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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 574 matches for " Infected Immigrants "
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Mathematical Analysis of Control Strategies of HCV in a Community with Inflow of Infected Immigrants  [PDF]
Neterindwa Ainea, Estomih S. Massawe, Oluwole Daniel Makinde, Lucy Namkinga
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2015.51001
Abstract: In this paper, we derive and analyse rigorously a mathematical model of control strategies (screening, education, health care and immunization) of HCV in a community with inflow of infected immigrants. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the model is performed with respect to stability of the disease free and endemic equilibria. The results show that the disease free equilibrium is locally stable at threshold parameter less than unity and unstable at threshold parameter greater than unity. Using Lyapunov method, endemic equilibrium is globally stable under certain conditions. Numerical simulation of the model is implemented to investigate the sensitivity of certain key parameters on the HCV model in a community with inflow of infected immigrants. However, analysis shows that screening, education, health care and immunization have the effect of reducing the transmission of the disease in the community.
A Mathematical Modelling of the Effect of Treatment in the Control of Malaria in a Population with Infected Immigrants  [PDF]
Olaniyi S. Maliki, Ngwu Romanus, Bruno O. Onyemegbulem
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/am.2018.911081
Abstract:
In this work, we developed a compartmental bio-mathematical model to study the effect of treatment in the control of malaria in a population with infected immigrants. In particular, the vector-host population model consists of eleven variables, for which graphical profiles were provided to depict their individual variations with time. This was possible with the help of MathCAD software which implements the Runge-Kutta numerical algorithm to solve numerically the eleven differential equations representing the vector-host malaria population model. We computed the basic reproduction ratio R0 following the next generation matrix. This procedure converts a system of ordinary differential equations of a model of infectious disease dynamics to an operator that translates from one generation of infectious individuals to the next. We obtained R0 = \"\", i.e., the square root of the product of the basic reproduction ratios for the mosquito and human populations respectively. R0m explains the number of humans that one mosquito can infect through contact during the life time it survives as infectious. R0h on the other hand describes the number of mosquitoes that are infected through contacts with the infectious human during infectious period. Sensitivity analysis was performed for the parameters of the model to help us know which parameters in particular have high impact on the disease transmission, in other words on the basic reproduction ratio R0.
Transverse Incision for the Management of Infected Non-Unions of Tibia  [PDF]
Mussa Wardak, Emal Wardak, Ajmal Wardak
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.35050
Abstract: We are describing a transverse incision that we have found very useful in performing surgical procedures where the fractured site needs freshening, excision of the necrotic bones or shortening. Operative procedures using this technique have been extensively used by us since 1980 and we have registered 1187 cases with average follow up of 10 years. The incision is transverse and can be performed in any part of leg and extends from 1 cm lateral to anterior border of the tibia and runs medially till 1 cm medial to medial border of tibia. The incision allows adequate visualization of the interested area, less of periosteal stripping, ease of closure, no post operative wound dehiscence and cosmetically very much acceptable.
Comparison of the Efficacy of Two Commercial Coccidicidal Compounds on Experimentally Infected Dogs  [PDF]
Froylán Ibarra-Velarde, Yolanda Vera-Montenegro, Nelyda Salda?a-Hernández, Pedro Ochoa-Galván
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.513127
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to compare the coccidicidal efficacy of two commercial compounds for artificially infected dogs. Eighteen cocccidia-free dogs, male and female aged between 2 and 4 months old, were infected each with 20,000 Cystoisospora oocists cultured under laboratory conditions. When the poppies showed high counts of oocysts per gramm (OPG) (McMaster method), they were divided into 3 groups (G). G1 was treated with a compound named One® (Lab. Bio Zoo) containing 150 mg of toltrazuril/tablet, administered daily/5days dosing 1 tablet per 10 kg b.w. G2 received Giacoccide® (Pet’s Pharma) containing 250 mg of sulfadimetoxine and 165 mg of dimetridazole dosing 1 tablet per 10 kg b.w. twice a day for 10 days. G3 served as an untreated control. The puppies were coprologically monitored on Days 0, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 to determine the percentage of OPG. Efficacy was measured based on the OPG reduction on treated animals relative to the untreated control. The results indicated an efficacy for compound One of 78.4%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 100% and 100%, for Days 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25, respectively and for Giacoccide 40.6%, 45.5%, 47.4%, 65.9%, 90.4% and 92.7%, for Days 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25, respectively. No statistical difference was observed on the weight of the treated puppies (p < 0.764), but the control group was statistically different to the treated ones (p < 0.014). It was concluded that compound One showed greater efficacy than Giacoccide for the treatment of canine coccidiosis in artificially infected dogs.
