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OALib Journal期刊

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Socio-Demographic Determinants of Family Planning Service Utilization among Women of Reproductive Age in Urban Communities of Imo State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Chukwuma B. Duru, Obiageli F. Emelumadu, Anthony C. Iwu, Ikechi Ohanle, Chuka C. Agunwa, Ernest Nwaigbo, Emmanuel N. Ndukwu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104627
Abstract:
Introduction: Many developing countries are characterized by rapid population growth, which is partly attributed to high fertility rates, high birth rates, accompanied by steady declines in death rates, low contraceptive use and high but declining mortality rate. AIM: To determine the factors influencing family planning method use among women of reproductive age in urban communities of Imo state, Nigeria. Methodology: The study was a community based descriptive cross-sectional study involving 560 women of reproductive age who met the inclusion criteria and were selected using the multistage sampling technique. The data were collected using a pretested, semi-structured and interviewer administered questionnaire and were analyzed using EPI-INFO version 3.2.1. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 32.7 ± 7.7 years with most of the women (99.1%) being aware of family planning. The common methods known were; pills (65.2%), injections (62.5%), condoms (61.3%) and natural family planning methods (49.5%). The prevalence of ever use and current use of family planning was 54.1% and 35.1% respectively and the commonest method ever (36%) and currently (26%) used was the condom. The factors found to significantly influence family planning method use in the study were: age of women, religion, family size, number of male children, monthly income, being able to access and pay for family planning services without partners financial support, contraceptive knowledge, prior discussion of family planning with partner, partner being in support of modern family planning methods use and previous use of any form of contraception. Conclusion: Most of the factors found to influence use can be modified by appropriate intervention programs.  Thus there is need to institute these intervention programs by authorities concerned so as to increase utilization of services and reduce consequent problems.
Sexual Abuse among Female Undergraduates in Tertiary Institutions in IMO State, Southeast Nigeria: Prevalence, Pattern and Determinants  [PDF]
Chukwuma B. Duru, Chinyere M. Aguocha, Anthony C. Iwu, Uche R. Oluoha, Ijeoma N. Okedo-Alex, Ikechi Ohanle, Ernest Nwaigbo
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104516
Abstract:
Introduction: Sexual abuse is a global public health problem that cuts across social class, cultures, tribes etc. and has permeated the fabrics of tertiary institutions and many work places as long as humans have reasons to interact. Aim: To determine the prevalence, pattern and determinants of sexual abuse among undergraduates in tertiary institutions in Imo State, Nigeria. Methodology: This study was a descriptive, cross sectional survey of 600 female students in tertiary institutions in Imo State Nigeria. They were selected using the multistage sampling technique and data were collected using a pretested, semi-structural and self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using a computer soft-ware (EPI INFO version 3.3.2). Descriptive statistics was presented using summary indices, frequency tables and percentages. Associations between variables were done using the chi-square and logistic regression. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 21.7 3.2 years. The current and life-time prevalence of sexual abuse among the respondents was 15.2% and 34% respectively and the commonest form of sexual abuse experienced was founding/grabbing of sensitive body parts (52.5%). Factors found to influence current occurrence of sexual abuse among the students were; age (p = 0.010), tribe (p = 0.008), marital status (p < 0.001), type of student in secondary school attended (p = 0.001), faculty of study (p = 0), year in school (p < 0.0001), persons currently shared room with (p < 0.0001) and level of knowledge about sexual abuse (p = 0.007). Conclusion: The prevalence of abuse as revealed in this study was high. There is need to develop appropriated prevention strategies by the universities to curb this menace against our women.
Primary glomerular diseases: variations in disease types seen in Africa and Europe
Okpechi,Ikechi; Duffield,Maureen; Swanepoel,Charles;
Portuguese Journal of Nephrology & Hypertension , 2012,
Abstract: glomerular diseases account for a significant number of patients with chronic kidney disease worldwide. iga nephropathy (igan) is the predominant primary glomerular disease (pgd) seen across europe, whereas in africa, the prevalence of igan is not common. the most frequently described glomerular disease in africa is mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (mcgn). the difference in the prevalence of pgds seen in africa and europe may depend on several factors including genetic, socio-economic and demographic influences. variations in exposure to infections (hygiene hypothesis) and patterns of th1 and th2 responses may also contribute significantly to observed differences.
