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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 35005 matches for " Immune system "
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Algunas aplicaciones clínicas del zinc y su acción sobre el sistema inmune
de la Guardia Pe?a,Odalis; Ustáriz García,Catalino; García García,María de los ángeles; Morera Barrios,Luz;
Revista Cubana de Hematolog?-a, Inmunolog?-a y Hemoterapia , 2011,
Abstract: zinc is a chemical element located in group 12 of the periodic table; it is classified as a transition metal. from the biological point of view, it is a constituent of more than 300 metalloproteins and more than 2 000 transcription factors. its participation in metabolism encompasses a wide variety of reactions, both synthesis and degradation of almost all biomolecules. the recommended daily intake is estimated to be between 10 and 20 mg. it is very abundant in red meat, seafood, germ of cereal and milk. it is found in virtually all cells, although 90 % of total body zinc is contained in skeletal muscle and bone. it highlights the lack of reserves and their levels are under tight homeostatic control. due to its immune modulatory function, it has been clinically used in pediatric acute respiratory infections and immune system recovery of malnourished children. it has been used in acute diarrheal disease as a stabilizer of intestinal epithelium and membranes, as well as lipid peroxidation protector. another of its actions is to improve healing, so it has been used in lower limb ulcers associated with venous disease and diabetic foot, which is combined its healing effect with its stimulating cellular immunity. some skin disorders such as common warts have been treated with zinc. no papers directly relating zinc with immune compromised patient were found.
ArtinM as a Neutrophil Immunostimulant in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  [PDF]
Caroline Toazza, Leticia Carandina, Rogerio Salvador, Wagner Loyola, Júlio Cesar Freitas
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2013.32032
Abstract:

Streptococcosis is one of the most important diseases in aquaculture, causing high rates of mortality in fish. ArtinM, an immunostimulant obtained from jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) seed extract, enhances the innate immune response. The aim of this study was to examine the action of ArtinM on neutrophil haptotaxis to the peritoneal cavity of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) inoculated intraperitoneally with Streptococcus agalactiae. After establishing the LD50 of S. agalactiae and the effective dose of ArtinM, 120 animals randomly distributed in 12 aquaria were divided into the following four treatment groups: G1, control; G2, via the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route inoculation with ArtinM; G3, i.p. inoculation with S. agalactiae and G4, i.p. inoculation with ArtinM and challenge with S. agalactiae. Six and 24 hours after treatment, the fish were sacrificed and peritoneal exudate and caudal vein blood samples were collected for analysis of the total number of leukocytes and neutrophils. To establish the optimal ArtinM concentration, the results were analyzed with a chi-square test at a 1% significance level. The experimental inoculation and challenge results were analyzed with the SASM-Agri software developed by Canteri et al. (2001) using the Scott-Knott’s test at a 5% significance level. The results of this study showed that i.p. inoculation with 1.0 μg ArtinM/animal has an effect on neutrophil haptotaxis to the peritoneal cavity in juvenile Nile tilapia. Therefore, ArtinM might represent a suitable prophylactic alternative in juvenile Nile tilapias inoculated with S. agalactiae.

A Review of Artificial Immune System Based Security Frameworks for MANET  [PDF]
Lincy Elizebeth Jim, Mark A. Gregory
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2016.91001
Abstract: Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are collections of wireless mobile devices that form a communication network with restricted broadcast range, limited resources and without fixed infrastructure. Routing is a critical function in multi-hop MANETs. At the same time, security in MANETs—especially routing security—presents a number of new and interesting challenges. Communication is achieved by relaying data along routes that are dynamically discovered and maintained through collaboration between the nodes. Advances in the field of artificial immune systems provide an opportunity to improve MANET security and performance. Artificial immune systems mimic the functionality of the human immune system wherein there is clear distinction between self and non self and this delineation is important in a MANET where there is no centralized management. The high level of protection provided to the human body by an evolved immune system can be applied as a security feature in MANET. The current security techniques proposed for MANET have varying degrees of success due to the dynamic nature of a MANET. This paper will review different strategies for the application of artificial immune systems to MANETs.
