Publish in OALib Journal
APC: Only $99
Background and Objective: Asthma is a major
health problem and a high-burden disease in the world. Unfortunately the prevalence
of asthma in adult populations in Iran is not determined precisely. The aim
of this study was to assess the prevalence of asthma symptoms and it’s relation
with ages, gender and smoking behaviour in city of Tehran. Methods: A telephone interview survey was conducted among 7150 randomly selected telephone numbers in city of Tehran. A questionnaire adapted from The
European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) with additional two
questions about smoking behaviour and hookah. Results: From 7150 eligible telephone numbers dialled there were
5500 responses (76.92%). The
study populations included 3412 female (62%), 2088 men (38%) and the mean age of responder were 31.15 ± 7.33.
Their smoking behaviour were; 71.6% non smoker, 11.9% active smoker, 16.5%
passive smoker and 7.8% used hookah. The prevalence of “wheezing in the last 12
months”, “dyspnea with wheezing” and “wheezing and two nocturnal symptoms” were
24%, 10.8% and 5% respectively. Prevalence of asthma symptoms was significantly
greater in smokers than non-smokers groups. Conclusion: In this study by using symptom based questionnaire
(ECRHS), we concluded the prevalence of asthma in Tehran adult population was between
5% to 10%. Also this study may made cross-national comparison of our findings
with other ECRHS studies possible; rates of “wheezing in the last 12 months”, “dyspnea
with wheezing” and “nocturnal dyspnea” were higher than the European Community Respiratory Health Survey median.
Role of air pollution, smoking and other risk factors for asthma should be considered.
The Soltanieh area is a part of
Tarom volcano-plutonic zone that is located in north-west of Zanjan province in northwest
of Iran. Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer
(ASTER) image processing have been used for mapping hydrothermal alteration
zones in studied area. To separate the alternation zones; False Color Composite
(FCC), Least Square Fit (LS-Fit), Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Spectral
Angel Mapper (SAM) techniques have been applied on ASTER data and iron oxide,
argillic, phyllic and propylitic zones have been separated. At last, the final alteration map is
integrated with drainage geochemical maps of Cu, Zn and Pb minerals for introducing
the probable high potential zones.
addition to failure in monitoring water quality in the study area, the
monitoring networks are not designed based on standard guidelines; moreover,
there is no ongoing assessment of these networks. The great or small number of
sites in the monitoring networks will cause problems. This paper aims to
evaluate the monitoring networks of the changes in groundwater quality of the
Shib-Kuh aquifer established in 2005 in South West of Iran. The aim of this
study is to improve the monitoring networks and save expenses. In this aquifer,
the groundwater main chemical anions, cations, EC, TDS, TH, SAR and pH are
measured in 20 sites. The statistical cluster analysis methods are used and
observations, variables and sampling sites are analyzed and evaluated. The
results showed the probability of about 25 percent reduction in the sites. It
also proved that it was possible for some of the measuring parameters to have
been removed. Cluster analysis method is a suitable way to evaluate the quality
of establishment as well as the function of the monitoring networks of water
resources. Through the application of this method, the number of sites,
variables, or both of these factors can be optimized and this optimization
leads to upgrading of monitoring networks.
AIDS is one of the medical professional’s or young person ventures in third world countries like Iran. The growth of AIDS victims in the recent years has made a lot of global worries about cure process and other related issues to HIV problems in these countries. One of the effective groups in the study of AIDS patients is nurses who are in direct contact with patients. Our investigation led to study two variables “consciousness” and “vision” of nurses working in Imam Khomeini hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Based on the results we achieved that nurses have a low medium degree in the variables studied which is as a result of poor and low effective trainings. In addition to this as a consequence of wrong culture in Iran about AIDS patients or even people in contact with them, nurses have been in a great pressure as they might be in danger of disease transmission. This negative trend has caused a great anxiety about the real condition of AID patients in Iran and their cure process.