Update on the role of candesartan in the optimal management of hypertension and cardiovascular risk reduction
Ikechi G Okpechi, Brian L Rayner
Integrated Blood Pressure Control , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IBPC.S9963
Abstract: ate on the role of candesartan in the optimal management of hypertension and cardiovascular risk reduction Review (4014) Total Article Views Authors: Ikechi G Okpechi, Brian L Rayner Published Date May 2010 Volume 2010:3 Pages 45 - 55 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IBPC.S9963 Ikechi G Okpechi, Brian L Rayner Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town 7925, South Africa Abstract: Hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease of adults and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Treatment of hypertension leads to reduction of CV morbidity and mortality through blood pressure reduction. The role of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) in the pathophysiology of hypertension is mainly through generation of potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II, stimulation of aldosterone secretion, and increase in sympathetic activation. Angiotensin II receptor blockers such as candesartan, a long-acting agent, alter this system by blocking the activation of angiotensin I receptors. Several important clinical trials have tested the efficacy of candesartan with placebo, antihypertensive agents, or other agents that block the RAAS for the control of hypertension and reduction of key CV risk factors such as microalbuminuria, heart failure, retinopathy, and carotid intima medial thickness. Candesartan has been shown to be a welltolerated and effective antihypertensive agent with positive metabolic characteristics and additional benefits on CV and cerebrovascular outcomes. The aim of this review is to discuss the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of candesartan, with an overview of key hypertension and CV studies involving candesartan.
A diverse array of genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Tiffin Nicki,Adeyemo Adebowale,Okpechi Ikechi
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1172-8-2
Abstract: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease with variable clinical presentation frequently affecting the skin, joints, haemopoietic system, kidneys, lungs and central nervous system. It can be life threatening when major organs are involved. The full pathological and genetic mechanisms of this complex disease are yet to be elucidated; although roles have been described for environmental triggers such as sunlight, drugs and chemicals, and infectious agents. Cellular processes such as inefficient clearing of apoptotic DNA fragments and generation of autoantibodies have been implicated in disease progression. A diverse array of disease-associated genes and microRNA regulatory molecules that are dysregulated through polymorphism and copy number variation have also been identified; and an effect of ethnicity on susceptibility has been described.
Update on the role of candesartan in the optimal management of hypertension and cardiovascular risk reduction
Ikechi G Okpechi,Brian L Rayner
Integrated Blood Pressure Control , 2010,
Abstract: Ikechi G Okpechi, Brian L RaynerDepartment of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town 7925, South AfricaAbstract: Hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease of adults and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Treatment of hypertension leads to reduction of CV morbidity and mortality through blood pressure reduction. The role of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) in the pathophysiology of hypertension is mainly through generation of potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II, stimulation of aldosterone secretion, and increase in sympathetic activation. Angiotensin II receptor blockers such as candesartan, a long-acting agent, alter this system by blocking the activation of angiotensin I receptors. Several important clinical trials have tested the efficacy of candesartan with placebo, antihypertensive agents, or other agents that block the RAAS for the control of hypertension and reduction of key CV risk factors such as microalbuminuria, heart failure, retinopathy, and carotid intima medial thickness. Candesartan has been shown to be a welltolerated and effective antihypertensive agent with positive metabolic characteristics and additional benefits on CV and cerebrovascular outcomes. The aim of this review is to discuss the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of candesartan, with an overview of key hypertension and CV studies involving candesartan.Keywords: ACE inhibitor, ARB, blood pressure, treatment, heart
Impacts of Urbanization on the Indigenous Enclaves of Port Harcourt and Concomitant Policy Measures
Victor C. Obinna,Opuene B. Owei,Ikechi O. Okwakpam
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2010.172.186
Abstract: Port Harcourt, one of Nigeria s major cities has been experiencing rapid urbanization (of the order of 5% per annum on the average) since its founding by the British in 1913. The process of urbanisation is engulfing and transforming the way of life of the indigenous enclaves, which predate the founding of the city. This study has examined the impact of urbanization and its correlates on the socio-economic and socio-cultural aspects of life of the indigenes both subjectively (by questioning a probability sample of the indigenes) and objectively (from the judgment of experts using a state-of-the-art impact assessment methodology). The study found that while about one half of the respondents were pleased with urbanization, a little over one third were displeased with it. Reasons for pleasure included: development of the area, infrastructure development and improvement in aesthetics, while displeasure stemmed from increase in crime rate, destruction of traditional livelihoods, erosion of cultural values, among others. The study concluded that urbanization has indeed had both positive and negative impacts on the indigenous population and that there was reasonable agreement between subjective and objective impacts of urbanization. Finally, recommendations have been proffered to mitigate serious negative impacts including positive discrimination/affirmative action to help indigenes compete favourably with the usually more aggressive and better-equipped in-migrants.
