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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 537011 matches for " Ileola A. O. "
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Comparison of Phytochemicals and Anti-Nutritional Factors in Some Selected Wild and Edible Bean in Nigeria  [PDF]
Awoyinka O. A., Ileola A. O., Imeoria C. N., Tijani T. D., Oladele F. C., Asaolu M. F.
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.72012
Abstract: This work aims at analyzing the bioactive and anti-nutritional compounds of edible and wild beans when unprocessed and malted. Qualitative screening of phytochemicals in the various bean samples was determined in ethanol and petroleum ether solvents. Results of the anti-nutritional compositions of unprocessed wild bean extracted with petroleum ether showed there were no traces of saponin and polyphenol, in Feregede and also in edible bean-IT07K-243-1-10 which also had no traces of saponin and tannin. After malting, saponin was totally absent in Pakala, Mucuna, IT97k-499-35, IT07k-243-1-10, and IT04k-333-2 respectively. Polyphenol was also found to be absent in IT07k-243-1-10. Mucuna has the highest phytic acid level (7.8867 ± 0.011) while Feregede has the lowest phytic acid level (2.9810 ± 0.004). Otili has the highest anti-trypsin level (12.001 ± 0.0013). This study showed varying levels of anti-nutrients on the respective bean samples when unprocessed but decreased marginally after malting. It was keenly noted that values derived, either before and after malting were not significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from each other. In all, this study had further shown that malting process enhanced removal of anti-nutrients which invariably would lead to availability of nutrient for animal and human consumption.
Comparative Studies on Mineral and Scavenging Ability of Edible and Some Underexploited Wild Beans in Nigeria  [PDF]
O. A. Awoyinka, A. Ileola, C. N. Imeoria, M. F. Asaolu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102318
Abstract: This work was set out to assay for some minerals essential for healthy state and biochemical indices that underlined degenerative diseases in some edible bean cultivar and nearly extinct local wild bean. Against this backdrop, ash composition was determined before Na , K , Ca2 , Mg2 , Zn2 , Fe2 , Pb2 and Cd were determined by Flame Photometer and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) respectively. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Vitamin E and Vitamin C were also assayed to determine the scavenging ability of the bean samples. The proximate ash composition result of unprocessed and malted edible bean IT99K-573-2-1 had the highest ash content value of 6.90 ± 0.01 and 6.92 ± 0.01 respectively. In the bean samples Pb2 and Cd2 were not detected. The empirical mineral composition varies across both the wild and edible bean without significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) except IT07K-243-1-10 that had Ca2 to be significantly higher than other bean samples. K was found to be significantly higher in Feregede and IT07K-243-1-10 compared to other bean samples. Changes in the radical scavenging ability of the various sample in this study after malting, showed a slight reduction in DPPH content except for the edible beans—IT04K-333-2 and IT845-2246-4. Well, there was slight reduction of Vitamin E only in Otili, Mucuna and IT99K-573-1-1. Compared to others only Otili and IT845-2246-4 had slight reduction in Vitamin C after malting.
Functional Properties and Nutritional Quality of Some Wild and Edible Bean in Nigeria  [PDF]
O. A. Awoyinka, A. O. Ileola, C. N. Imeoria, S. T. Olumakinde, F. C. Oladele, M. F. Asaolu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102411
Abstract: In this study on bean, four wild types were compared with the edible for their functional and nutritional characteristics in unprocessed and malted form. Results obtained in functional properties showed that bulk density was higher in wild types compared to edibles types. Feregede has the least dispersibility compared to all the bean samples. The swelling power of all the wild and edible types was almost the same with the edible bean IT845-2246-4 having the highest value of 26.15 ± 0.02. Pakala had the broadest foaming stability even up to the region of alkaline pH. In proximate compositions, the entire edible bean had more carbohydrate and crude fibre content than the wild types but after malting, there was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in the crude fibre content between the edible and the wild type beans. After malting, it was observed that Pakala and edible bean IT99K-573-1-1 had more moisture content with the values 9.2 ± 0.14 and 9 ± 0.15 respectively. There was no significant difference in the protein content across both the wild and edible bean and ranged between 28.45 ± 0.012 and 30.70 ± 0.014 while these values were slightly reduced after malting. This study reveals that Mucuna and other types of underutilized wild beans— Otili, Feregede, and Pakala are important food sources that can be exploited to mitigate shortage in animal protein and under nutrition facing families in many developing countries particularly in Nigeria.
