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The Health and Well-Being among Children with Diabetes and Low HbA1c—A Qualitative Study in Sweden  [PDF]
Lena Lendahls, Ingrid Edvardsson
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.105044
Abstract: Aims and objectives: To examine health and well-being, as well as the need for support among children and parents where the child has T1DM with low HbA1c (<52 mmol/mole). The purpose was also to investigate the extent to which children’s and parents’ experiences match. Introduction: Studies have shown that children with diabetes type 1 (T1DM) rate their lives as worse than healthy peer ratings. In Sweden, views have been expressed that children, as well as their parents, feel pressurized by the diabetes teams to achieve low HbA1c values, which can lead to poorer mental health for the family. Design: A qualitative study. Methods: A consecutive sample of 11 children and their parents (one father, ten mothers) was interviewed together but individually guided by a semi structured interview guide. Interviews were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results: Four main categories were consistent across children and their parents; 1) attitude to the illness, 2) sadness about diabetes, 3) the importance of the social network, and 4) the importance of the diabetes team. Worries about hyperglycemia were more prominent than worries about hypoglycemia in both children and parents. A distinguishing feature of the interviewed children was that they were responsible, strict and targeted. Many of them were competitive and took part in various sports, even at a very advanced level. Conclusions: This study shows that children with low HbA1c values experience good health and good well-being. Family support, good planning, and high acceptance of their illness contributed to this.
Experiences of Being Non-Smoking among Adolescents in a Smoking Context  [PDF]
Ingrid Edvardsson, Dorthe Geisler, Lena Lendahls
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.611140
Abstract: Introduction: A study among Greenlandic 13-year-old showed that 68 percent for boys and 55 percent for girls, and at age 15, 46 percent of the boys and 32 percent of the girls were non-smokers. A literature review showed that the behaviour of parents and peers, attitudes and expectations were crucial factors for the smoking habits of adolescents. Young adults would more likely start smoking if their parents, older siblings and/or friends were smokers. Parental support has been proven to be a preventive factor against smoking, especially if the school and leisure centers get involved. Group pressure, directly or indirectly, is often described as the most important reason why adolescents start smoking. The purpose was to study why some adolescents choose to be smoke-free in a society where the norm is to smoke. Methods: Adolescents who were non-smokers were interviewed in focus groups. The material was analysed using content analysis. Results: The contents analysis of the text resulted in eleven categories. Based on these, four themes were developed. These themes covered areas on the reasons for being smoke-free; how the smoke-free adolescents generally felt about smokers from a society or environment perspective, and also specifically from an individual perspective, such as how smokers took up space and did not show any consideration. There was a feeling among non-smokers of not belonging and of ambivalence, as well as a perspective of the future for adolescents in Greenland and an uncertainty about what would be required for a smoke-free environment. Conclusions: In a context where the norm is to smoke, the adolescents need to make a conscious choice to be smoke-free, and there were different reasons for this choice. This choice means becoming an outsider in their group of peers as well as the overall social culture. Smokers were seen as taking up too much space, as their needs ruled and this was deemed inconsiderate.
The social environment is most important for not using snus or smoking among adolescents  [PDF]
Ingrid Edvardsson, Lena Lendahls, Tobias Andersson, G?ran Ejlertsson
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.412184
Abstract: Aims: To identify factors, which were related to being smoke-free and snus-free, respectively, among adolescents in relation to adolescents who were smoking and/or using snus, and determine if there were any sex differences. Methods: A questionnaire study was performed among students in year two in upper secondary schools (17-years-old) in southern Sweden in 2009. More than 2200 students completed the questionnaire regarding health and living habits anonymously. The variables were tested by χ2-test, before selection into the logistic model. Because of the salutogenic approach in the study, the results of the logistic regression analyses were expressed as Positive Odds Ratio (POR). Results: The prevalence of being smoke- free was 75.6 percent for girls and 70.2 percent for boys, whilst the prevalence of being snus- free was 95.1 percent for girls and 70.2 percent for boys. Having a tobacco-free best friend was the most important factor that correlated with being smoke- and snus-free as an adolescent, for both boys and girls. Good living habits, such as drinking less alcohol, were also central to being smoke-free and snus-free. Conclusions: The results show that a tobacco-free environment has a great influence on whether or not adolescents stay tobacco-free. As the environment has a big impact, the school has a big challenge to work with the school environment and policies but also with family responsibility, norms and attitudes to tobacco.
