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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8093 matches for " Ian Jen "
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Screening for low bone mass with quantitative ultrasonography in a community without dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: population-based survey
Nan-Ping Yang, Ian Jen, Shao-Yuan Chuang, Shui-Hu Chen, Pesus Chou
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-7-24
Abstract: We enrolled 6493 residents of Kinmen, Taiwan, and a reference group (96 men and 70 women aged 20–29 years) for this cross-sectional, community-based study. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent ultrasonographic measurements. Reliability and validity of QUS measurements were evaluated. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) values were obtained and statistically analyzed by age, sex and weight. Annual loss of BUA was determined. Trends in the prevalence of QUS scores were evaluated.Two QUS were used and had a correlation coefficient of 0.90 (p < 0.001). Calcaneal BUA was significantly correlated with BMD in the femoral neck (r = 0.67, p < 0.001) and BMD of the total lumbar spine (r = 0.59, p < 0.001). BUAs in the reference group were 92.72 ± 13.36 and 87.90 ± 10.68 dB/MHz for men and women, respectively. Estimated annual losses of calcaneal BUA were 0.83% per year for women, 0.27% per year for men, and 0.51% per year for the total population. The prevalence of severely low QUS values (T-score = -2.5) tended to increase with aging in both sexes (p < 0.001). Across age strata, moderately low QUS values (-2.5 < T-score < -1.0) were 31.6–41.0% in men and 23.7–38.1% in women; a significant trend with age was observed in men (p < 0.001).Age-related decreases in calcaneal ultrasonometry, which reflected the prevalence of low bone mass, were more obvious in women than in men.Osteoporosis is an epidemiologic disorder that frequently results in fractures, psychological problems, social consequences, functional limitations and poor quality of life [1,2]. To reduce the incidence of osteoporotic fractures, individuals, especially postmenopausal women, who are at high risk for osteoporosis must be identified [3,4]. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most accurate clinical method to identify low bone mineral density (BMD) [4,5]. However, in some areas of the world, access to axial DXA is limited, or screening for low BMD with DXA is not cost effective
Probing flavor-dependent EMC effect with W boson production
Wen-Chen Chang,Ian Cloet,Dipangkar Dutta,Jen-Chieh Peng
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: A recent theoretical model predicts that the modification of quark distributions in the nuclear medium (EMC effect) depends on the flavor of the quarks. We investigate $W$-boson production in proton-nucleus collision as a possible tool to test this theoretical prediction. Several experimental observables in $W$ production sensitive to the flavor-dependent EMC effect are identified. Calculations for these experimental observables at the RHIC and LHC energies are presented using the recent flavor-dependent EMC model.
Spatial analysis of tuberculosis in four main ethnic communities in Taiwan during 2005 to 2009  [PDF]
Pui-Jen Tsai
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2011.13017
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess spatial features of tuberculosis prevalence and their relationships with four main ethnic communities in Taiwan. Methods of spatial analysis were clustering pattern determination (such as global version of Moran’s test and local version of Gi*(d) statistic), using logistic regression calculations to identify spatial distributions over a contiguous five years and identify significant similarities, discriminant analysis to classify variables, and geographically weighted regression (GWR) to determine the strength of relationships between tuberculosis prevalence and ethnic variables in spatial features. Tuberculosis demonstrated decreasing trends in prevalence in both genders during 2005 to 2009. All results of the global Moran’s tests indicated spatial heterogeneity and clusters in the plain and mountainous Aboriginal townships. The Gi*(d) statistic calculated z-score outcomes, categorized as clusters or non-clusters, at at 5% significance level. According to the stepwise Wilks’ lambda discriminant analysis, in the Aborigines and Hoklo communities townships with clusters of tuberculosis cases differentiated from townships without cluster cases, to a greater extent than in the other communities. In the GWR models, the explanatory variables demonstrated significant and positive signs of parameter estimates in clusters occurring in plain and mountainous aboriginal townships. The explanatory variables of both the Hoklo and Hakka communities demonstrated significant, but negative, signs of parameter estimates. The Mainlander community did not significantly associate with cluster patterns of tuberculosis in Taiwan. Results indicated that locations of high tuberculosis prevalence closely related to areas containing higher proportions of the Aboriginal community in Taiwan. This information is relevant for assessment of spatial risk factors, which, in turn, can facilitate the planning of the most advantageous types of health care policies, and implementation of effective health care services.
