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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1746 matches for " India "
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Characterization of Opaques off Konkan Coast Maharashtra, Central West Coast of India  [PDF]
A.R Gujar, N Angusamy, G. V. Rajamanickam
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2007, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2007.61005
Abstract: Characterisation of opaques, comprising of ilmenites and magnetites, separated from the sediment samples off Konkan coast, has been attempted. On the basis of dominance of intergrowth of the exsolved or replaced phases, magnetites of Vijayudurg and Wada vetye are grouped together while the magnetites of Ambolgarh and Rajapur are showing similar characteristics. Ilmenites display intergrowths with hematite and rutile. In Ambolgarh and Rajapur, ilmenites of exsolved and replacement phases are abundant with alterations along the borders. On the basis of intergrown lamellae width, the source rock for the ilmenites is attributed to the distant metamorphic rocks The presence of altered ilmenites testify a higher percentage of TiO2 in Ambolgarh and Rajapur. A higher amount of FeO (35.79 % - 36.25 %) in Wada Vetye and Vijaydurg is ascribed to higher percentage of ilmenite – hematite phase in the exsolved ilmenites. REE pattern of ilmenites, magnetites and non-magnetics show an enrichment of LREE over HREE. Ilmenite, magnetite and non-magnetics show a negative Eu anomaly which is ascribed to the individual or combination of the following conditions: 1) Melt effect, 2) Crystallo-Chemical effect, and 3) Competing mineral effect. A higher enrichment of TiO2 in the ilmenites reflects the possibility of establishing down-stream industries as well as the suitability for converting ilmenites into synthetic rutile.
Utilizing Healthcare Developments, Demographic Data with Statistical Techniques to Estimate the Diarrhoea Prevalence in India  [PDF]
Shweta Srivastava, Vatsalya Vatsalya, Ashoo Arora, Kashmiri L. Arora, Robert Karch
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2012.21001
Abstract: Diarrhoea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries in Africa and South Asia such as India. Prevalence of diarrheal diseases in those countries is higher than developed western world and largely has been associated with socio-economic and sanitary conditions. However, present available data has not been sufficiently evaluated to study the role of other factors like healthcare development, population density, sex and regional influence on diarrheal prevalence pattern. Study was performed to understand the relationship of diarrheal prevalence with specific measures namely; healthcare services development, demographics, population density, socio-economic conditions, sex, and regional prevalence patterns in India. Data from Annual national health reports and other epidemiological studies were included and statistically analyzed. Our results demonstrate significant correlation of the disease prevalence pattern with certain measures like healthcare centers, population growth rate, sex and region-specific morbidity. Available information on sanitation like water supply and toilet availability and socioeconomic conditions like poverty and literacy measures could only be associated as trends of significance. This study can be valuable for improvisation of appropriate strategies focused on important measures like healthcare resources, population growth and regional significances to evaluate prevalence patterns and management of the diarrhoea locally and globally.
Health care services in India: A few questions on equity  [PDF]
Swadhin Mondal
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.51008
Abstract: This paper analyzes equity in health care utilizetion and out-of-pocket expenditure on health care in India using two rounds (52th round 1995-1996 and 60th round 2004-2005) of National Sample Survey data and data from a household survey carried out in 2007. The findings indicate that the average hospitalization rate has increased and the corresponding value of the concentration index has decreased over the last ten years. However, the health care payment structure is seen to be regressive for inpatient care, and more so for outpatient care. The main reason is the very high out-of-pocket payment on medicine and diagnostic tests even in government hospitals. High out-of-pocket payment has resulted in 34 percent poor households losing all their past savings, 30 percent of households borrowing with interest and 2 percent of households selling their assets. These findings indicate the urgent need for putting in place risk pooling mechanisms.