Career beliefs of Greek and Non-Greek Vocational Education students  [PDF]
Despina Sidiropoulou-Dimakakou, Katerina Argyropoulou, Nikos Drosos, Maria Terzaki
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.37183
Abstract: The present study aims at investigating Greek and non-Greek Vocational Education students’ career beliefs. The sample consists of 238 students who attend Greek Secondary Vocational Education schools in the region of Attica. The study also investigates whether various demographic variables (e.g. gender, immigrant status, parents’ educational level) differentiate these beliefs. Career beliefs were assessed by Career Beliefs Patterns Scale-2. Five factors were found to contribute to career beliefs: Culture & common practice, Proficiency beliefs, Control & self-direction beliefs, Persistence beliefs, Fatalism & Socioeconomic status impact. The results revealed statistically significant relationships between the level of career beliefs and gender and immigrant status. Findings are discussed in terms of their practical applications for career counseling.
Portuguese Women: Entrepreneurs in Sao Paulo City  [PDF]
Maria Elisa de Almeida Mariz, Lucia Maria Machado Bógus
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24034
Abstract: This paper presents the trajectory of Portuguese female immigrants who came to the city of Sao Paulo in the last two decades of 20th century and records their surviving strategies, initially looking for work and subsequently as entrepreneurs in their own business: restaurants, travel agency, fado singer, and others. Its primary aim is to identify, from their narratives, the entrepreneurship level of these women and the capital stock equity of their ownership, use, and from which they could be able to develop over four decades living in this huge metropolis. In this context, it is also sought the way social networks supporting their arrival were accessed during their period adapting to the city and on performing their business ventures. The analytical and interpretative path from the face to face interviews with these Portuguese immigrants allows us to conclude that social capital is an extremely relevant resource to entrepreneurship.
Social Integration in Public Spaces & Landscapes: Perceptions and Experiences towards Multicultural Shanghai  [PDF]
Liu Binyi, Floyd M. Mwanza
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2014.31004
Abstract: Multiculturalism in today’s globalised economies has become a hot topic. This research seeks to document the differing experiences of non-Chinese and Chinese to public spaces and landscapes, focusing on the factors influencing the involvement of non-Chinese people in public spaces and landscapes. The study seeks to ascertain whether particular public spaces have social significance in the integration of non-Chinese people in Shanghai, China, and whether there is a need to develop a policy in relation to strategies for social integration in the now thriving multicultural Shanghai communities. Multiculturalism and Urbanism for future cities can be the basis on which a problem statement(s) can be developed for further research. Multicultural social integration is about recognising diversity and indifferences. People from different cultural backgrounds may value the public space landscape quite differently to natives. Social integration allows cultural richness to open hearts and minds to different ways of seeing and experiencing public parks and landscapes. It can tell us something about the ways in which people adapt their traditions to different circumstances in a new country. It is the hope of this research that a series of studies on “Multiculturalism and Social Integration and Landscape in Asian Cities” will be done.
