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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1477 matches for " Immunity "
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Effects of Methionine on the Immune Function in Animals  [PDF]
Tao Ruan, Lingjun Li, Xi Peng, Bangyuan Wu
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.95061
Nutrition and immunity are the hot topics in animal’s production, and the effects of methionine on the immunity are already confirmed as the deep research on the nutrition of amino acid and immune function. However, the relationship of the methionine and immunity has not been elucidated clearly, this review aims to clarify the effects of methionine on immune function in the aspects of growth and development immune organs, the histological structure of the immune organs, non-specific immunity, humoral immunity, cellular immunity and cytokines, and to provide foundations for further studies on the relationship between methionine and immune function.
Kanggan Granule Ameliorates Dexamethasone-Induced Immunosuppression in Mice  [PDF]
Yumiao Gan, Manxia Gu, Dongling Liu, Hongjing Zhou, Chenye Zeng, Tingting Yang, Hui Li, Funeng Geng, Junrong Du
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2019.73008
Abstract: Objective: This study was to investigate the effect of the Chinese herbal compound Kanggan granule (KG) on immune function in a mouse model of immunosuppression and its possible mechanism of action. Method: ICR mice were randomly divided into a normal control group (untreated non-immunosuppressed, Control), untreated immunosuppressed group (Model), positive control group (immunosuppressed and treated with 1.6 g/kg astragalus granule [AG]), high-dose KG group (immunosuppressed and treated with 24 g/kg, KG-24), and low-dose KG group (immunosuppressed and treated with 6 g/kg, KG-6). Each group received intragastric administration once daily for 7 days. Immunosuppression was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone (25 mg/kg) once daily beginning on day 1 for 3 days. To illuminate the mechanism of immunomodulatory, we studied the effects of KG on nonspecific immunity, humoral immunity and cellular immunity in mice respectively. Results: KG improved organ weights and improved the phagocytic ability of mononuclear macrophages in immunosuppressed mice (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). The proliferation of spleen lymphocytes and number of peripheral blood leukocytes were enhanced after KG treatment in immunosuppressed mice (p < 0.05). KG increased the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in immunosuppressed mice (p < 0.01) and increased serum IL-2 and IgG levels (p < 0.01). Conclusions: KG can improve immune function in immunosuppressed mice. Nonspecific immunity, humoral immunity, and cellular immunity were all enhanced.
Long-Term Treatment with a Compound Polysaccharide-Based Health Product (Infinitus Polysac Plus) Enhances Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Mice  [PDF]
Hoi-Yan Leung, Chung-Wah Ma, Qing Tao Tang, Kam-Ming Ko
Chinese Medicine (CM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/cm.2011.24028
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of a compound polysaccharide-based health product (Infinitus Polysac Plus, IPP) on innate and adaptive immunity in mice. Both ex vivo/in vivo mouse models and an in vitro system using cultured mouse splenocytes were adopted for the assessment of innate and adaptive immunity. For the innate immune response, long-term IPP treatment (0.26 and 0.78 g/kg * 20 doses) enhanced the carbon clearance activity and phagocytic rate of macrophages, as well as natural killer cell activity in mice. The IPP-induced increase in natural killer cell activity was accompanied by the suppression of tumor growth in Sarcoma-180 cell-inoculated mice. For the adaptive immune response, while long-term IPP treatment increased the splenocyte index in mice, IPP incubation with mouse splenocytes in vitro potentiated their concanavalin A-stimulated proliferation. Long-term IPP treatment significantly restored the hemolytic activity of serum on sheep red blood cells and dinitrofluorobenezene-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity in sensitized and immunosuppressed mice. In conclusion, the results indicate that long-term IPP treatment produces stimulatory effects on both innate and adaptive immunity in mice.
