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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 63 matches for " Inogwabini-Bila Isia "
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Roadless Wilderness Area Determines Forest Elephant Movements in the Congo Basin
Stephen Blake, Sharon L. Deem, Samantha Strindberg, Fiona Maisels, Ludovic Momont, Inogwabini-Bila Isia, Iain Douglas-Hamilton, William B. Karesh, Michael D. Kock
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003546
Abstract: A dramatic expansion of road building is underway in the Congo Basin fuelled by private enterprise, international aid, and government aspirations. Among the great wilderness areas on earth, the Congo Basin is outstanding for its high biodiversity, particularly mobile megafauna including forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis). The abundance of many mammal species in the Basin increases with distance from roads due to hunting pressure, but the impacts of road proliferation on the movements of individuals are unknown. We investigated the ranging behaviour of forest elephants in relation to roads and roadless wilderness by fitting GPS telemetry collars onto a sample of 28 forest elephants living in six priority conservation areas. We show that the size of roadless wilderness is a strong determinant of home range size in this species. Though our study sites included the largest wilderness areas in central African forests, none of 4 home range metrics we calculated, including core area, tended toward an asymptote with increasing wilderness size, suggesting that uninhibited ranging in forest elephants no longer exists. Furthermore we show that roads outside protected areas which are not protected from hunting are a formidable barrier to movement while roads inside protected areas are not. Only 1 elephant from our sample crossed an unprotected road. During crossings her mean speed increased 14-fold compared to normal movements. Forest elephants are increasingly confined and constrained by roads across the Congo Basin which is reducing effective habitat availability and isolating populations, significantly threatening long term conservation efforts. If the current road development trajectory continues, forest wildernesses and the forest elephants they contain will collapse.
Effects of Epidemic Diseases on the Distribution of Bonobos
Bila-Isia Inogwabini, Nigel Leader-Williams
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051112
Abstract: This study examined how outbreaks and the occurrence of Anthrax, Ebola, Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis may differentially affect the distribution of bonobos (Pan paniscus). Using a combination of mapping, Jaccard overlapping coefficients and binary regressions, the study determined how each disease correlated with the extent of occurrence of, and the areas occupied by, bonobos. Anthrax has only been reported to occur outside the range of bonobos and so was not considered further. Ebola, Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis were each reported within the area of occupancy of bonobos. Their respective overlap coefficients were: J = 0.10; Qα = 0.05 = 2.00 (odds ratios = 0.0001, 95% CI = 0.0057; Z = ?19.41, significant) for Ebola; J = 1.00; Qα = 0.05 = 24.0 (odds ratios = 1.504, 95% CI = 0.5066–2.6122) for Monkeypox; and, J = 0.33; Qα = 0.05 = 11.5 (Z = 1.14, significant) for Trypanosomiasis. There were significant relationships for the presence and absence of Monkeypox and Trypanosomiasis and the known extent of occurrence of bonobos, based on the equations y = 0.2368Ln(x)+0.8006 (R2 = 0.9772) and y = ?0.2942Ln(x)+0.7155 (R2 = 0.698), respectively. The positive relationship suggested that bonobos tolerated the presence of Monkeypox. In contrast, the significant negative coefficient suggested that bonobos were absent in areas where Trypanosomiasis is endemic. Our results suggest that large rivers may have prevented Ebola from spreading into the range of bonobos. Meanwhile, Trypanosomiasis has been recorded among humans within the area of occurrence of bonobos, and appears the most important disease in shaping the area of occupancy of bonobos within their overall extent of occupancy.
Forest Elephant Crisis in the Congo Basin
Stephen Blake,Samantha Strindberg,Patrick Boudjan,Calixte Makombo,Inogwabini Bila-Isia,Omari Ilambu,Falk Grossmann,Lambert Bene-Bene,Bruno de Semboli,Valentin Mbenzo,Dino S'hwa,Rosine Bayogo,Liz Williamson,Mike Fay,John Hart,Fiona Maisels
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050111
Abstract: Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale.
Forest Elephant Crisis in the Congo Basin
Stephen Blake ,Samantha Strindberg,Patrick Boudjan,Calixte Makombo,Inogwabini Bila-Isia,Omari Ilambu,Falk Grossmann,Lambert Bene-Bene,Bruno de Semboli,Valentin Mbenzo,Dino S'hwa,Rosine Bayogo,Liz Williamson,Mike Fay,John Hart,Fiona Maisels
PLOS Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050111
Abstract: Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale.
Molecular Evidence for the Presence of Rickettsia Felis in the Feces of Wild-living African Apes
Alpha Kabinet Keita, Cristina Socolovschi, Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Pavel Ratmanov, Christelle Butel, Ahidjo Ayouba, Bila-Isia Inogwabini, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Eitel Mpoudi-Ngole, Eric Delaporte, Martine Peeters, Florence Fenollar, Didier Raoult
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054679
Abstract: Background Rickettsia felis is a common emerging pathogen detected in mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that, as with malaria, great apes may be exposed to the infectious bite of infected mosquitoes and release R. felis DNA in their feces. Methods We conducted a study of 17 forest sites in Central Africa, testing 1,028 fecal samples from 313 chimpanzees, 430 gorillas and 285 bonobos. The presence of rickettsial DNA was investigated by specific quantitative real-time PCR. Positive results were confirmed by a second PCR using primers and a probe targeting a specific gene for R. felis. All positive samples were sequenced. Results Overall, 113 samples (11%) were positive for the Rickettsia-specific gltA gene, including 25 (22%) that were positive for R. felis. The citrate synthase (gltA) sequence and outer membrane protein A (ompA) sequence analysis indicated 99% identity at the nucleotide level to R. felis. The 88 other samples (78%) were negative using R. felis-specific qPCR and were compatible with R. felis-like organisms. Conclusion For the first time, we detected R. felis in wild-living ape feces. This non invasive detection of human pathogens in endangered species opens up new possibilities in the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of infectious diseases, beside HIV and malaria.
