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Association between Body Image Dissatisfaction and Goals for Physical Activity Practice in Fitness Center  [PDF]
Cristina Bonoto Vieira Da Cunha, Ingi Petitemberte Klain, Airton José Rombaldi, José Carlos Leitao
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104621
Verifying the association between body image dissatisfaction and goals to the physical activity practice. The sample consisted of 299 goers of fitness center, of both genders, with ages between 16 and 50 years old. Information about gender, age, educational level, socioeconomic level and goals for the physical activity practice were collected using a previously tests questionnaire. Regarding the goals, the participants should identify if the motivation for the practice was related to aspects health, aesthetic or social relationships aspects, choosing yes or no. The body image was determined using the set of silhouettes and to verifying the body image dissatisfaction we considered the difference between the current silhouette and the ideal silhouette pointed out by the individuals. Numerical variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and categorical variables as absolute and relative frequency. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to verify the associations among goals to the practice, gender, and age group. Analysis of variance was used to verify the associations between the goals to the practice and the body image dissatisfaction. There was a low statistically significant correlation between body mass index and body image dissatisfaction (rs0.29 - p < 0.001). The proportion of women (69%) who practiced physical activity with aesthetics goals was higher than that of men (31%). In addition, 92% of the sample showed body image dissatisfaction. Regarding the goals to the physical activity practice, men aimed more muscular body while the women wished more lean body. Men and women have different perceptions regarding body image.
Means of Information and Media and the Influence for the Practice of Physical Activity  [PDF]
Cristina Bonoto Vieira Da Cunha, Ingi Petitemberte Klain, Airton José Rombaldi, José Carlos Leitao
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104635
The purpose of this study was to verify which means of information has the most influence for the practice of physical activity among fitness centers goers. The sample consisted of 299 individuals of both genders, in the age range of 16 to 50 years old. A biosociodemographic questionnaire was used to collect data on gender, age, educational level, socioeconomic level and means of access to information. The scores obtained with this research were typed in spreadsheet and later transferred to the statistical package SPSS version 17.0 for Windows where they received statistical treatment. Of the total number of respondents, 62.2% were female; the majority were aged between 16 and 30 years (63.2%); in the most prevalent category, those were graduated at university (46.8%); and 85.3% belonged to social strata A and B. In relation to the media that most influenced them to practice physical activity, the internet ranked first (84.95%), followed by television (83.95%), newspaper (50.84%), radio (45.48%), magazines (23.08%) and others (4.35%).
Quality of Life in Fitness Centers Goers  [PDF]
Cristina Bonoto Vieira da Cunha, Ingi Petitemberte Klain, Airton José Rombaldi, José Carlos Leitao
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104647
The purpose of this study was to verify the association between physical activity frequency and quality of life among fitness centers goers. Participants were 299 individuals of both genders, who attended eight fitness centers. For the collect of sociodemographic data, weekly frequency, duration and time of practice of physical activity, a biosociodemographic questionnaire was used. The quality of life was measured using the WHOQOL-100 questionnaire. Numerical variables were described as mean ± standard deviation or median (25 percentile—75 percentile) and categorical variables as absolute or relative frequency. The associations between quality of life and weekly frequency of physical activity were evaluated using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Comparisons between quality of life and gender, age group, duration of training, schooling and socioeconomic level were tested through analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test. A probability value of P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the total number of respondents, 62.2% were women; 54.9% practiced physical activity four or more times a week and 69.6% had practice lasting up to 90 minutes. There were statistically significant differences between the duration of physical activity in terms of physical, psychological, independence and facet 25, which evaluates the general quality of life. Subjects with prolonged frequency (0.3%) obtained the best scores in relation to the domains, physical and psychological. Men had a higher score than women in the psychological domain and level of independence. There were no statistically significant differences in quality of life among the different age groups. It’s concluded that the more active people are, the better their quality of life is.
Relationship between maturity levels and neuromuscular capacity among youth soccer players and individuals not practicing soccer  [PDF]
Dihogo Gama de Matos, Estélio Henrique Martin Dantas, Felipe José Aidar, Aldo Coelho Silva, Bernardo Minelli Rodrigues, Ingi Klain, Robert C. Hickner, André Luiz Carneiro, Mauro Lucio Mazini Filho
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.51005

The aim of this study was to compare maturational stage and neuromuscular skills among soccer players and non-athletes, as well as to investigate the relationship between maturation and neuromuscular performance. Twenty five adolescent males (14.3 ± 0.45 years) participated in the study and were divided into two groups: soccer players (SP – n = 13, 14.1 ± 0.3 years, 58.9 ± 6.90 kg, 1.72 ± 0.04 m, 19.9 ± 1.7 kg·m2, 13.3% ± 4.3% fat) and non-athletes (NA – n = 12, 14.5 ± 0.5 years, 57.3 ± 6.9 kg, 1,67 ± 0.06 m, 20.6 ± 3.9 kg·m2, 14.0% ± 5.7% fat). The square test and 20 m speed test were used to assess agility and speed, respectively. The Tanner self-assessment of pubic hair and genitalia development test was used to estimate maturational development. The Shapiro Wilk test was used to verify the normality of samples. For any data not normally distributed, the non-parametric Mann Whitney test, as well as Kendall’s Tau correlation test, were used. The p-values determined for agility (p = 0.017) and speed (p = 0.054) indicated that agility was the only variable significantly different between SP and NA. The SP and NA groups showed no difference in the levels of maturation (p = 0.41), and maturational status was not significantly correlated with agility (r = 0.013) or speed (r = ?0.003). Conclusion: Individuals who practiced football had better results for the agility test than non-athletes, even with no difference between the degree of maturation and speed. There is a low correlation between level of maturity and agility or speed.