A Review of Immune System Components, Cytokines, and Immunostimulants in Cultured Finfish Species  [PDF]
Timothy J. Bruce, Michael L. Brown
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2017.73021
Abstract: Aquaculture is a rapidly growing global agriculture sector and the importance of fish health has become of upmost importance as production levels and stocking densities increase. Over the past few decades, there have been a large number of immunological investigations on commonly cultured finfish species. Further, new technologies and strategies that embody use of fish immunostimulants, probiotics, and vaccinology rely heavily upon a comprehensive understanding of teleost immune system mechanics. The teleost immune system works in concert to properly recognize, control, and clear aquatic pathogens. Recent findings have exemplified the cooperative efforts of the nonspecific and adaptive branches, and have put forth an emphasis on the importance of the mucosal immune response in all aspects of a mounted immune response. This review provides a generalized overview of the innate and adaptive arms of the fish immune system, and provides highlights of recently published work in the areas of signaling networks and mucosal immune interactions.
Effect of Feeding Probiotics on Rats' Immunity and Health Conditions during Pregnancy  [PDF]
Abdul-Rahman A. Ali, Ahmed M. M. Metwally, Amal H. Mahmoud, Hadil F. Attia
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.22013
Abstract: Pregnancy is associated with down regulating cell-mediated immunity (T-Lymphocyte) which would lead for increasing susceptibility to viral and bacterial infection, therefore it is expected that feeding probiotic bacteria would help in strengthening pregnant immunity. To test the effect of probiotics feeding on immunity during pregnancy, rats were fed on four different diets, a basal diet (the control) or basal diet fortified with different probiotics which were yogurt (Streptococcus thermophilus EMCC 1043 and Lactobacillus delbruckii subsp bulgaricus EMCC 1102) (G1), yogurt plus Bifidobacterium breve (G2), and yogurt plus Bifidobacterium breve plus Lactobacillus paracasei (G3). Feeding started before mating, during gestation and after parturition. Probiotics particularly (G2) and (G3) improved signifi-cantly rats' body weight gain over the control during gestation and after parturition and their off-spring. G2 and G3 significantly lowered total serum cholesterol than the control. Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-fraction decreased insignificantly during gestation but the difference was significant after parturition. Probiotic feeding enhanced leukocyte production which was differentiated more into lymphocytes than phagocytes particularly on third week of gestation and after parturition. CD4+ counts in the control rats suffered a decrease on pregnancy and the decrease continued during gestation period and after parturition. On the other hand, probiotic feeding helped CD4 to overcome the decrease occurred on pregnancy to give counts on the third week and after parturition higher than before pregnancy. CD8+ counts were also increased with probiotics feeding as compared to the control which suffered continuous decrease during pregnancy. Therefore, probiotics feeding improved pregnant rats' general health, lipid profile and both sides of immunity.
Effect of antigens on colony forming efficiency of stromal clonogenic cells and expression of cytokine genes in primary cultures of bone marrow and spleen of mice  [PDF]
U.F. Gorskaya, T.A. Danilova, M.V. Mezentseva, I.M. Shapoval, V.G. Nesterenko
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.25046
Abstract: Presence of microbial cells preparation (HCL – extract of group A streptococcus) in primary cell cultures of bone marrow (BMCC) and spleen (SCC) of CBA mice induced the expression mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines genes: IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 in BMCC; in SCC cultures mRNA IL-1 β and IL-6 appeared and mRNA IL-4 disappeared. Injection of S. typhimurium antigen complex to mice CBA increased 5 times colony forming efficiency (CFE) and, respectively, content of stromal precursor cells (CFU-F) in femur bone marrow and 9 times in spleen of these animals with maximum at the first day. In both primary BMCC and SCC from immunized animals expression of proinflammatory cytokines genes IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF- α was revealed - in BMCC on 1 - 3 day after immunization, and in SCC – up to 15 days. In CBA mice injected with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) CFE and number of CFU-F in BMCC and SCC increased 1, 9 and 1, 8 times only and expression of genes IL-6, IL-8 and TNF- was observed only on the first day. In СВА/N xid mice there was neither increase CFU-F in the corresponding organs, nor expression of proinflammatory cytokines genes in primary cultures. The data suggest the possibility of positive participation of stromal cells in the development on of immune response in organism. Degree of activation of stromal tissue in immunized mice, apparently, correlates with the degree of immune response, supposing a close relationship between stromal tissue and immune system.