Influencing factors on time of breastfeeding initiation among a national representative sample of women in India  [PDF]
Maria Sandor, Koustuv Dalal
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512296

Breastfeeding is seen as vital for mother and child and therefore is of great public health concern. Early initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of delivery is important as it reduces neonatal mortality. Increasing our understanding of barriers and reasons for not commencing early breastfeeding is important to improve strategies and conditions to overcome such barriers. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate factors influencing time of breastfeeding among women in India, focusing on health care utilisation related issues and partner behaviour. Data from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of India’s National Family Health Survey (NFHS) from 2005-2006 (NFHS-3) have been used in this study. Breastfeeding for the latest child was considered in the study. A total of 35,795 female respondents are included in this study. Chi square test and adjusted logistic regression analysis were used. Among all 35,795 women in the study, a total of 31.1% initiated breastfeeding within one hour and 68.6% initiated breastfeeding within the first week. Educational level, economic status and women’s caste or tribe, place of delivery, prenatal visits to health care facilities and assistance during delivery as well as partner’s controlling and violent behavior are important factors influencing time of initiation of breastfeeding. It is evident that policy makers need to ensure that all health professionals support and promote early breastfeeding initiation. It is also important to promote deliveries in hospitals and other healthcare facilities as they may increase early initiation. Furthermore, it is fundamental that efforts are intensified for girls and women to obtain education to increase women’s empowerment and improved gender equality.


Nucleotide Sequencing and Phylogenetic Analysis Using PCR Amplicons of U3 Gene of Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus (JSRV) Detected in Natural Cases of Ovine Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma in India  [PDF]
Vemuri Rama Devi, Egi Janardhan Yadav, Tumati Sreenivasa Rao, Kokila Satheesh, Paila Suresh, Betala Baby Manasa
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2014.411032
Abstract: Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) caused by an exogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is prevalent in Indian sheep. In the present study, OPA was diagnosed in sheep by clinical signs, gross and histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Proviral DNA of exogenous JSRV was detected in lung tumor tissues, mediastinal lymph nodes, blood and lung fluid samples from natural cases of OPA by using U3-hn PCR and the PCR amplicons were sequenced to analyze nucleotide divergence. In total, six isolates were sequenced that had 96% - 100% homology with a UK strain (AF105220.1) but more divergent from a South African strain (M80216) with 88% - 93% identity. The phylogenetic analysis revealed segregation of the six isolates into two clusters. In conclusion, this study is the first report on sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of JSRV in India and further studies are suggested to know the complete sequencing and genetic divergence of JSRV in Indian sheep.
Are Truckers Being over Stigmatized as HIV Carriers in India? Evidences from Behavioral and Biological Cross-Sectional Surveys among Clients of Female Sex Workers  [PDF]
Damodar Sahu, Sowmya Ramesh, Ram Manohar Mishra, K. Srikanth Reddy, Reena Bharadwaj, Niranjan Saggurti, Arvind Pandey, Mandar Mainkar, Bitra George
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.53010
Abstract: This paper examines whether truckers have been over-stigmatized as HIV carriers in the country. Data were taken from cross-sectional surveys of clients of female sex workers conducted in 2006-2007 in 12 districts of the country. A total 4822 clients of female sex workers were covered in the survey. Low-income skilled/semi-skilled men, including non-agricultural/casual labor, and petty businessmen/small shop owners, have the largest share in the clients’ population. There was no significant difference between truckers and other sub-group of clients’ population in terms of consistent condom use with female sex workers and prevalence of HIV or STI. These evidences suggest that the contribution of truckers in HIV epidemic in India might to similar to other sub-groups of clients’ population. Thus, truckers might have been over-stigmatized as HIV carriers in the country. However, there is no doubt that truckers constitute an extremely important target group for the HIV prevention programs and these efforts must be continued to prevent new HIV infections in the country.