LA EVOLUCIóN DE SISTEMAS COMPLEJOS: EL CASO DEL SISTEMA INMUNE EN ANIMALES
CADAVID,LUIS F;
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2009,
Abstract: the immune system in animals is composed by a series of cell and molecular mechanisms that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. the former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. the latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of a horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. the recent discovery in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms, suggests the necessity to consider new elements for the construction of an evolutionary model of the immune system in animals. some of these elements are considered in this assay.
Immunological follow-up of hydatid cyst cases
Bulut, Vedat;Ilhan, Fulya;Yucel, Ahmet Yasar;Onal, Suleyman;Ilhan, Yavuz;Godekmerdan, Ahmet;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762001000500015
Abstract: hydatid disease is caused by echinococcus granulosus. in this study, we aimed to investigate the benefit of monitoring cases with hydatid cyst by means of immune components in patients in a long-term follow-up after surgery. eighty-four preoperative and postoperative serum samples from 14 cases undergoing surgery for hydatid disease were evaluated in terms of immune parameters, such as total and specific ige, igg, igm, iga and complement. total and specific ige were determined by elisa. specific igg levels were measured by indirect hemaglutination.total igg, igm, iga and complement (c3 and c4) were detected by nephelometry. imaging studies were also carried out during the follow-up. in none of the patients hydatid cysts were detected during the follow-up. total ige levels in the sera of the patients decreased to normal six months after surgery. although specific ige against echinococcal antigens decreased one year after operation, levels were still significantly high. there were no changes in the levels of anti-echinococcus igg and total igg in follow-up period. additionally, other parameters, such as iga, igm, c3 and c4, were not affected.
Obesidad y sistema inmune
Mu?oz,M.; Mazure,R. A.; Culebras,J. M.;
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2004,
Abstract: with an increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries, associated chronic diseases rise in a parallel way. morbidity secondary to overweight and obesity include type 2 diabetes, dislipemia, hypertension, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, cholelithiasis, osteoarthritis, heart insufficiency, sleep apnoea, menstrual changes, sterility and psychological alterations. there is also a greater susceptibility to suffer some types of cancer, infections, greater risk of bacteremia and a prolonged time of wound healing after surgical operations. all these factors indicate that obesity exerts negative effects upon the immune system. immune changes found in obesity and their possible interrelations are described in this article. changes produced during obesity affect both humoral and cellular immunity. it is known that adipose tissue, together with its role as energy reserve in form of triglycerides, has important endocrine functions, producing several hormones and other signal molecules. immune response can be deeply affected by obesity, playing leptin an important role. properties of leptin, alterations of leptin levels in different situations and its changes with different medical and surgical therapies for obesity are described in this article.
