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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1818 matches for " Intersectoral cooperation "
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Exploiting the potential of vector control for disease prevention
Townson,H; Nathan,MB; Zaim,M; Guillet,P; Manga,L; Bos,R; Kindhauser,M;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862005001200017
Abstract: although vector control has proven highly effective in preventing disease transmission, it is not being used to its full potential, thereby depriving disadvantaged populations of the benefits of well tried and tested methods. following the discovery of synthetic residual insecticides in the 1940s, large-scale programmes succeeded in bringing many of the important vector-borne diseases under control. by the late 1960s, most vector-borne diseases - with the exception of malaria in africa - were no longer considered to be of primary public health importance. the result was that control programmes lapsed, resources dwindled, and specialists in vector control disappeared from public health units. within two decades, many important vector-borne diseases had re-emerged or spread to new areas. the time has come to restore vector control to its key role in the prevention of disease transmission, albeit with an increased emphasis on multiple measures, whether pesticide-based or involving environmental modification, and with a strengthened managerial and operational capacity. integrated vector management provides a sound conceptual framework for deployment of cost-effective and sustainable methods of vector control. this approach allows for full consideration of the complex determinants of disease transmission, including local disease ecology, the role of human activity in increasing risks of disease transmission, and the socioeconomic conditions of affected communities.
Genomics knowledge and equity: a global public goods perspective of the patent system
Smith,Richard D.; Thorsteinsdóttir,Halla; Daar,Abdallah S.; Gold,E. Richard; Singer,Peter A.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862004000500013
Abstract: genomics, the comprehensive examination of an organism's entire set of genes and their interactions, will have a major impact on the way disease is diagnosed, prevented and treated in the new millennium. despite the tremendous potential it holds for improving global health, genomics challenges policy-makers to ensure that its benefits are harnessed equitably across populations and nations. the classification of genomics as a global public good and the inequity encountered in the development and application of genomics knowledge are outlined in this paper. we examine the effect of the current patent system on the distribution of costs and benefits relating to genomics knowledge between countries of different economic strength. the global public goods concept provides a normative economic rationale for the modification of certain aspects of the current patent system and for the creation of complementary mechanisms to respond to the health needs of low-income and middle-income countries.
Global governance, international health law and WHO: looking towards the future
Taylor,Allyn L.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862002001200013
Abstract: the evolving domain of international health law encompasses increasingly diverse and complex concerns. commentators agree that health development in the twenty-first century is likely to expand the use of conventional international law to create a framework for coordination and cooperation among states in an increasingly interdependent world. this article examines the forces and factors behind the emerging expansion of conventional international health law as an important tool for present and future multilateral cooperation. it considers challenges to effective international health cooperation posed for intergovernmental organizations and other actors involved in lawmaking. although full consolidation of all aspects of future international health lawmaking under the auspices of a single international organization is unworkable and undesirable, the world health organization (who) should endeavour to serve as a coordinator, catalyst and, where appropriate, platform for future health law codification. such leadership by who could enhance coordination, coherence and implementation of international health law policy.
Genomics knowledge and equity: a global public goods perspective of the patent system
Smith Richard D.,Thorsteinsdóttir Halla,Daar Abdallah S.,Gold E. Richard
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2004,
Abstract: Genomics, the comprehensive examination of an organism's entire set of genes and their interactions, will have a major impact on the way disease is diagnosed, prevented and treated in the new millennium. Despite the tremendous potential it holds for improving global health, genomics challenges policy-makers to ensure that its benefits are harnessed equitably across populations and nations. The classification of genomics as a global public good and the inequity encountered in the development and application of genomics knowledge are outlined in this paper. We examine the effect of the current patent system on the distribution of costs and benefits relating to genomics knowledge between countries of different economic strength. The global public goods concept provides a normative economic rationale for the modification of certain aspects of the current patent system and for the creation of complementary mechanisms to respond to the health needs of low-income and middle-income countries.
Global governance, international health law and WHO: looking towards the future
Taylor Allyn L.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002,
Abstract: The evolving domain of international health law encompasses increasingly diverse and complex concerns. Commentators agree that health development in the twenty-first century is likely to expand the use of conventional international law to create a framework for coordination and cooperation among states in an increasingly interdependent world. This article examines the forces and factors behind the emerging expansion of conventional international health law as an important tool for present and future multilateral cooperation. It considers challenges to effective international health cooperation posed for intergovernmental organizations and other actors involved in lawmaking. Although full consolidation of all aspects of future international health lawmaking under the auspices of a single international organization is unworkable and undesirable, the World Health Organization (WHO) should endeavour to serve as a coordinator, catalyst and, where appropriate, platform for future health law codification. Such leadership by WHO could enhance coordination, coherence and implementation of international health law policy.
