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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2426 matches for " Individual Differences "
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Confirmatory Factor and Invariance Analyses of the Motivation to Control Prejudiced Reactions Scale  [PDF]
Todd G. Morrison, Melanie A. Morrison, Lorraine McDonagh, Daniel Regan, Sarah-Jane McHugh
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2014.46043
Abstract:

The present research further examines the psychometric properties of the Motivation to Control Prejudiced Reactions Scale (MCPRS). Particular attention is paid to the replicability of its factor structure and its factorial equivalence across samples of university students from Western Canada (n = 235), Eastern Canada (n = 556) and the mid-Western United States of America (n = 404). Confirmatory factor analysis and invariance analysis were carried out using the Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) 7.0. Results showed that while the two-factor structure of the MCPRS was replicated across samples, the original model required refinement to produce acceptable model fit (i.e., each sample had a slightly different model). Partial measurement invariance also was demonstrated for a subset of items on the MCPRS. The implications of the results, in terms of future use of the MCPRS are discussed, and limitations of the current study are outlined.

Animal Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Strain Differences  [PDF]
Taimon P. Maio, Guilherme B. Filgueiras, Daniel C. Cunha, Celio Estanislau
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2014.43027
Abstract:

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by obsessions (intrusive thoughts, images etc.) and compulsions (repetitive, stereotyped and perseverant acts). Animal models of OCD are specifically devoted to simulating compulsive features of the disorder. In OCD, compulsive behaviors are recognized as repetitive and maladaptive and symptoms relief can be experienced due to treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Many animal models of OCD are provided with some degree of validity. Genetically based differences in behavior in animal models of OCD are of great value, given that human OCD is reported to involve genetic factors. Some animal models of OCD were already used in studies for the evaluation of strain differences. These works were explored in the present review.

Moderators of occupational pressure in female health professionals—Individual differences and coping skills  [PDF]
Siew Yim Loh, Kia Fatt Quek
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.510224
Abstract:

Individual differences and coping skills have influential impacts on stress process by influencing the eventual outcomes of the stressors, contributing to either wellbeing, or illness and negative experiences. The aim of this paper is to explore the individual differences and coping strategies of a cohort of women with health professionals’ occupational pressure. This is a cross-sectional survey, informed by the transactional model of stress and coping framework, and carried out on women health professionals (n = 203) from the Kuala Lumpur Hospital. Multiple regressions were conducted to examine the potential moderators of stress. Women Health Professionals reported stress with six out of eight organizational sources of pressure, with relationship being a key stressor. Their individual differences (mean + SD) were characterised by low drive (7.6 + 1.9-8.2 + 2.0), low personal influence (10.8 + 2.0 to 11.7 + 2.3), moderate control (13.4 + 3.4 to 16.3 + 2.4), and high impatience behaviour (19.1 + 3.8 to 20.4 + 3.3). With Coping strategy, the Life-work-balance coping is a significant positive predictor for five out of the nine outcomes of occupational pressure [state of mind (p < 0.001), level of resilience (p = 0.01), level of confidence (p = 0.003), physical symptoms (p = 0.001) and energy level (p < 0.001)]. The findings show relationship as a key stressor, with a less favourable pattern of individual-differences and an over-reliance on lifework balance coping. Female health professionals, stressed at work, have an undesirable profile of individual difference and a coping strategies, suggestive of attempts to balance the demands of their dual work role. The increasing female into the workforce, warrants more research to inform stress management guideline to ameliorate stress amongst those vulnerable workers. Future studies to examine individual differences of these female-dominated professions across health setting are needed to better inform the pressure-at-work issues for the increasing Asian women health professionals.

