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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 183 matches for " Innocent Semali "
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Trends in Immunization Completion and Disparities in the Context of Health Reforms: The case study of Tanzania
Innocent A Semali
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-299
Abstract: DHS studies randomly selected representative households from all regions in Tanzania since 1980 s, is repeated every five years in the same enumeration areas. The last three data sets (1990, 1996 and 2004) were downloaded and analyzed using STATA 9.0. The analysis included all children of between 12-23 months who would have completed all vaccinations required at 12 months.Across the time periods 1990, 1996 to 2004/05 the percentage of children completing vaccination was similar (71.0% in 1990, 72.7% in 1996 and 72.3% in 2005). There was no disparity in completion of immunization with wealth strata in 1990 and 1996 (p > 0.05) but not 2004. In 2004/05 there was marked disparity as most poor experienced significant decline in immunization completion while the least poor had significant increase (p < 0.001). All three periods children from households whose head had low education were less likely to complete immunization (p < 0.01).Equity that existed in 1990 and more pronounced in 1996 regressed to inequity in 2005, thus though at national level immunization coverage did not change, but at sub-group there was significant disparity associated with the changing contexts and reforms. To address sub-group disparities in immunization it is recommended to adopt strategies focused at governance and health system to reach all population groups and most poor.There is a global concern on the non-uniform decline of mortality rate in children under five a situation which has reversed in some countries, in sub Saharan Africa (SSA), since the early 1990 s [1]. Among 22 SSA countries only five were on track with the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4), while rest recorded a reversal or a minimal decline [2]. The MDG4 call for reduction of child mortality by two thirds between 1990 and 2015, there was reversal in the decline of under five mortality most conspicuous in countries that also experienced decline in child immunization. Tanzania recorded stagnation in immunization coverage b
The Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program: building and transforming the public health workforce
Peter Mmbuji, David Mukanga, Janeth Mghamba, Mohamed Ahly, Fausta Mosha, Simba Azima, Sembuche Senga, Candida Moshiro, Innocent Semali, Italia Rolle, Stefan Wiktor, Suzzane McQueen, Peter McElroy, Peter Nsubuga
Pan African Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: The Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (TFELTP) was established in 2008 as a partnership among the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, National Institute for Medical Research, and local and international partners. TFELTP was established to strengthen the capacity of MOHSW to conduct public health surveillance and response, manage national disease control and prevention programs, and to enhance public health laboratory support for surveillance, diagnosis, treatment and disease monitoring. TFELTP is a 2-year full-time training program with approximately 25% time spent in class, and 75% in the field. TFELTP offers two tracks leading to an MSc degree in either Applied Epidemiology or, Epidemiology and Laboratory Management. Since 2008, the program has enrolled a total of 33 trainees (23 males, 10 females). Of these, 11 were enrolled in 2008 and 100% graduated in 2010. All 11 graduates of cohort 1 are currently employed in public health positions within the country. Demand for the program as measured by the number of applicants has grown from 28 in 2008 to 56 in 2011. While training the public health leaders of the country, TFELTP has also provided essential service to the country in responding to high-profile disease outbreaks, and evaluating and improving its public health surveillance systems and diseases control programs. TFELTP was involved in the country assessment of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR) core capabilities, development of the Tanzania IHR plan, and incorporation of IHR into the revised Tanzania Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) guidelines. TFELTP is training a competent core group of public health leaders for Tanzania, as well as providing much needed service to the MOHSW in the areas of routine surveillance, outbreak detection and response, and disease program management. However, the immediate challenges that the program must address include development of a full range of in-country teaching capacity for the program, as well as a career path for graduates. Pan African Medical Journal 2011;10(Supp1):9
The Epistemology of Symbols in African Medicine  [PDF]
Innocent Ngangah
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31A019
Abstract:

This article will discuss the epistemology of symbols employed by African traditional medical practitioners in treating their patients and the essence of such symbols among traditional communities across the continent. Relying on diverse studies by other researchers and my own investigation conducted among the Igbo of south-eastern Nigeria, this paper will explore relevant aspects of African traditional medicine as they relate to symbols employed by the practitioners in their effort to offer health care and general wellbeing to their clients.

