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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 284 matches for " Inna Cherevach "
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Independent evolution of the core and accessory gene sets in the genus Neisseria: insights gained from the genome of Neisseria lactamica isolate 020-06
Julia S Bennett, Stephen D Bentley, Georgios S Vernikos, Michael A Quail, Inna Cherevach, Brian White, Julian Parkhill, Martin CJ Maiden
BMC Genomics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-11-652
Abstract: Non-pathogenic N. lactamica exhibits very similar population structure and levels of diversity to the meningococcus, whilst gonococci are essentially recent descendents of a single clone. All three species share a common core gene set estimated to comprise around 1190 CDSs, corresponding to about 60% of the genome. However, some of the nucleotide sequence diversity within this core genome is particular to each group, indicating that cross-species recombination is rare in this shared core gene set. Other than the meningococcal cps region, which encodes the polysaccharide capsule, relatively few members of the large accessory gene pool are exclusive to one species group, and cross-species recombination within this accessory genome is frequent.The three Neisseria species groups represent coherent biological and genetic groupings which appear to be maintained by low rates of inter-species horizontal genetic exchange within the core genome. There is extensive evidence for exchange among positively selected genes and the accessory genome and some evidence of hitch-hiking of housekeeping genes with other loci. It is not possible to define a 'pathogenome' for this group of organisms and the disease causing phenotypes are therefore likely to be complex, polygenic, and different among the various disease-associated phenotypes observed.Comparison of the genomes of related bacteria that exhibit distinct pathogenic phenotypes can identify the genetic traits required for invasion and elucidate key steps in the evolution of virulence. The genus Neisseria, which comprises Gram negative oxidase positive diplococci that colonise the mucosa of humans and animals, provides an excellent model for this type of study as it includes species that are never or rarely pathogenic and two human pathogens of global significance, Neisseria meningitidis (the meningococcus) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus) [1]. Neisseria lactamica is closely related to the pathogenic Neisseria [2,3] and,
The Region of Matching of Central-Asian Mobile Belt and Pacific Mobile Belt  [PDF]
Inna Derbeko
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.43055
Abstract:

Central Asian and Pacific mobile belts are the two geological superstructures of Eastern Asia. They keep many geological secrets. There is a region of the interaction of the structures in the frames of the margin ofEast Asia. The region is ambiguous. It is denominated in tectonic superposition or covering (interference) of the segments of the structures. The main goal of the research work is to establish the boundary line of the jointing of two superstructures. Here we show the role of the Mesozoic tectonic restructuring and magmatism in the interaction of the structures. The region of their jointing is the boundary line between Bureja-Jziamusy and Badzhal terrains. The boundary line in the frames of Mongol-Okhotsk orogenic belt is disputable. Geochronological and paleomagnetic data and chemical composition of the volcano-plutonic rocks of the eastern margin of Mongol-Okhotsk belt and of the structures of Central-Asian mobile belt were recently obtained. The data allow us to review the region of the joint of the two structures of easternAsia. It was suggested to draw the boundary line of the joint (in this case-interference) of Central Asian mobile belt and Pacific mobile belt in the frames of the eastern margin of Mongol-Okhotsk orogenic belt along the margin of the disappearance of late Mesozoic oversubductional volcano-plutonic complexes in the western direction. The structure of Bureja-Jziamusy superterrain was related to the structures of the Pacific mobile belt. The proposed model of the region of jointing of two East Asian superstructures enables us to reconsider the tectonic and geodynamical and metallogeny schemes of evolution of the Eastern margin ofAsia.

DIAGNOSTICS CONCEPTION OF ELECTRICAL DRIVE OF A HYBRID VEHICLE
Y. Borodenko,А. Cherevach
Аvtomob?lnyi Transport , 2012,
Abstract: Conceptual approach to creat the diagnostic system of the power elements of the electric drive of the hybrid vehicle has been considered. Approbation of the imitation model of electric drive with brushless DC electric motor as a diagnostic object has been carried out.
Necessity for Vitamin D Screening among Urban Bedouin Women of Childbearing Age  [PDF]
Inna Rudoy, Ilia Volkov
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.75066
Abstract: Vitamin D (Vit D) plays multiple roles in bodily functions. Vit D deficiency is a common, but often under-diagnosed condition with possible serious complications. According to some research, Vit D is important particularly among women and children. No data were found concerning the Vit D status among urban Bedouin women of childbearing age. The research study is retrospective and descriptive. We analyzed 202 medical histories of patients undergoing blood tests for Vit D level for various reasons. The main objectives of the research were: 1) determining the prevalence of the Vit D deficiency among the Bedouin women of childbearing age; 2) identifying the causes for the physicians’ reasons for suspecting Vit D deficiency: the complaints or symptoms which cause the doctor to test for Vit D level. As a result, in 80.7% of those tested for Vit D, levels were less than 10 ng/ml, and in 19.3%, levels of 10 to 20 ng/ml were found. In lieu of our findings and in order to prevent serious health problems, Vit D screening plan should be seriously considered and discussed in the Bedouin population with high risk of deficiency.
