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Based on the results we achieved that nurses have a low medium degree in the variables studied which is as a result of poor and low effective trainings. In addition to this as a consequence of wrong culture in Iran about AIDS patients or even people in contact with them, nurses have been in a great pressure as they might be in danger of disease transmission. This negative trend has caused a great anxiety about the real condition of AID patients in Iran and their cure process.

Distribution of Tick Species Infesting Domestic Ruminants in Borderline of Iran-Afghanistan  [PDF]
Ahmad Jafarbekloo, Hassan Vatandoost, Alireza Davari, Faezeh Faghihi, Hasan Bakhshi, Maryam Roya Ramzgouyan, Mohammad Nasrabadi, Zakkyeh Telmadarraiy
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2014.712095
Abstract: To determine the tick species parasitizing domestic ruminants in Zabol, Zahak and Qaen Counties which are located in east of Iran and are bordered with Afghanistan country, about 73 sheep, 44 goats and 27 cattle of 12 herds in several villages in Zabol, Zahak and Qaen Counties were inspected for tick infestation. Separated ticks were preserved in 70% alcohol and identified. About 464 ticks (252 male; 194 female) were collected; the occurrences of ticks on goats, cattle and sheep were about 17%, 15% and 26% respectively in all three Counties. The mean number of ticks on each animal was about 2 - 7 ticks per animal. Totally we found 3 genera hard ticks including Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus and Dermacentor in these regions. Hyalomma anatolicum, Hy. marginatum, Hy. asiaticum, Hy. detrinium, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sanguineus, Dermacentorniveus, and D. marginatus, were the tick species we found. Hyalomma anatolicum and Hy. asiaticum were the most abundant species in the study area. The result of this study is a survey of tick species from domestic animals in east part of Iran and implication of possible prevention measures for diseases transmitted by ticks.
A Community Study on Attitudes to and Knowledge of Mental Illness in Tehran  [PDF]
Helia Ghanean, Marzieh Nojomi, Lars Jacobsson
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.51004
Abstract: There are a limited number of studies on attitudes towards mental illness and mentally ill from Islamic countries even though Islam is the second largest of the religious beliefs in the world. An interesting element in Islamic teaching is the idea that mental illness as well as other ailments might be an effect of the will of Allah. This could imply that persons suffering from mental disorders might be less stigmatized. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes towards mental illness in the city of Tehran, Iran. Eight hundred subjects, randomly chosen from 4 districts of Tehran, responded to a modified version of a questionnaire developed by the World Psychiatric Association to reduce stigma because of schizophrenia. The self-completed questionnaire was delivered by 4 trained psychologists. The mean age of the sample was 37.5 years and 53.3% being males. A majority agreed that mental illness could be treated outside the hospital (70%) and 74% thought that mentally ill “can work in regular jobs”. Almost half agreed that “mentally ill are a public nuisance” and that “mentally ill people are dangerous”. One quarter agreed that they “would be ashamed if people knew someone in the family who was diagnosed with mental illness”. Generally males seemed to be more accepting than women. Generally the level of negative attitudes in Tehran population is at the same level as in other countries and cultures studied. Cultural beliefs and Islamic influence on attitudes towards mental illness and mentally ill need further studies. The result indicates a need for further actions to reduce the negative attitudes towards mentally ill in Tehran, Iran.
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