The primacy of trust in the social networks and livelihoods of women agro-entrepreneurs in Northern Tanzania
K Mehta, L Semali, A Maretzki
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: This paper describes the primacy of trust in the social networks and livelihoods of rural Tanzanian women engaged in agro-entrepreneurial activity. The importance of trust emerged from a study of the “who you know” social and economic network knowledge systems of these enterprising women in Moshi, Tanzania and the role cell phones play within their networks. The nature of the women’s agricultural businesses and their perceptions of the characteristics of women business leaders and cooperative group members were also studied. The objective of the study was to identify opportunities for developing innovative cellphone-based applications that link smallscale farmers and other entrepreneurs to markets, thus enabling these entrepreneurs to utilize, strengthen and expand their social and economic networks. A complementary goal was to identify the characteristics of women who are likely to successfully champion new entrepreneurial ventures. Three data collection techniques were employed: (1) a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) survey, (2) structured interviews; and (3) focus group interviews. There were 26 women participants in this network study - all living in multi-ethnic areas in, or near, the town of Moshi. Each participant was the proprietor of a stall selling agricultural products in one of the three town markets. A total of 92 relationships were described by these 26 women. The majority of the women primarily used cell phones in their business communication and considered cell phones crucial to their businesses. The women valued long-term relationships with over 70% of the business relationships described by the women having lasted for more than one year. The study revealed that these relationships were based very strongly on trust and respect. This primacy of trust in these networks was further validated by the individual interviews and focus group discussions. Loyalty and the maintenance of inter-personal relationships are more important than price in these women’s business-related decision-making. The findings suggest the importance of building trust while expanding “who you know” networks to create social and economic capital in rural African communities. The pervasiveness and importance of cell phones in these communities raises the possibility of employing this technology to create value by harnessing social capital and expanding social networks. An entrepreneurial venture called WishVast emerged from this study and is described in this paper. WishVast is a cellphone-based system that allows individuals to interact within an expanded, geographically dispersed social network – and as a result, it enables traditionally isolated individuals to connect, communicate and coordinate with a large number of potential clients.
Potential for the use of duckweed-based pond systems in Zimbabwe
Innocent Nhapi
Water SA , 2004,
Abstract: Duckweed systems are a form of natural wastewater treatment method that is ideal for developing countries. They demand less in terms of financial resources for construction and maintenance, manpower sophistication, electricity requirements, and machinery. This paper looks at the duckweed technology as a new phenomenon in Zimbabwe, reviews its requirements and problems, and finally explores its potential in the Zimbabwean environment. A simple spreadsheet model was developed to assess a water and nutrient balance of an ideal duckweed system. It was concluded that under ideal or optimum operating conditions, duckweed systems could achieve the required Zimbabwean nutrient standards of 10 mg.l-1 total nitrogen and 1 mg.l-1 total phosphorus. Duckweed systems would suit areas of moderate to high water consumption to avoid toxicity problems and also to increase the surface area available for duckweed growth. It was recommended that further experiments be carried out locally to improve and validate the model developed and used in this paper. Water SA Vol.30(1): 115-120
On Political Participation: Discursive Pragmatics and Social Interaction in Nolitics
Innocent Chiluwa
Studies in Literature and Language , 2011,
Abstract: Nolitics is a Nigerian online political discussion forum that provides an opportunity for social interaction and political participation, through new media technologies. It is hosted by NaijaPals – a hosting website with social networking and blogging activities. Naijpals maintains an online community of bloggers with Nolitics as a discussion forum solely devoted to social and political debates. Members exchange information and engage in social analyses and criticisms of Nigeria’s political performances. A total of 104 ‘posts’ are analyzed in the framework of computer-mediated discourse analysis with insights and methods from pragmatics. Findings show that discursive/ pragmatic strategies such as modality, implicitness/implication, directive speech acts, proposition/inference and indirect speech acts function as a means of mobilizing people towards political participation e.g. voting during elections. They are also used as strategies for attacking corruption and political power abuse, initiating and practising political propaganda by politicians and as discourse tact of preventing offences. The study reveals that new media technologies not only promote political participation and governance but show that the people are hungry to be involved in political issues and questions that affect their lives. Corruption and political power abuse are identified as major banes of modern democracies, particularly the Nigerian context. Key words: Nolitics; Nigeria; Politics; Political Participation; Discussion forum; Posts
Solid waste, the ‘Throw-Away’ culture and livelihoods: Problems and prospects in Harare, Zimbabwe
Innocent Chirisa
Journal of Environmental Science and Water Resources , 2013,
Abstract: This paper attempts to demonstrate the dynamics of the solid waste management in Harare amid the growing problem of waste generation in the city. It is pinned on the concept of the throw-away as put across by Alvin Toffler in his semianal of the 1970 entitled ‘Future Shock’. Evidence in Harare shows that, indeed, this is now a lived reality. To deal with the problem, there are a number of solution suggested which include embracing it as a fact but creating livelihoods through solid waste management.