Religion: A Subset of Culture and an Expression of Spirituality  [PDF]
Inna Reddy Edara
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2017.74015
Abstract: Cultures or cultural values, which are described as constructively created behaviors based on collective beliefs, are omnipresent at multiple levels in every human behavior and interaction, including in the sphere of religion. Scholars described religion as a cultural system of symbols, which establish powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods and motivations and naturalized conceptions of a general order of existence. Thus, religion is considered to be a part of culture and it acts as one among many forms of overtly expressing and experiencing spirituality that is inward, personal, subjective, transcendental, and unsystematic. In other words, cultural values are seen as a foundation to religiosity. Based on this assumption, this paper reviewed the literature to provide empirical evidence to the overt practice of religiosity that is embedded in particular cultural experiences and values as a form of expressing and experiencing the human universal of spirituality.
Social and Spiritual Dimensions as Protective Factors in the Relationship between Acculturative Stress and Subjective Well-Being among International Students in Taiwan  [PDF]
Inna Reddy Edara
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.97096
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to use the resilience model in investigating the selected factors that reduce acculturative stress and promote well-being among international students in Taiwan. Research has indicated that acculturative stress has been identified as a major issue experienced by many international students in various host countries, resulting in an increase in mental illness and decrease in well-being. A few international studies suggested that factors such as social support and coping strategies mitigated the effects of acculturative stress on negative emotions. In the absence of such studies and as the international student population continues to increase in Taiwan, this project examined the role of social connectedness, social assurance, and spiritual well-being as potential mediators or protective factors in the relationship between acculturative stress and subjective well-being (positive affect and satisfaction with life) in a sample of international students. Data from 214 participants were subjected to regression analyses to analyze for mediation effects. The results indicated significant effects of social connectedness and spiritual well-being on subjective well-being. Of the two significant mediators, social connectedness emerged as a stronger mediator, accounting for 53% and 55% of the mediation effect on positive affect and satisfaction with life, respectively. Spiritual well-being accounted for 7% and 4% of the variance, respectively. These results validate the resilient and positive psychology model, in which the resilience part evades pathological signs when individuals are exposed to stressors, while the positive aspect promotes subjective well-being. These results are discussed in detail and the implication of such results for building appropriate social and spiritual resources and designing interventions are elucidated.
The Genome of a Pathogenic Rhodococcus: Cooptive Virulence Underpinned by Key Gene Acquisitions
Michal Letek,Patricia González,Iain MacArthur,Héctor Rodríguez,Tom C. Freeman,Ana Valero-Rello,Mónica Blanco,Tom Buckley,Inna Cherevach,Ruth Fahey,Alexia Hapeshi,Jolyon Holdstock,Desmond Leadon,Jesús Navas,Alain Ocampo,Michael A. Quail,Mandy Sanders,Mariela M. Scortti,John F. Prescott,Ursula Fogarty,Wim G. Meijer,Julian Parkhill,Stephen D. Bentley,José A. Vázquez-Boland
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001145
Abstract: We report the genome of the facultative intracellular parasite Rhodococcus equi, the only animal pathogen within the biotechnologically important actinobacterial genus Rhodococcus. The 5.0-Mb R. equi 103S genome is significantly smaller than those of environmental rhodococci. This is due to genome expansion in nonpathogenic species, via a linear gain of paralogous genes and an accelerated genetic flux, rather than reductive evolution in R. equi. The 103S genome lacks the extensive catabolic and secondary metabolic complement of environmental rhodococci, and it displays unique adaptations for host colonization and competition in the short-chain fatty acid–rich intestine and manure of herbivores—two main R. equi reservoirs. Except for a few horizontally acquired (HGT) pathogenicity loci, including a cytoadhesive pilus determinant (rpl) and the virulence plasmid vap pathogenicity island (PAI) required for intramacrophage survival, most of the potential virulence-associated genes identified in R. equi are conserved in environmental rhodococci or have homologs in nonpathogenic Actinobacteria. This suggests a mechanism of virulence evolution based on the cooption of existing core actinobacterial traits, triggered by key host niche–adaptive HGT events. We tested this hypothesis by investigating R. equi virulence plasmid-chromosome crosstalk, by global transcription profiling and expression network analysis. Two chromosomal genes conserved in environmental rhodococci, encoding putative chorismate mutase and anthranilate synthase enzymes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, were strongly coregulated with vap PAI virulence genes and required for optimal proliferation in macrophages. The regulatory integration of chromosomal metabolic genes under the control of the HGT–acquired plasmid PAI is thus an important element in the cooptive virulence of R. equi.