Immune parameters, symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections, and training-load indicators in volleyball athletes
Dias R, Frollini AB, Brunelli DT, Yamada AK, Leite RD, Sim es RA, Salles GSL, Trevisan D, Pellegrinotti IL, de Castro César M, Alves SCC, Verlengia R, Borin JP, Prestes J, Cavaglieri CR
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S24402
Abstract: ne parameters, symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections, and training-load indicators in volleyball athletes Original Research (2397) Total Article Views Authors: Dias R, Frollini AB, Brunelli DT, Yamada AK, Leite RD, Sim es RA, Salles GSL, Trevisan D, Pellegrinotti IL, de Castro César M, Alves SCC, Verlengia R, Borin JP, Prestes J, Cavaglieri CR Published Date December 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 837 - 844 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S24402 Rodrigo Dias1, Anelena Bueno Frollini1, Diego Trevisan Brunelli1, André Katayama Yamada1, Richard Diego Leite4, Ricardo Adamoli Sim es1, Guilherme Souza Lobo Salles1, Débora Trevisan1, Idico Luiz Pellegrinotti1, Marcelo de Castro César1, Silvia Cristina Crepaldi Alves1, Rozangela Verlengia1, Jo o Paulo Borin2, Jonato Prestes2,3, Claudia Regina Cavaglieri2 1Núcleo de Performance Humana, Mestrado em Educa o Física, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba, S o Paulo, Brasil; 2Faculdade de Educa o Física (FEF) Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas, Brasil; 3Programa de Mestrado e Doutorado em Educa o Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, Brasil; 4Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica e Experimental em Biologia Vascular (BioVasc), Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Background: The control of immunological alterations becomes important during in-season training, as a result of increased incidence of infectious diseases, and may assist in avoiding interruptions to training due to illness. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate 28 weeks of chronic immune modulations in female volleyball athletes. Methods: The sample was composed of twelve athletes aged 19.47 ± 2.49 years, height 1.78 ± 0.08 cm, and body mass 66.77 ± 7.8 kg. Leukocytes, individual immune cell count, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α plasma cytokines were measured during the competitive period. Results: Results revealed that immune variables were correlated with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections and training-load indicators, indicating a possible marker of immune status. There was a statistically significant increase in total leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocyte count, a decrease in lymphocytes, and an increase in upper respiratory tract infection symptoms, with no change in IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α. Correlations between subjective levels of tiredness, total leukocyte count, and neutrophils with upper respiratory tract infection symptoms were observed. Conclusion: In conclusion, these correlations can represent important tools to access the immune status of an athlete during long training periods, preventing a possible immunosuppressive status.
Immunological follow-up of hydatid cyst cases
Bulut Vedat,Ilhan Fulya,Yucel Ahmet Yasar,Onal Suleyman
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2001,
Abstract: Hydatid disease is caused by Echinococcus granulosus. In this study, we aimed to investigate the benefit of monitoring cases with hydatid cyst by means of immune components in patients in a long-term follow-up after surgery. Eighty-four preoperative and postoperative serum samples from 14 cases undergoing surgery for hydatid disease were evaluated in terms of immune parameters, such as total and specific IgE, IgG, IgM, IgA and complement. Total and specific IgE were determined by ELISA. Specific IgG levels were measured by indirect hemaglutination.Total IgG, IgM, IgA and complement (C3 and C4) were detected by nephelometry. Imaging studies were also carried out during the follow-up. In none of the patients hydatid cysts were detected during the follow-up. Total IgE levels in the sera of the patients decreased to normal six months after surgery. Although specific IgE against echinococcal antigens decreased one year after operation, levels were still significantly high. There were no changes in the levels of anti-Echinococcus IgG and total IgG in follow-up period. Additionally, other parameters, such as IgA, IgM, C3 and C4, were not affected.
Major Histocompatibility Complex
Ozlem Goruroglu Ozturk
Arsiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi , 2011,
Abstract: MHC locus contains a large number of genes related to immune system function in humans. These highly polymorphic genes resides on chromosome 6, and encodes cell-surface antigen-presenting proteins and many other proteins. The high variation of MHC is a key determinant of susceptibility and resistance mechanism to a large number of infectious, autoimmune and other diseases. Identification of the MHC variants conferring susceptibility to disease is problematic, due to high levels of variation and linkage disequilibrium. This review considers the genetic characteristics of the MHC. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(3.000): 159-167]
Immunocyte: the invertebrate counterpart of the vertebrate macrophage
E Ottaviani
Invertebrate Survival Journal , 2011,
Abstract: The circulating phagocytic immune cell is considered to be the main effector of the invertebrate defense system, involved in both immune and neuroendocrine responses, showing the functional characteristics of vertebrate macrophage. Various names have been used to define this cell in different taxa i.e., hemocyte, celomocyte, amebocyte, plasmatocyte, etc. However, regardless of the terminology, these cells perform the same immune function, and possess very similar morphology. For these reasons, it is suggested that the general term immunocyte be used to describe these cells in invertebrates.
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