Commodity Currency: An Alternative Route to Currency Union  [PDF]
Ian McFarlane
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.32019
Abstract: Proposals have been made for a common currency for East Asia, but the countries preparing to participate need to be in a state of economic convergence. We show that at least six countries of East Asia already satisfy this condition. There also needs to be a mechanism by which the new currency relates to other reserve currencies. We demonstrate that a numéraire could be defined solely from the actual worldwide consumption of food and energy per capita, linked to fiat currencies via world market prices. We show that real resource prices are stable in real terms, and likely to remain so. Furthermore, the link from energy prices to food commodity prices is permanent, arising from energy inputs in agriculture, food processing and distribution. Calibration of currency value using a yardstick such as our SI numéraire offers an unbiased measure of the consistently stable cost of subsistence in the face of volatile currency exchange rates. This has the advantage that the participating countries need only agree to currency governance based on a common standards institution, a much less onerous form of agreement than would be required in the creation of a common central bank.
Agricultural Commodity Markets: Reference Point for the Real Value of a Currency  [PDF]
Ian McFarlane
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.55050

Using monthly time-series data 1999-2013, the paper shows that markets for agricultural commodities provide a yardstick for real purchasing power, and thus a reference point for the real value of fiat currencies. The daily need for each adult to consume about 2800 food calories is universal; data from FAO food balance sheets confirm that the world basket of food consumed daily is non-volatile in comparison to the volatility of currency exchange rates, and so the replacement cost of food consumed provides a consistent indicator of economic value. Food commodities are storable for short periods, but ultimately perishable, and this exerts continual pressure for markets to clear in the short term; moreover, food calories can be obtained from a very large range of foodstuffs, and so most households are able to use arbitrage to select a near optimal weighting of quantities purchased. The paper proposes an original method to enable a standard of value to be established, definable in physical units on the basis of actual worldwide consumption of food goods, with an illustration of the method.

Imaging of Zebrafish In Vivo with Second-Harmonic Generation Reveals Shortened Sarcomeres Associated with Myopathy Induced by Statin
Shih-Hao Huang, Chung-Der Hsiao, Dar-Shong Lin, Cho-Yen Chow, Chia-Jen Chang, Ian Liau
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024764
Abstract: We employed second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and the zebrafish model to investigate the myopathy caused by statin in vivo with emphasis on the altered microstructures of the muscle sarcomere, the fundamental contractile element of muscles. This approach derives an advantage of SHG imaging to observe the striated skeletal muscle of living zebrafish based on signals produced mainly from the thick myosin filament of sarcomeres without employing exogenous labels, and eliminates concern about the distortion of muscle structures caused by sample preparation in conventional histological examination. The treatment with statin caused a significantly shortened sarcomere relative to an untreated control (1.73±0.09 μm vs 1.91±0.08 μm, P<0.05) while the morphological integrity of the muscle fibers remained largely intact. Mechanistic tests indicated that this microstructural disorder was associated with the biosynthetic pathway of cholesterol, or, specifically, with the impaired production of mevalonate by statins. This microstructural disorder exhibited a strong dependence on both the dosage and the duration of treatment, indicating a possibility to assess the severity of muscle injury according to the altered length of the sarcomeres. In contrast to a conventional assessment of muscle injury using clinical biomarkers in blood, such as creatine kinase that is released from only disrupted myocytes, the ability to determine microstructural modification of sarcomeres allows diagnosis of muscle injury before an onset of conventional clinical symptoms. In light of the increasing prevalence of the incidence of muscle injuries caused by new therapies, our work consolidates the combined use of the zebrafish and SHG imaging as an effective and sensitive means to evaluate the safety profile of new therapeutic targets in vivo.