Analysis of hemodynamic responses to resistance exercise performed with different intensities and recovery intervals  [PDF]
Dihogo Gama de Matos, Felipe José Aidar, Mauro Lucio Mazini Filho, Rosimar da Silva Salgueiro, Jordana Cristina de Oliveira, Ingi P. Klain, Robert C. Hickner, André Luis Carneiro, Estélio Henrique Martin Dantas
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.52021
Abstract: This aim of the present study was to analyze the hemodynamic responses during resistance exercise performed at different intensities and with different recovery intervals. This study was conducted on twenty-four apparently healthy male individuals (25.50 ± 3.72 years and 76.50 ± 4.50 kg) experienced in strength training. The volunteers performed a 1RM test to determine the training load for the study. Blood pressure and Rate Pressure Product were measured before and at the end of the exercise training. The only significant difference observed was in SBP during strength training at 70% intensity (121.7 ± 8.68, p = 0.039), which was lower than SBP at the remaining intensities of 80% (126.3 ± 7.11) and 90% (127.1 ± 7.51). It was concluded that strength training performed at different intensities and recovery intervals did not significantly alter most variables, changing only the SBP due to the intensity employed.
Is Amplification a Special Intervention in Group Analysis?
Eduard Klain
Acta Medica Saliniana , 2010, DOI: 10.5457/ams.141.10
Abstract: Amplification as a group-analysis-intervention has been neglected. Clinical experience has revealed it useful in advancing the development of the group process if used adequately and in due time. Danger of an inadequate amplification is most cases stimulated with the contratransferential problems of the therapist, and is as such in the group session presentations. The relations between resonance and amplification, just as well as the confrontation through the means of amplification are discussed in the article. The constructive and destructive effects of the amplification on formulation of the group-matrix are presented. Terms of “extended” and “distant” amplification are introduced.
Ingi Iusmen
Romanian Journal of European Affairs (RJEA) , 2009,
Abstract: This article examines EU’s involvement in human rights from the perspective of a promoter of human rights norms. It is argued that a human rights EUtopia has emerged, i.e. there is a gap between the real and normative EU -when it comes to human rights - which affects the credibility of the EU’s human rights regime. The EU lacks a solid legal entrenchment of human rights and there are different degrees of human rights protection in the Member States which amount to different hierarchical concepts of human rights. There are legal shortcomings regarding EU’s human rights promotion to third countries, while the Copenhagen human rights conditionality attached to EU accession was vaguely stated and was not underpinned by EU internal human rights templates. Furthermore, the screening process of the candidates- by the use of double standards - entailed EU’s involvement in matters falling outside its own internal remits. Hence the credibility of the EU human rights regime is jeopardised by its attempt to export human rights externally– hence the normative and utopian claims – without having a real, substantial legal entrenchment of human rights internally.
Covering shadows with a smaller volume
Daniel A. Klain
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: For each i = 1, ..., n constructions are given for convex bodies K and L in n-dimensional Euclidean space such that each rank i orthogonal projection of K can be translated inside the corresponding projection of L, even though K has strictly larger m-th intrinsic volumes (i.e. V_m(K) > V_m(L)) for all m > i. It is then shown that, for each i = 1, ..., n, there is a class of bodies C{n,i}, called i-cylinder bodies of R^n, such that, if the body L with i-dimensional covering shadows is an i-cylinder body, then K will have smaller n-volume than L. The families C{n,i} are shown to form a strictly increasing chain of subsets C{n,1} < C{n,2} < ... < C{n,n-1} < C{n,n}, where C{n,1} is precisely the collection of centrally symmetric compact convex sets in n-dimensional space, while C{n,n} is the collection of all compact convex sets in n-dimensional space. Members of each family C{n,i} are seen to play a fundamental role in relating covering conditions for projections to the theory of mixed volumes, and members of C{n,i} are shown to satisfy certain geometric inequalities. Related open questions are also posed.
Bonnesen-type inequalities for surfaces of constant curvature
Daniel A. Klain
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: A Bonnesen-type inequality is a sharp isoperimetric inequality that includes an error estimate in terms of inscribed and circumscribed regions. A kinematic technique is used to prove a Bonnesen-type inequality for the Euclidean sphere (having constant positive Gauss curvature) and the hyperbolic plane (having constant negative Gauss curvature). These generalized inequalities each converge to the classical Bonnesen-type inequality for the Euclidean plane as the curvature approaches zero.
If you can hide behind it, can you hide inside it?
Daniel A. Klain
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: Let L be a compact convex set in R^n, and let 1 <= d <= n-1. The set L is defined to be d-decomposable if L is a direct Minkowski sum (affine Cartesian product) of two or more convex bodies each of dimension at most d. A compact convex set L is called d-reliable if, whenever each d-dimensional orthogonal projection of L contains a translate of the corresponding d-dimensional projection of a compact convex set K, it must follow that L contains a translate of K. It is shown that, for 1 <= d <= n-1: (1) d-decomposability implies d-reliability. (2) A compact convex set L in R^n is d-reliable if and only if, for all m >= d+2, no m unit normals to regular boundary points of L form the outer unit normals of a (m-1)-dimensional simplex. (3) Smooth convex bodies are not d-reliable. (4) A compact convex set L in R^n is 1-reliable if and only if L is 1-decomposable (i.e. a parallelotope). (5) A centrally symmetric compact convex set L in R^n is 2-reliable if and only if L is 2-decomposable. However, there are non-centered 2-reliable convex bodies that are not 2-decomposable.
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