Anaphylatoxins: From Supposed Toxin Anaphylactics to Effective Mediators of the Early Events of Inflammation  [PDF]
Wilmar Dias da Silva
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2012.24043
Abstract: This review updates original data describing the experiments showing the complement origin of anaphylatoxins unexplainable submerged under the surface of the articles related to the subject. Next, recalls subsequent data describing the anaphylatoxins peptide nature and sequences, the cell receptors with which they interact and activate and the outcome of the cell responses. The review continues by highlighting the anaphylatoxin biological properties focusing on the unequivocal participation of these mediators in inflammation. The review concludes bringing data reinforcing the promising use of these peptides as molecular primers to create specific and efficient pharmacological antagonists.
Relationship between Self-Reported Vaccination History and Measles and Rubella Antibody Titers in Medical and Nursing Students  [PDF]
Masanori Ogawa, Ryusuke Ae, Teppei Sasahara
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2017.72004
Abstract: In hospitals, infection control for measles and rubella is important. Medical and nursing students as well as healthcare workers must have immunity against these diseases. Many countries have adopted requirements for healthcare workers’ documented vaccination history or laboratory tests as evidence of their immunity. Evaluating a written vaccination history is difficult in many cases. Therefore, we compared measles and rubella antibody titers with self-reported vaccination history and we evaluated the association between the history and measles and rubella antibody titers, using the medical and nursing students’ data. We analyzed 564 data for measles and 558 data for rubella. Vaccination history was requested to be completed as accurately as possible. Students with one or more measles or rubella vaccinations had high positive ratios of titer, and the ratio was significantly higher than that of the students without vaccinations. The positive ratio between the two-dose and one-dose vaccination groups was not significantly different for measles or rubella (measles: p = 0.534, rubella: p = 0.452). Although it should be requested that the history is complete by using other resources, such as referring to maternity passbooks or proof of vaccination, self-reported history may be useful to confirm immunity, even if there is a possibility that the history is not accurate.
Cancer Immunothearapy More than Vaccines “Psychoneuro-Immunooncology: Cancer, the Host, and the Surgeon”  [PDF]
Robert Lange Elliott
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.23055
Abstract: Cancer immunology is extremely complex with numerous interactions between the tumor and the host. It is time for those that treat cancer, especially surgeons, to learn more about these complex interactions. We need to know more about host immunity and immunosuppressive mechanisms which are not directly related to the disease, but caused by stress and therapy of the disease. The diagnosis of cancer initiates stress that can be very detrimental to the host immune system. Most cancer physicians (surgical, medical, and radiation oncologist) do not appreciate the impact on host cell mediated immunity (CMI) caused by cancer therapy, and definitely do not know how devastating, psychic stress is on host immunity. This communication is an attempt to bring awareness to this problem.
Characterization of serum complement activity in serum of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis)  [PDF]
Mark Merchant, Danyell Henry, Rodolfo Falconi, Becky Muscher, Judith Bryja
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.24043
Abstract: Incubation of different volumes of serum from the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) resulted in volume-dependent hemolysis, as measured spectrophotometrically at 540 nm. The hemolysis occurred rapidly, with almost 90% of the hemolytic activity occurring within 20 min of incubation. A thermal profile showed that Komodo dragon serum exhibited low activity from 5- 20℃, but exerted maximum activity at 35℃, which was substantially reduced at 40℃. The maximum activity was observed near optimal temperatures to which Komodo dragons thermoregulate. Mild heat treatment of Komodo dragon serum (56℃, 30 min) depleted the ability to hemolyze SRBCs. In addition, preincubation of Komodo dragon serum with only 5 mM EDTA or phosphate, both chelators of divalent metal ions, reduced the hemolytic activity sharply. These results indicate that the hemolytic activity was due to the presence of a potent serum complement system. Incubation of Komodo dragon serum with 5 mM EDTA and 15 mM Ca2+ or Mg2+, but not Ba2+, Zn2+, or Fe2+, completely restored activity. These results indicate that Komodo dragon serum complement activity requires the presence of Mg2+ or Ca2+. This is the first assessment of innate immune activity of a Varanid.
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