Giving offspring a healthy start: parents' experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood
Kristina Edvardsson, Anneli Ivarsson, Eva Eurenius, Rickard Garvare, Monica E Nystr?m, Rhonda Small, Ingrid Mogren
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-936
Abstract: Between June and December 2010 twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted separately with first-time mothers and fathers when their child had reached 18 months of age. The aim was to explore their experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. Qualitative manifest and latent content analysis was applied.Parents reported undertaking lifestyle changes to secure the health of the fetus during pregnancy, and in early parenthood to create a health-promoting environment for the child. Both women and men portrayed themselves as highly receptive to health messages regarding the effect of their lifestyle on fetal health, and they frequently mentioned risks related to tobacco and alcohol, as well as toxins and infectious agents in specific foods. However, health promotion strategies in pregnancy and early parenthood did not seem to influence parents to make lifestyle change primarily to promote their own health; a healthy lifestyle was simply perceived as 'common knowledge'. Although trust in health care was generally high, both women and men described some resistance to what they saw as preaching, or very directive counselling about healthy living and the lack of a holistic approach from health care providers. They also reported insufficient engagement with fathers in antenatal care and child health care.Perceptions about risks to the offspring's health appear to be the primary driving force for lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. However, as parents' motivation to prioritise their own health per se seems to be low during this period, future health promoting programmes need to take this into account. A more gender equal provision of health promotion to parents might increase men's involvement in lifestyle change. Furthermore, parents' ranking of major lifestyle risks to the fetus may not sufficiently reflect those that constitute greatest public health concern, an area for further study.The opportunity for
Sustainable practice change: Professionals' experiences with a multisectoral child health promotion programme in Sweden
Kristina Edvardsson, Rickard Garvare, Anneli Ivarsson, Eva Eurenius, Ingrid Mogren, Monica E Nystr?m
BMC Health Services Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-11-61
Abstract: All professionals involved in the Salut Programme's pilot areas were interviewed between May and September 2009, approximately two years after the intervention package was established and implemented. Participants (n = 23) were midwives, child health nurses, dental hygienists/dental nurses, and pre-school teachers. Transcribed data underwent qualitative content analysis to illuminate perceived facilitators, barriers, and requirements for programme sustainability.The programme was described as sustainable at most sites, except in child health care. The perception of facilitators, barriers, and requirements were largely shared across sectors. Facilitators included being actively involved in intervention development and small-scale testing, personal values corresponding to programme intentions, regular meetings, working close with collaborators, using manuals and a clear programme branding. Existing or potential barriers included insufficient managerial involvement and support and perceived constraints regarding time and resources. In dental health care, barriers also included conflicting incentives for performance. Many facilitators and barriers identified by participants also reflected their perceptions of more general and forthcoming requirements for programme sustainability.These results contribute to the knowledge of processes involved in achieving sustainability in health promotion initiatives. Facilitating factors include involving front-line professionals in intervention development and using small scale testing; however, the success of a programme requires paying attention to the role of managerial support and an overall supportive system. In summary, these results emphasise the importance for both practitioners and researchers to pay attention to parallel processes at different levels in multidisciplinary improvement efforts intended to ensure sustainable practice change.Vast evidence shows that conditions during the foetal period, infancy, and childhood can
Cluster headache and arachnoid cyst
Bengt Edvardsson and Staffan Persson
SpringerPlus , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2193-1801-2-4
Abstract: Neuroimaging, preferably contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging should always be considered in patients with cluster headache despite normal neurological examination. Late-onset cluster headache represents a condition that requires careful evaluation. Supra- and intrasellar arachnoid cyst can present as cluster headache.
Blepharospasm and vitamin B12 deficiency
Edvardsson Bengt,Persson Staffan
Neurology India , 2010,
Carbon Abundances in F and G Dwarfs
Helena Andersson,Bengt Edvardsson
Physics , 1994,
Abstract: We have determined carbon abundances or upper limits from the forbidden [C I] line at 8727.13 A for 85 F and early G type main sequence stars, with metallicities ranging between [Fe/H] = -1.0 and [Fe/H] = +0.25. The [C I] line has not been previously used for a study of this size. We find that the C/Fe abundance ratio is slowly decreasing with time and increasing metallicity in the disk, but with considerable observational scatter. A discussion of results in the literature supports this result. Our data do not reveal any gradients with galactocentric birth distance for our stars, but more accurate observations are desirable since possible gradients should be important to the question of the synthesis of C and Fe in the disk. (Accepted for publication in A&A. Postscript text and figures available via anonymous ftp to "chiron.astro.uu.se", in directory "pub/articles/atmos/P89")
Alpha-process elements in the Galaxy: a possible GAIA contribution
Grazina Tautvaisiene,Bengt Edvardsson
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1023/A:1015539214300
Abstract: The sensitivity of stellar spectra to alpha/Fe abundance changes is investigated with the aim to be detected photometricly and employed for scientific goals of the GAIA mission. A grid of plane parallel, line blanketed, flux constant, LTE model atmospheres with different [alpha/Fe] ratios was calculated. As a first step, the modelled stellar energy fluxes for solar-type stars and giants were computed and intercompared. The spectral sensitivity talpha/Fe abundance changes is noticeable and has to be taken into account when selecting photometric filters for GAIA. The Ca II H and K lines and Mg I b triplet are the most sensitive direct indicators of alpha/Fe abundance changes.
The boron absorption line at 2089.6 AA in HD 140283 ?
P. Thoren,B. Edvardsson
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: We have observed the B I line at 2089.6 AA in the metal poor star HD 140283 with HST/STIS. The observation was an attempt to confirm the B abundances derived from the 2497 AA B I line in earlier works in general, and for for this star in particular (Edvardsson et al. 1994 A&A 290, 176; Kiselman & Carlsson 1996, A&A 311, 680). The resulting spectrum gained from 8 orbits of observations is hardly consistent with the boron abundance derived in the earlier works. A pure 10^B line could produce the feature observed but no reasonable process can produce such a ratio between 10^B and 11^B. More likely the analysed feature is affected by a statistical fluctuation. A conservative upper limit estimate of the NLTE corrected boron abundance gives a value marginally consistent with that derived from the 2497 AA line. We are proposing further observations to derive a more definite abundance from the line.
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