PATTERNS AND DETERMINANTS OF RECREATIONAL BEHAVIOUR IN PORT HARCOURT, RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA
Victor OBINNA,Opuene OWEI,Aroyehun AYODELE,Ikechi OKWAKPAM
Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management , 2009,
Abstract: By surveying a 5% probability sample of residential clusters, yielding 369 residents in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, this study has ascertained actual recreational behaviour of the residents; determinants of recreational behaviour; perceived adequacy/inadequacy of government provision of recreational facilities; and residents’ suggestions for improvement of recreational facilities. It was found, amongst others, that weekly participation in passive (outdoor) recreation averaged 3.7 hours and 2.5 hours for females and males, respectively; the corresponding figures for passive (indoor) recreation were 35.2 hours and 43.9 hours. For active (outdoor) recreation males and females averaged 8.9 hours and 5.3 hours, respectively. The corresponding figures for active (indoor) recreation were 5.3 hours and 6.2 hours. Of 5 personality variables, income was the most potent in explaining recreational behaviour. About one half and 43.3% of residents considered government-provided indoor and outdoor recreational facilities inadequate, respectively, demonstrating the need for government to play more active roles in (i) providing recreational facilities; and (ii) encouraging recreational participation, considering its well-known benefits.
Adrenal-oncocytic tumor: an unusual cause of secondary hypertension in a young South African male
Ikechi Gareth Okpechi,Ahmed Motala,Eugenio Panieri,Brian Rayner
Nephrology Reviews , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/nr.2010.e12
Abstract: Tumors with oncocytic features are characterized histologically by cells with eosino-philic granular cytoplasm and by the ultrastructural presence of numerous closely packed mitochondria. Adrenal oncocytic tumors are very rare. We describe the case of a 36-year old white male who was newly diagnosed with hypertension and referred for evaluation. An abdominal computer tomog-raphy scan revealed a right adrenal tumor, which was removed surgically. The final diagnosis was made histologically on the excised tumor specimen. Hypertension in this patient was cured by the removal of the tumor. Adrenal oncocytic tumors are often benign, non-functional tumors that rarely cause hypertension. The diagnosis and assessment of metastatic potential can be made with hist-ology and appropriate immunohistochemical stains. Removal of the tumor is necessary as some may have a malignant potential. Long-term follow-up is important in these patients in view of the difficulty in accurately predicting biological behavior.
Renal acid excretion in hypertensive black Africans
Ikechi Gareth Okpechi,Solomon Kadiri,Babatunde Salako,Brian Rayner
Nephrology Reviews , 2009, DOI: 10.4081/nr.2009.e2
Abstract: Altered activity of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE) has been implicated in the development of hypertension. The aim of the study was to determine if the indices of urinary acid-base excretion (as markers of the NHE activity) are increased in hypertensives compared to normotensive black Africans. Sixty black African subjects (30 untreated hypertensives and 30 normotensives) were recruited for the study. All subjects collected timed 24 hour urine for quantification of the indices of acid excretion. There was no difference in all the measures of acid excretion between hypertensives and normotensive subjects: p=0.384 for urine pH, p=0.442 for urine ammonium, p=0.279 for urine titratable acidity and p=0.304 for total acid excretion. This suggests that there is no difference in urinary acid excretion between black hypertensives and normotensives and that the NHE may not be implicated in the genesis of hypertension in blacks.
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