Comparative Study on Nigerian Wild and Edible Beans in Reversing Incidence of Colon Cancer in Albino Rats  [PDF]
O. A. Awoyinka, A. Ileola, C. N. Imeoria, A. E. Omonisi, F. C. Oladele, M. F. Asaolu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102708
This work is an investigation of the curative effects of some edible and wild type beans on colonic inflammation induced by Dextran Sulphate Sodium (DSS) in wister albino rats. Macroscopic examination performed on the colon after seven-day exposure of the animals to both DSS and bean sample revealed a high incidence of colonic inflammation in rats fed with macuna compared to other groups. However, from the histological examination, the groups fed with Otili and Feregede had a low incidence of dysplasia showing Otili and Feregede to be good candidates that could mitigate effect of Dextran Sodium Sulphate.
Finite Element Analysis of Von-Mises Stress Distribution in a Spherical Shell of Liquified Natural Gas (Lng) Pressure Vessels  [PDF]
O. A. Adeyefa, O. O. Oluwole
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.310125
Abstract: This research work investigated the modeling of Von Mises stress in LNG Spherical Carbon Steel Storage tank using assumed displacement Finite Element analysis based on shallow shell triangular elements. Using equations of elasticity, constant thickness carbon steel spherical storage tanks were subjected to different loading conditions. This paper stresses the need for proper definition of shallow element using sector angles to obtain the shallowness. The shallow spherical triangular element has five degrees of freedom at each of its corner node, which are the essential external degrees of freedom. The assumed displacement fields of these shallow triangular elements satisfied the exact requirement of rigid body modes of motion. The FORTRAN 90 programming language was used for the programme coding to solve finite element equations resulting from the model while Von Mises stresses distribution within the spherical storage tank shell subjected to different internal pressures were determined. The results showed that the use of non-shallow elements due to improper sector angles resulted in unreliable results while real shallow elements produced results that tallied with ASME Section VIII Div 1, Part UG values.
Preliminary Studies on the Microbial Degradation of Plastic Waste Using Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas sp.  [PDF]
A. O. Ogunbayo, O. O. Olanipekun, I. A. Adamu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2019.105037
Abstract: The possibility of microbial degradation of plastic waste was investigated by isolating microorganisms present in dumpsite containing low-density polyethylene (LDP). Aspergillus niger (fungi) and Pseudomonas sp. (bacteria) were identified and subsequently used to biodegrade plastic waste. The medium was made up of 0.2 g of MgSO4, 1.0 g of KH2PO4, 1.0 g of K2HPO4, 1.0 g of NH4NO3, 0.02 g of CaCl2, 0.05 g of FeCl3 in 1000 ml water. 10 ml of the medium containing the bacteria and/or fungi was poured into test tubes and 0.1 g of the plastic sample (Pure water sachet) pre-treated with ethanol was introduced into the tubes. The pH of the medium was adjusted to 7.2, 5.4 and 6.0 for Pseudomonas sp., Aspergillus niger and the mixed culture respectively. Each experiment was carried out aerobically at room temperature and incubated on a rotary shaker at 120 rpm. The weight loss in each experiment was monitored at 10 days interval for 60 days. The total weight loss after 60 days was 7.2%, 12.4%, 15% for degradation with Pseudomonas sp., Aspergillus niger and the mixed culture respectively. From this study it can be inferred that Pseudomonas sp. and Aspergillus niger have the ability to degrade plastics. It can also be inferred that Aspergillus niger degraded plastics better than Pseudomonas sp. and there was synergy between the two microorganisms since the mixed culture gave a higher degradation.
Comparative Study of the Effect of Temperature on the Corrosion Behaviour of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel and 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel in Acidic Chloride Environment  [PDF]
O. A. Olaseinde
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2015.55019
Abstract: The 2205 duplex stainless steel and 316 austenitic stainless steels were studied in 1 M sulphuric acid and 1% NaCl solution. The microstructures of the specimens were investigated with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. X-ray Diffraction analysis was used for phase analysis. The electrochemical behaviour was evaluated using potentiodynamic method. The results show that the critical current density is higher for 316 austenitic stainless steels than 2205. The passive range was longer for 316 than 2205 at all the temperatures understudy. 2205 was found to have better corrosion resistance than 316.