Health standards plummet on occupied farms in Zimbabwe
Sithole Innocent
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003,
Abstract:
Calcium Integrin Binding Protein Associates with Integrins αVβ3 and αIIbβ3 Independent of β3 Activation Motifs  [PDF]
Innocent H. Yamodo, Scott D. Blystone
CellBio (CellBio) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/cellbio.2012.12004
Abstract: The Calcium Integrin Binding protein (CIB) has been identified as interacting specifically with the cytoplasmic tail of the integrin αIIb domain to induce receptor activation and integrin αIIbβ3 mediated cell adhesion to extracellular proteins. In K562 cells stably expressing mutated integrin αVβ3 or chimeric αVβ3 carrying αIIb cytoplasmic tail, we report that the interaction of CIB with β3 integrins is not αIIbβ3 specific but binds αIIb as well as αV cytoplasmic tail domains. A double mutation of two proline residues to alanine residues in the αIIb cytoplasmic domain, previously shown to disturb its conformation, inhibits chimeric αVIIbβ3-CIB interaction. This demonstrates that αIIb cytoplasmic domain loop-like conformation is required for interaction with CIB. Moreover, mutations of β3 cytoplasmic domain residues Tyr-747 and/or Tyr-759 to phenylalanine residues (Y747F, Y759F, and Y747,759F) as well as residues Ser-752 to proline or alanine (S752P and S752A), do not affect the αIIbβ3 or αVβ3 interaction with CIB. Since tyrosine residues Tyr-747 and/or Tyr-759 are the sites of tyrosine phosphorylation of β3 subunit, these results suggest that the β3 integrin-CIB interaction occurs through aβ3-phosphorylation independent mechanism. Likewise, ablation of conformation-dependent affinity change in β3 Ser752Pro mutation had no affect on CIB-β3 interaction. In summary, our results demonstrate that the αIIb-subunit integrin and CIB interaction is non-exclusive and requires the loop-like αIIb-cytoplasmic domain conformation. An interaction of CIB with αV-containing integrins provides an additional role for this molecule in keeping with its expression outside of platelets.
Acute Chest Syndrome in Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia: An Audit in Port Harcourt, Nigeria  [PDF]
Innocent O. George, Chika N. Aiyedun
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.54048
Abstract: Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of death from sickle cell disease worldwide accounting for about 25% of all deaths. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical features and outcome in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study during a five year period. Records of all patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) admitted into the Wards were examined. Those enrolled for the study satisfied two criteria: 1) lower respiratory tract symptoms and 2) new pulmonary infiltrates on the chest radiograph. Sociodemographics, genotype, clinical and laboratory features, treatment given and outcome were obtained. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics. Variables were compared by students’ t-test. P value ≤ 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results: A total of 345 children with sickle cell anaemia were admitted during the 5 year period. Twelve of them had acute chest syndrome (3.5%). Majority 7 (58.3%) of them were under 5 years. There were more males 8 (66.7%) than female 4 (33.3%). The most common clinical features were fever 12 (100%), cough 10 (83.3%), chest pain 5 (41.7%), pulmonary consolidation 12 (100%), and respiratory distress 12 (100%). The admitting diagnosis were bronchopneumonia 6 (50%), severe malaria 3 (25%) and vaso-occlusive crises 3 (25%). There were very high levels of leukocyte. Received ceftriaxone or ampicillin + gentamicin ± oral erythromycin), paracetamol 12 (100%), ibuprofen 8 (66.7%), tramadol 3 (25.0%), pentazocine 8 (66.7%) and blood transfusion 9 (75%). The average length of stay was 7 days (range 4 - 14 days). One patient died (8.3%). Conclusion: ACS is not uncommon in children with SCA in Port Harcourt. Education of parents on the need to recognize early symptoms of the disease is essential. Clinicians must be trained to correctly diagnose and manage it promptly and efficiently to avoid its related disastrous consequences.
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