Blindness prevention programmes: past, present, and future
Resnikoff,Serge; Pararajasegaram,Ramachandra;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862001000300010
Abstract: blindness and visual impairment have far-reaching implications for society, the more so when it is realized that 80% of visual disability is avoidable. the marked increase in the size of the elderly population, with their greater propensity for visually disabling conditions, presents a further challenge in this respect. however, if available knowledge and skills were made accessible to those communities in greatest need, much of this needless blindness could be alleviated. since its inception over 50 years ago, and beginning with trachoma control, who has spearheaded efforts to assist member states to meet the challenge of needless blindness. since the establishment of thewho programme for the prevention of blindness in 1978, vast strides have been made through various forms of technical support to establish national prevention of blindness programmes. a more recent initiative, ??the global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness?? (referred to as ??vision 2020 - the right to sight??), launched in 1999, is a collaborative effort between who and a number of international nongovernmental organizations and other interested partners. this effort is poised to take the steps necessary to achieve the goal of eliminating avoidable blindness worldwide by the year 2020.
Public-private partnerships for health: their main targets, their diversity, and their future directions
Widdus,Roy;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862001000800006
Abstract: the global burden of disease, especially the part attributable to infectious diseases, disproportionately affects populations in developing countries. inadequate access to pharmaceuticals plays a role in perpetuating this disparity. drugs and vaccines may not be accessible because of weak distribution infrastructures or because development of the desired products has been neglected. this situation can be tackled with push interventions to lower the costs and risks of product development for industry, with pull interventions providing economic and market incentives, and with the creation of infrastructures allowing products to be put into use. if appropriately motivated, pharmaceutical companies can bring to partnerships expertise in product development, production process development, manufacturing, marketing, and distribution - all of which are lacking in the public sector. a large variety of public-private partnerships, combining the skills and resources of a wide range of collaborators, have arisen for product development, disease control through product donation and distribution, or the general strengthening or coordination of health services. administratively, such partnerships may either involve affiliation with international organizations, i.e. they are essentially public-sector programmes with private-sector participation, or they may be legally independent not-for-profit bodies. these partnerships should be regarded as social experiments; they show promise but are not a panacea. new ventures should be built on need, appropriateness, and lessons on good practice learnt from experience. suggestions are made for public, private, and joint activities that could help to improve the access of poor populations to the pharmaceuticals and health services they need.
Global public-private partnerships: part II - what are the health issues for global governance?
Buse,K.; Walt,G.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862000000500015
Abstract: this is the second of a two-part review of global public-private partnerships (gppps) for health development. part i was published in the april issue of the bulletin (vol. 78, no.4). the recent emergence of gppps is rapidly reconfiguring the international health landscape. while most multilateral and bilateral agencies are currently grappling with how to proceed, there is little information in the public domain concerning how individual partnerships work and to date very little consideration of the many implications of this trend. this paper differentiates between product-based, product development-based and issues/ systems-based gppps and describes a number of examples of each type in the health sector. the benefits of these initiatives, not least the major resources which they harness for specific health problems, are identified. the final section of the paper explores the implications and dilemmas posed by gppps. it discusses whether or not shared goals can transcend conflicting values and mandates and how governance of partnership arrangements may transform and undermine certain attributes of multilateral organizations. the paper concludes that the current climate of goodwill between public and private sectors offers an opportunity that should not be missed: it can be used not only to foster new partnership but to ensure that partnership is truly in the interests of international public health.
Global public-private partnerships: part I - a new development in health?
Buse,K.; Walt,G.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862000000400019
Abstract: the proliferation of public-private partnerships is rapidly reconfiguring the international health landscape. this article (part i of two on the subject) traces the changing nature of partnership, and discusses the definitional and conceptual ambiguities surrounding the term. after defining global public-private partnerships (gppps) for health development, we analyse the factors which have led to the convergence of public and private actors and discuss the consequences of the trend toward partnership between un agencies (including the world bank) and commercial entities in the health sector. generic factors such as globalization and disillusionment with the un, and factors specific to the health sector, such as market failure in product development for orphan diseases, are examined. reviewed are the interests, policies, practices and concerns of the un, the private-for-profit sector, bilateral organizations, and governments of low-income countries with respect to public-private partnership. while gppps bring much needed resources to problems of international health, we highlight concerns regarding this new organizational format. part ii, which will be published in the may issue of the bulletin, presents a conceptual framework for analysing health gppps and explores the issues raised.
Blindness prevention programmes: past, present, and future
Resnikoff Serge,Pararajasegaram Ramachandra
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001,
Abstract: Blindness and visual impairment have far-reaching implications for society, the more so when it is realized that 80% of visual disability is avoidable. The marked increase in the size of the elderly population, with their greater propensity for visually disabling conditions, presents a further challenge in this respect. However, if available knowledge and skills were made accessible to those communities in greatest need, much of this needless blindness could be alleviated. Since its inception over 50 years ago, and beginning with trachoma control, WHO has spearheaded efforts to assist Member States to meet the challenge of needless blindness. Since the establishment of theWHO Programme for the Prevention of Blindness in 1978, vast strides have been made through various forms of technical support to establish national prevention of blindness programmes. A more recent initiative, ??The Global Initiative for the Elimination of Avoidable Blindness?? (referred to as ??VISION 2020 - The Right to Sight??), launched in 1999, is a collaborative effort between WHO and a number of international nongovernmental organizations and other interested partners. This effort is poised to take the steps necessary to achieve the goal of eliminating avoidable blindness worldwide by the year 2020.
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