Does Breastfeeding Have an Effect on Infant Mortality in India? An Analysis of National Family Health Survey Data  [PDF]
Nomita Chandhiok, Lucky Singh, Kh. Jitenkumar Singh, Damodar Sahu, Arvind Pandey
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.59040
Abstract: Introduction: Sub-optimal infant and early childhood feeding practices in India contribute to the high burden of child under-nutrition and infant death. Objective: To study the effect of breast-feeding duration on the survival of infants along with other demographic, socioeconomic and service related factors and to compare the decadal changes in the association. Methods: A total of 36,754 and 26,782 births less than 3 years of age from two rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) carried out in India during 1992-1993 (NFHS-1), and 2005-2006 (NFHS-3) respectively comprised the sample. Infant mortality was examined against a set of variables and breastfeeding as a time dependent covariate using multivariate extended Cox regression model. Results: Hazard of infant death observed in NFHS-3 (2005-2006) was 18 percent less [HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.759 - 0.879] as compared to that observed in NFHS-1 (1992-1993). After adjustment of other factors, the risk of infant death was 97% less amongst children who were breastfed [HR = 0.03; 95% CI = 0.029 - 0.033] as compared to those who were not breastfed. In contrast to rural area, babies belonging to urban area had an 18 percent less hazard of death during the infancy period [HR = 0.82]. Hazard of infant death was less among births to mothers with higher maternal education levels [HR = 0.93] and in those who were in gainful occupation [HR = 0.91]. The risk of infant death was higher in babies perceived to be small at birth [HR = 1.40] and belonging to states with medium post neonatal mortality rate (PNMR) [HR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.112 - 1.371] and high PNMR [HR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.327 - 1.609] in contrast to those born to women belonging to states with low post neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Promotion and implementation of evidenced based strategies are needed in India to combat the high rates of child under-nutrition and infant and child mortality.
Bilateral Export Demand Function of India: An Empirical Analysis  [PDF]
Aruna Kumar Dash, Subhendu Dutta, Rashmi Ranjan Paital
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.811151
Abstract: In this paper, we examine the determinants of bilateral export demand function of India during 1993:Q1-2015:Q1. The starting point of our study is 1993:Q1 by keeping into consideration that RBI implemented market determined managed floating flexible exchange rate system during that period. We have employed Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model by using the macroeconomic variables such as real exports, foreign income, nominal exchange rate (Rupee-Dollar) and relative price. We found there exists a long run equilibrium relationship between real exports, foreign income, exchange rate and relative price. In our empirical analysis, we found that in the long run and short run, real exports are influenced more by foreign income followed by relative price. Foreign income carries a positive sign and is statistically significant, which implies that 1% increase in foreign income will increase real export by 1.63% in the long run. Likewise, relative price carries a negative sign and is statistically significant which implies 1% decrease in relative prices that will increase real exports by 0.22% in the long run. The nominal exchange rate carries a negative sign and is statistically significant (in both short run and long run), which suggests that depreciation of nominal exchange rate would not stimulate the volume of export during our study period. Hence, for policy point of view if any policy makers want to promote exports by depreciating, the rupee will not give fruitful results.
Yoga research and therapy in India
Shirley Telles
Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade , 2012, DOI: 10.5712/rbmfc7(1)508
Abstract: Yoga was originally intended for spiritual growth. However, nowadays there is an increasing trend to use yoga as an add-on-therapy. In India it is believed that all diseases arise as a result of conflict between our instinct and our intellect1. This is also important in using yoga to promote positive health and prevent disease. A number of examples are cited here. Healthy children were given yoga and physical therapy and their physical fitness, cognitive functiones and emotional well being were tested. Yoga improved their emotional well being. Yoga also helped children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (a degenerative disease) by improving their quality of life and mental status2. Again the benefits were ascribed to the mental as well as the physical effects of yoga. Of course yoga has marked benefits in healthy obese adults to prevent diseases by increasing mental well being, reducing stress and improving sleep3. Yoga also reduced anthropometric indices and brought about changes in leptin and adiponectin levels in otherwise healthy adults4a,b. This change too, was believed to be related to mental changes, along with the physical. Finally yoga can help in various disorders in which a person feels pain and distress5a,b. Many of the effects are believed to be due to changes in the functions at the level of the cortex and thalamus6, as well as the autonomic nervous system7. However the mechanisms underlying the effects of yoga need to be explored more thoroughly.
Health Care in India
BM Hegde
Australasian Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: The modern medical facilities in India are of such good quality that the National Health Service of the UK is negotiating with many corporate hospitals in India to get their patients on the long waiting lists to be flown to India for elective surgery. Be that as it may, health is not contigent on the availability of medical technology but contigent on basic provisions; clean water, three square meals a day, freedom from the effects of pollution and the skills to earn a living.
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