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Bacteria, like industrial engineers, must manage processes that convert low value inputs into high value outputs. Bacteria are not intelligent, so they utilize self-organizing production systems to accelerate life-sustaining chemical processes. Here I explore two questions. First, can businesses apply the principles of self-organization? Second, can operations researchers contribute to our understanding of biological systems? I explain biochemical concepts in plain terms, illustrated with a few informative laboratory evolution experiments, and describe the organizing principles that underlie complex biological systems. I describe the new disciplines of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, which offer opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration between life scientists and operations researchers.
Incorporating two independent habits over
consumption and money holdings into a small country model, we examine the
adjustment dynamics of the current account and the exchange rate to
expansionary monetary and fiscal shocks under two alternative policy regimes: (1)
the endogenous income transfer regime; and (2) the endogenous fiscal spending regime.
In response to the shocks under regime (1), the exchange rate depreciates on
impact and in the long run whereas it appreciates (depreciates) in transition
if preferences for real money balances exhibit distant (adjacent)
complementarity. Under regime (2), the consumption habits and the monetary
habits jointly generate possibly non-monotonic current account dynamics. An
induced increase in fiscal spending in regime (2) can generate a current
account surplus in the case where the monetary habits exhibit strong distant
A significant structural change in the pattern of economic development in Asian economies has been observed in recent years. We have seen many cases in which the Asian economies became the center of the world-wide production in an extremely short period of time after a new product entered the market. Also in the science, the number of papers written by Asian researchers has been increasing dramatically. In this situation, the existing studies cannot sufficiently explain the driving force and the mechanism of catch-up or economic growth. Therefore, it is now required to model this new type of economic development. In this paper we analyzed their scientific catch-up status using scientific papers on solar cells to clarify the structural change. After mid 1990s, knowledge creation has been accelerated in the field of solar cell. Now more than three thousand papers are published annually. We found as a result that the catch-up process in Asian economies had progressed rapidly, that some economies had a larger share of scientific papers in the frontier field of advanced science than in the matured fields, and that the strategy largely changed from area to area. A “parallel-running-type growth model” has thus been emerging in Asia. Responding to the significant changes in development model, we have to re-design the framework of economic cooperation. There is a need for further horizontal collaboration among major Asian economies and developed
Silica sinter developed on the northern shore of Lake Usoriyama in the Osorezan geothermal field was examined for the occurrence, texture, crystallinity of silica minerals, and the concentrations of trace elements and oxygen isotopes. The silica sinter consists of a thick eastern mound (layer A) and a thin western part (layer B). Most of the silica sinter is composed of alternating bands of thin layers of silica minerals with colors varying from white to yellow and reddish gray. There is a unique stromatolitic texture, an aggregate of stratified concentric layers that extends upward and is red to reddish gray in color in the middle of layer A. Silica minerals, mainly opal-A and opal-CT, dominate the mineralogical constituents of the sinter. The δ18O of the silica mineral in layer A varies between 13‰ and 26‰, while layer B has higher values, between 19‰ and 33‰. The hydrothermal fluid from which the silica sinter precipitated is dominated by meteoric water is similar to present-day hot spring water.
Many natural disasters cause not only
critical situations for facilities and resident’s residents’ life, but also
significant damage to economy. It is obvious that quick rescue action must be
undertaken and that there are many problems due to the occurrence of secondary
disasters at rescue worksite. Basing Based on the previous study of deployable
structures and the concept of the multi-folding micro-structures, we propose a
new type of foldable bridge in form of scissor structure called the
Mobile-bridge?. In this paper, we discuss the vehicle passing test performed on
the real-scale Mobile-bridge in order to evaluate its mechanical
characteristics and application limits. Moreover, we verified the compatibility
between the result of calculations and experiments by means of theoretical
modelling. The results show that it is sufficient to treat the load as
equivalent nodal forces applied at the joints without including the stiffness
of the deck.