Evaluation of Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge, Attitudes, Self Efficacy and Behaviors in Teachers and Children after Implementation of the “Healthy Active Kids” Online Program in Australian Elementary Schools  [PDF]
Jennifer A. O’Dea
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.84031
Abstract: The aims were to examine change in nutrition and physical activity knowledge, self efficacy and attitudes in a cohort of 23 teachers and 304 year 5 and 6 children after the “Healthy Active Kids” online program and to assess any behavioral change in children’s self reported nutrition and physical activity behaviors and investigate the predictors of nutrition knowledge gain in teachers and children. Results found significant (p < 0.0001) increases in teacher and student knowledge of the five food groups; key nutrients provided by each food group, The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating; food labelling laws, identification of common names for fats, sugars and salts on food labels, food proportions on the Healthy Food Plate and the level and percentage of water in the human body and human brain. Teacher attitudes towards the importance of nutrition and diet and self efficacy related to teaching nutrition in class improved (p < 0.01). The final regression model for predictors of the dependent variable, knowledge gain in students was R = 0.53, Adjusted R square = 0.28 (F = 4.76, p < 0.01) indicating that 28% of the variation in knowledge gain was predicted by the negative (low) Time 1 knowledge. Changes to eating habits reported by children were “drinking more water each day” (89.1%) and “eating foods from the five food groups each day” (76.2%); “sharing information about food labels with your family” (52.4%); “reading food labels when you go shopping” (50.0%); “changing what is on your dinner plate each night” (44.2%); “vegetables that you eat now that you didn’t eat before” (42.1%) and “fruits that you eat now” (39%). Results suggest that the development of basic nutrition knowledge is still very important for both teachers and students, but that other factors such as self efficacy, empowerment and skill development also contribute to nutrition behavior change in children.
Accurate Symbolic Solution of Ginzburg-Landau Equations in the Circular Cell Approximation by Variational Method: Magnetization of Ideal Type II Superconductor  [PDF]
O. A. Chevtchenko
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2017.86062
Abstract: In this paper I access the degree of approximation of known symbolic approach to solving of Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equations using variational method and a concept of vortex lattice with circular unit cells, refine it in a clear and concise way, identify and eliminate the errors. Also, I will improve its accuracy by providing for the first time precise dependencies of the variational parameters; correct and calculate magnetisation, compare it with the one calculated numerically and conclude they agree within 98.5% or better for any value of the GL parameter k and at magnetic field \"\", which is good basis for many engineering applications. As a result, a theoretical tool is developed using known symbolic solutions of GL equations with accuracy surpassing that of any other known symbolic solution and approaching that of numerical one.
Using the Dual Energy Gamma-Ray Transmission Technique to Measure Soil Bulk Density and Water Content of Central Southwestern Nigerian Soils  [PDF]
O. O. Adejumo, F. A. Balogun
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.311160
Abstract: In this work, a radiological technique which simultaneously measures soil bulk density and water contents accurately and quickly in a non-destructive manner at different depths of the soil profile of the major soil series of Central Southwestern Nigeria is developed. Undisturbed samples from Iwo, Ondo, Egbeda, Itagunmodi, Okemessi, Mamu, Origo and Jago soil series of Southwestern Nigeria were collected on monthly intervals from June 2006 to May 2007. Using gamma-ray energy pairs of 122 and 1112 keV; and 344 and 1408 keV obtained from europium-152 (152Eu) radionuclide, the attenuation coefficients for soil and water, μs, μw and consequently ρs and θv at varying soil depths of these series were calculated. Comparative gravimetric measurements of these soil parameters were carried out. Using the XCOM computer algorithm with the soil elemental concentrations obtained using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (EDXRF) technique, theoretical estimates of μs for the various soil series were obtained and compared with the experimental values. The result of the developed dual energy gamma-ray transmission technique was compared with the gravimetric measurement method and Pearson correlation coefficient (0.987, p < 0.001) was obtained for ρs and (0.996, p < 0.001) for θv. The results of the measurements showed that θv minima with values 0.1931, 0.1987, 0.2377, 0.2111, 0.1738, 0.1701, 0.2334, 0.2341 and minima ρs values of 1.21 g/cm3, 1.20 g/cm3, 1.02 g/cm3, 1.38 g/cm3, 1.12 g/cm3, 1.14 g/cm3, 0.64 g/cm3, 1.33 g/cm3 were obtained respectively for the soil series stated above in January. The maxima θv with values 0.3621, 0.4212, 0.3962, 0.3794, 0.3049, 0.2811, 0.4415, 0.4416 and maxima ρs values of 1.52 g/cm3, 1.67 g/cm3, 1.74 g/cm3, 1.69 g/cm3, 1.70 g/cm3, 1.68 g/cm3, 1.08 g/cm3, 1.54 g/cm3 occurred for these soil series respectively in July except for Mamu soil series which occurred in May. These correlated very well with the occurrence of the Dry and Rainy seasons in the study area. The results of the EDXRF analysis showed that maxima Iron, Fe concentrations of 5.0890 ppm at the depth of 90 - 120 cm into the soil profile, was obtained for Iwo series, 4.4691 ppm at 50 - 70 cm for Ondo, 6.3438 ppm at 15 -
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