Characterization of TB/HIV Co-Infected Patients Receiving TB Treatment at a DOTS Clinic, in a Tertiary Hospital in South-Eastern Nigeria  [PDF]
Echendu D. Adinma, Darlington C. Obi, Emmanuel C. Azuike, Victor A. Mbanuzuru, Ifeoma C. Iloghalu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2015.34017
Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a specific infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis while acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a fatal illness caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both of them constitute the main burden of infectious public health disease in many parts of the world, particularly in resource limited countries like Nigeria. This study sets out to describe TB/HIV co-infected patients accessing care at the DOTS clinic in a tertiary hospital in South-Eastern Nigeria. Methods: This study was conducted retrospectively at the DOTS clinic of NAUTH Nnewi. A structured proforma was used to extract specific characteristics of TB/HIV co-infected patients who received TB treatment for the period of 1st January 2013 to 31st December 2013. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS version 20. Results: Ninety eight patients (40.6%) were TB/HIV co-infected, out of the two hundred and forty one patients treated for tuberculosis in the DOTS clinic during the period under review. These were the findings among the TB/HIV co-infected patients: there were more females (51%) than males (49%); the commonest age group affected was the group 30 - 39 years (34.7%); majority of the patients (91.8%) had pulmonary TB as against extrapulmonary TB (8.2%) and most of the patients had negative sputum AFB result (43.9%) as against those with positive result (36.7%). Conclusion: This study demonstrated some important characteristics of TB/HIV co-infected patients. Such knowledge if taken into consideration in both the tuberculosis control and HIV control programs will improve the outcomes of the programs.
Cryptococcal Antigenaemia among Treatment-Na?ve Adult HIV-Infected Nigerian Patients  [PDF]
Taiwo Modupe Balogun, Mbang Okokon, Faleye Dasola, Esuola Joseph Oyetubosun, Adewolu Abimbola, Basil Bonaventure
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2016.61001
Abstract: Background: There is a high burden of HIV-related cryptococcal meningitis in Sub-Saharan Africa and it is a leading cause of morbidity and early mortality among severely immunocompromised patients. Objectives of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) and the relationship of positivity to CD4+ve T cell counts and WHO clinical stage among severely immunocompromised treatment naive adult HIV-infected Nigerian patients. Methods: This was a hospital based cross sectional and prospective study carried out among newly diagnosed and confirmed HIV infected patients. Bio data of consenting consecutive subjects was collected by the attending physician using structured questionnaire. Rapid point of care lateral flow assay kits (IMMY, USA) was used to screen plasma samples from subjects strictly following manufacturer’s instructions. Data were analysed with statistical package for social sciences (spss 15.0) software. Results were presented in simple tables with frequencies and percentages while statistical significance was taken to be p value ≤ 0.05. Results: Of 432 subjects, there were 184 (42.6%) males and 248 (57.4%) females in the study. The median CD4 count of the subjects was 74 (range 6 - 1264) cells/ul. Seven (1.6%) of the subjects were positive for cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) and all were females (100%). Six (85.7%) of CrAg positives had CD4+ T cell count less than 100 cells, while 1 (14.3%) had count above 200cells/ul. The WHO clinical stage of studied patients was; stage I 163 (37.7%), stage II 132 (30.6%) stage III 95 (22.0%) and stage IV 42 (9.7%). Among the CrAg positive subjects, 3 (42.9%) were in WHO clinical stage l while 4 (57.1%) were in stage II disease. Conclusion: The observed overall prevalence of CrAg positivity among studied patients was low but occurred most frequently among the severely immunocompromised subjects. Advancement in WHO clinical stage was not a predicting risk factor for cryptococcal antigenaemia in studied adult HIV infected patients.
Aneurisma coronariano micótico: relato de dois casos
Garcia, Franco Javier Vallejo;Eusse, Carlos;Tenorio, Carlos;Uribe, Carlos;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0066-782X2011001400015
Abstract: the number of percutaneous interventions with stent implantation has increased dramatically in recent years, although the frequent use of this device in reports of infections is extremely rare. in this article we report two cases of mycotic aneurysm after implantation of stents with different clinical presentations and outcomes
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