Devastating Decline of Forest Elephants in Central Africa
Fiona Maisels, Samantha Strindberg, Stephen Blake, George Wittemyer, John Hart, Elizabeth A. Williamson, Rostand Aba’a, Gaspard Abitsi, Ruffin D. Ambahe, Fidèl Amsini, Parfait C. Bakabana, Thurston Cleveland Hicks, Rosine E. Bayogo, Martha Bechem, Rene L. Beyers, Anicet N. Bezangoye, Patrick Boundja, Nicolas Bout, Marc Ella Akou, Lambert Bene Bene, Bernard Fosso, Elizabeth Greengrass, Falk Grossmann, Clement Ikamba-Nkulu, Omari Ilambu, Bila-Isia Inogwabini, Fortune Iyenguet, Franck Kiminou, Max Kokangoye, Deo Kujirakwinja, Stephanie Latour, Innocent Liengola, Quevain Mackaya, Jacob Madidi, Bola Madzoke, Calixte Makoumbou, Guy-Aimé Malanda, Richard Malonga, Olivier Mbani, Valentin A. Mbendzo, Edgar Ambassa, Albert Ekinde, Yves Mihindou, Bethan J. Morgan, Prosper Motsaba, Gabin Moukala, Anselme Mounguengui, Brice S. Mowawa, Christian Ndzai, Stuart Nixon, Pele Nkumu, Fabian Nzolani, Lilian Pintea, Andrew Plumptre, Hugo Rainey, Bruno Bokoto de Semboli, Adeline Serckx, Emma Stokes, Andrea Turkalo, Hilde Vanleeuwe, Ashley Vosper, Ymke Warren
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059469
Abstract: African forest elephants– taxonomically and functionally unique–are being poached at accelerating rates, but we lack range-wide information on the repercussions. Analysis of the largest survey dataset ever assembled for forest elephants (80 foot-surveys; covering 13,000 km; 91,600 person-days of fieldwork) revealed that population size declined by ca. 62% between 2002–2011, and the taxon lost 30% of its geographical range. The population is now less than 10% of its potential size, occupying less than 25% of its potential range. High human population density, hunting intensity, absence of law enforcement, poor governance, and proximity to expanding infrastructure are the strongest predictors of decline. To save the remaining African forest elephants, illegal poaching for ivory and encroachment into core elephant habitat must be stopped. In addition, the international demand for ivory, which fuels illegal trade, must be dramatically reduced.
Anti-semitismo na Europa hoje
Sorj, Bila;
Novos Estudos - CEBRAP , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-33002007000300005
Abstract: the term "anti-semitism" is employed in manifestations of hostility against jews since antiquity. however, as a historical phenomenon, the anti-semitism is part of the sociocultural dynamic and politics of each society. this article focuses particularly on its specificities in western europe today.
Sociologia e trabalho: muta??es, encontros e desencontros
Sorj, Bila;
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-69092000000200002
Abstract: the objective of the article is to show an overall view of the international trajectory of the sociology of labor and to identify the main challenges that it faces, given the recent changes in the labor market. in the first part, the article reviews the way sociology of labor has dealt with its object, attempting to identify the limitations of the dominant interpretative models. the second part analyzes how gender studies question the construction of the predominant concept of labor in sociology as studies begin to focus on cultural themes, generally neglected in labor studies. in the third and final part, the author analyzes the new configurations concerning the labor market suggesting that nowadays, even more so than at any other time, and due to the deregulation of formal employment relations, the frontiers between work and non-work have been se-verely reduced.
Sociologia e trabalho: muta es, encontros e desencontros
Sorj Bila
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais , 2000,
Abstract: O objetivo do artigo é realizar um balan o da trajetória internacional da Sociologia do Trabalho e identificar os principais desafios a ela colocados pelas recentes mudan as no mundo do trabalho. Na primeira parte, retoma o modo como a Sociologia do Trabalho construiu o seu objeto visando identificar os limites dos modelos interpretativos dominantes. Na segunda, analisa como os estudos de gênero questionam a constru o do conceito de trabalho prevalecente na Sociologia, na medida em que focalizam o tema da cultura, geralmente negligenciado nos estudos do trabalho. Na terceira e última parte a autora se detém nas novas configura es do mundo do trabalho para sugerir que hoje, mais do que em qualquer outro momento, com a desregula o das rela es contratuais de emprego, as fronteiras entre o trabalho e o n o-trabalho foram severamente reduzidas.
Symmetries of PDEs Systems in Solar Physics and Contact Geometry
Bila Nicoleta
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: One considers a special class of PDEs systems and one determines the associated symmetry group. Particulary, for the Blair system, one finds the symmetry group. A solutions of the Blair system gives a conformally flat contact metric structure and also it defines a "force-free" model of solar physics. By using the symmetry groups theory, one shows that the known solutions are group-invariant solutions and one gives new solutions.
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