The genome of Rhizobium leguminosarum has recognizable core and accessory components
J Peter W Young, Lisa C Crossman, Andrew WB Johnston, Nicholas R Thomson, Zara F Ghazoui, Katherine H Hull, Margaret Wexler, Andrew RJ Curson, Jonathan D Todd, Philip S Poole, Tim H Mauchline, Alison K East, Michael A Quail, Carol Churcher, Claire Arrowsmith, Inna Cherevach, Tracey Chillingworth, Kay Clarke, Ann Cronin, Paul Davis, Audrey Fraser, Zahra Hance, Heidi Hauser, Kay Jagels, Sharon Moule, Karen Mungall, Halina Norbertczak, Ester Rabbinowitsch, Mandy Sanders, Mark Simmonds, Sally Whitehead, Julian Parkhill
Genome Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2006-7-4-r34
Abstract: The 7.75 Mb genome comprises a circular chromosome and six circular plasmids, with 61% G+C overall. All three rRNA operons and 52 tRNA genes are on the chromosome; essential protein-encoding genes are largely chromosomal, but most functional classes occur on plasmids as well. Of the 7,263 protein-encoding genes, 2,056 had orthologs in each of three related genomes (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Mesorhizobium loti), and these genes were over-represented in the chromosome and had above average G+C. Most supported the rRNA-based phylogeny, confirming A. tumefaciens to be the closest among these relatives, but 347 genes were incompatible with this phylogeny; these were scattered throughout the genome but were over-represented on the plasmids. An unexpectedly large number of genes were shared by all three rhizobia but were missing from A. tumefaciens.Overall, the genome can be considered to have two main components: a 'core', which is higher in G+C, is mostly chromosomal, is shared with related organisms, and has a consistent phylogeny; and an 'accessory' component, which is sporadic in distribution, lower in G+C, and located on the plasmids and chromosomal islands. The accessory genome has a different nucleotide composition from the core despite a long history of coexistence.The symbiosis between legumes and N2-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) is of huge agronomic benefit, allowing many crops to be grown without N fertilizer. It is a sophisticated example of coupled development between bacteria and higher plants, culminating in the organogenesis of root nodules [1]. There have been many genetic analyses of rhizobia, notably of Sinorhizobium meliloti (the symbiont of alfalfa), Bradyrhizobium japonicum (soybean), and Rhizobium leguminosarum, which has biovars that nodulate peas and broad beans (biovar viciae), clovers (biovar trifolii), or kidney beans (biovar phaseoli).The Rhizobiales, an α-proteobacterial order that also includes mammalian pathogens B
Information and Signs: The Language of Images
Inna Semetsky
Entropy , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/e12030528
Abstract: Since time immemorial, philosophers and scientists were searching for a “machine code” of the so-called Mentalese language capable of processing information at the pre-verbal, pre-expressive level. In this paper I suggest that human languages are only secondary to the system of primitive extra-linguistic signs which are hardwired in humans and serve as tools for understanding selves and others; and creating meanings for the multiplicity of experiences. The combinatorial semantics of the Mentalese may find its unorthodox expression in the semiotic system of Tarot images, the latter serving as the ”keys” to the encoded proto-mental information. The paper uses some works in systems theory by Erich Jantsch and Erwin Laszlo and relates Tarot images to the archetypes of the field of collective unconscious posited by Carl Jung. Our subconscious beliefs, hopes, fears and desires, of which we may be unaware at the subjective level, do have an objective compositional structure that may be laid down in front of our eyes in the format of pictorial semiotics representing the universe of affects, thoughts, and actions. Constructing imaginative narratives based on the expressive “language” of Tarot images enables us to anticipate possible consequences and consider a range of future options . The thesis advanced in this paper is also supported by the concept of informational universe of contemporary cosmology.
Mass media education in the USSR in 1930 and 1960
Inna Kozachenko
Koncept : Scientific and Methodological e-magazine , 2013,
Abstract: The article considers the basic stages of development of media education in the USSR in the pre-war and post-war years. Describes the intensification of the implementation of media education in secondary schools, as well as popularization it in mass media and publishing specialized magazines for different ages.
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