Diferen?as individuais: temperamento e personalidade; importancia da teoria
Ito, Patrícia do Carmo Pereira;Guzzo, Raquel Souza Lobo;
Estudos de Psicologia (Campinas) , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-166X2002000100008
Abstract: this article aims at to present a report on the study of the temperament, as well as the different authors' theoretical focus on her definition and dimensions. considering different theoretical conceptions, they are established the main aspects that characterize the temperament in all of the theories. they are also focused the main established relationships among temperament and personality and aspects that differentiate them
Diferencias individuales en la comprensión de textos: inferencias y capacidad de la memoria de trabajo
Barreyro,Juan Pablo; Molinari Marotto,Carlos;
Anuario de investigaciones , 2006,
Abstract: causal inferences are generated during reading, relating separate parts of the text and activating previous knowledge, in order to obtain sufficient explanation for the events described in each sentence. just & carpenter (1992), engle, kane and tuholsky (1999) appealed to the working memory construct to model the storage and cognitive resources required during reading. this paper focus upon recent research on individual differences in causal inferences generation during reading. the reviewed studies relate individual differences in working memory capacity, evaluated with the reading span task, to differences in causal inferences generation, specifically connective and elaborative inferences. directions for future research are suggested, and the importance of using natural texts in empirical research of reading comprehension is emphasized.
A Review On Individual Differences And Cultural Intelligence
Prof. Dr. Raduan Che ROSE,Dr. Naresh KUMAR,SUBRAMANIAM
Journal of International Social Research , 2008,
Abstract: In the pace of globalization, it is crucial that individuals have the knowledge and skills to effectively face the challenges and requirements of a “global village”. It is believed that cultural intelligence (CQ) explains why some individuals are more capable at navigating culturally diverse environments than others. Prior research has indicated that CQ role is highly significant in predicting cross-cultural effectiveness among expatriates. However, as a new and quickly growing area of research factors that influence CQ is still under researched. This article proposes the influence of stable dispositions and dynamic competencies as the antecedents of CQ. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Emotional categorization: Individual emotional differences and laterality effects in healthy and persons with multiple sclerosis  [PDF]
Farzaneh Pahlavan, Tudd Lubart, Michelle Montreuil, Stephen Jacob, Anne-Yves Jacquet, Christelle Lemoine, Hélène Petropoulou, Franck Zenasni
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.212201
Abstract: A study examining affective information processing in persons with Multiple Sclerosis and healthy adults was carried out. It was hypothesized that individual characteristics could modulate participants’ emotional categorization and reaction times for categorization decisions. For example, individuals with negative valenced emotional profile (e.g. anxious) should choose negative emotional alternatives faster and more frequently. Participants consisted of two different populations: 80 right-handed healthy French-speakers, and 40 right-handed French- speakers with multiple sclerosis. The results showed a positive correlation between high- level of negative emotional sensibility and emotional categorization (decision and decision speed) for affective information presented on the right-side of the screen. For all participants there were more frequent emotional choices and faster decisions for left-side presented emotional alternatives. It seems individuals’ emotional differences in general and in MS populations modulate hemispheric asymmetry of processing emotional judgments.
Do Individual Differences Moderate the Cognitive Benefits of Chewing Gum?  [PDF]
Richard Stephens, Nicola M. J. Edelstyn
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.28127
Abstract: Recent experiments investigating whether chewing gum enhances cognitive performance have shown mixed results and a recent replication failed to reproduce earlier findings. The present experiment aimed to investigate whether participant individual differences underlie the discrepant findings. Therefore, in addition to examining differences in Digit Span and Spatial Span performance across gum and control groups, chronotype, extraversion, habitual tiredness, current stress, current arousal and current thirst were assessed using questionnaires. Task difficulty was also manipulated. While there were no chewing gum effects under standard testing conditions, chewing gum enhanced Digit Span performance in the more difficult dual task condition. Furthermore, Spatial Span performance was improved by chewing gum in introverts but not extraverts and chewing gum was shown to eliminate the negative relationship between thirst and Digit Span performance. In explaining these data it is proposed that chewing gum may act both to reduce stress and to alleviate thirst.
Mental Connection at Distance: Useful for Solving Difficult Tasks?  [PDF]
Patrizio E. Tressoldi, Stefano Massaccesi, Massimiliano Martinelli, Sara Cappato
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.28130
Abstract: Aim of this study is to provide a demonstration of the non-local property of the human mind to connect at distance, that is, without the classical means of communication. In the first experiment, 40 participants were requested to identify in two separate sessions, 10 real and 10 false Chinese ideograms presented randomly, trying to connect mentally with the research assistant sending correct suggestions at distance that is without any possibility to communicate with them by conventional means. As control condition, in one of these two sessions the helper did not send any suggestion although the receiver believed the contrary. In the session without suggestion, the hits’ mean score was 10.55; conversely, in the condition where a research assistant tried to suggest the correct identification at distance, the hits’ mean score was 11.33. Both a frequentist and a Bayesian statistical analysis approach, allows to reject the Null Hypothesis supporting the alternative one, that is, the possibility of mental connection at distance exploiting the non-local properties of the human mind. A second experiment aimed at increasing the efficiency of this mental connection taking into account task complexity and the level of Absorption of participants as a personality trait deemed favorable to non-local communication. However the results were similar to the first experiment. Although mental connection at distance seems feasible, variables which positively moderate this kind of communication are still to be identified.
Autonomy Support: Explaining the Path from Leadership to Employee Creative Performance  [PDF]
Zakaria Hocine, Jian Zhang
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.26048
Abstract: Today leaders are more like employee supporters than employee supervisors. Creating intentionally supportive and motivating environment, demonstrating concern for employees’ well being, providing opportunities for autonomy support, avoiding rewards that actually decrease motivation and performance in the workplace for employee to be creative and innovative is part of modern leadership. The aim of the present paper is to provide a deeper understanding of how autonomy-supportive leadership fosters positive employee outcomes by taking employee innate needs into consideration. For this purpose, self-determination theory (SDT) fits best for its consideration of both social context (i.e., autonomy-supportive leadership) and individuals’ basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) as antecedents of motivation and well-being. In addition, we will give leaders some implications and discuss the importance of providing autonomy support, making sure of having the supportive environments required, and explain a clear path from leadership to employee positive behavior.


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