Viral Pneumonitis Is Increased in Obese Patients during the First Wave of Pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 Virus
Jen Kok, Christopher C. Blyth, Hong Foo, Michael J. Bailey, David V. Pilcher, Steven A. Webb, Ian M. Seppelt, Dominic E. Dwyer, Jonathan R. Iredell
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055631
Abstract: Introduction There is conflicting data as to whether obesity is an independent risk factor for mortality in severe pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza (A(H1N1)pdm09). It is postulated that excess inflammation and cytokine production in obese patients following severe influenza infection leads to viral pneumonitis and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods Demographic, laboratory and clinical data prospectively collected from obese and non-obese patients admitted to nine adult Australian intensive care units (ICU) during the first A(H1N1)pdm09 wave, supplemented with retrospectively collected data, were compared. Results Of 173 patients, 100 (57.8%), 73 (42.2%) and 23 (13.3%) had body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m2, ≥30 kg/m2 (obese) and ≥40 kg/m2 (morbidly obese) respectively. Compared to non-obese patients, obese patients were younger (mean age 43.4 vs. 48.4 years, p = 0.035) and more likely to develop pneumonitis (61% vs. 44%, p = 0.029). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was greater in morbidly obese compared to non-obese patients (17.4% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.04). Higher mortality rates were observed in non-obese compared to obese patients, but not after adjusting for severity of disease. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and hospital length of stay (LOS) were similar. Amongst ICU survivors, obese patients had longer ICU LOS (median 11.9 vs. 6.8 days, p = 0.017). Similar trends were observed when only patients infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 were examined. Conclusions Among patients admitted to ICU during the first wave of A(H1N1)pdm09, obese and morbidly obese patients with severe infection were more likely to develop pneumonitis compared to non-obese patients, but mortality rates were not increased. CRP is not an accurate marker of pneumonitis.
Hie das "infinity" oder "affinity?" Zum Nutzen translationswissenschaftlicher Beitr ge zum Verstehen von Transkriptionen in der qualitativen Sozialforschung Was that Infinity or Affinity? Applying Insights from Translation Studies to Qualitative Research Transcription Fue eternidad o afinidad? Aplicando ideas de los estudios de traducción a la transcripción en investigación cualitativa
Jen Ross
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2010,
Abstract: Zwar gibt es in der qualitativen Sozialforschung einen kleinen und aufschlussreichen Korpus an Literatur, demzufolge Transkriptionen sowohl Schlüsselmomente von Entscheiden als auch von Macht im Forschungsprozess sind. Zugleich scheinen aber viele Forschende Transkriptionen für relativ unproblematisch zu halten (oder sie verhalten sich zumindest so). Die Translationswissenschaft mit ihrem Fokus auf Sichtbarkeit, Macht, Authentizit t und Exaktheit kann hier wichtige Denkanst e bereitstellen für Forscher/innen, die sich kritisch mit der Praxis und Theorie des Transkribierens besch ftigen. In diesem Beitrag erl utere ich zun chst einige aus der Translationswissenschaft stammende Theorien von Gleichwertigkeit, offener und verdeckter übersetzung, von "Z hmung", "Auswilderung" und von "Rückst nden", und ich versuche dann, fruchtbare Verbindungslinien zwischen übersetzung und Transkription aufzuzeigen. Die Verbindungslinien verweisen auf weiter gehende politische und kulturelle Implikationen von Transkription und akademischem Diskurs, auf die Komplexit t von Gleichwertigkeit und auf die zentrale Rolle derer, die – je spezifisch situiert – transkribieren. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100223 Despite a small but compelling body of literature arguing that transcription represents a key moment of choice and the exercise of power in the research process, many qualitative researchers appear to believe (or at least proceed as if they believe) that transcription is relatively unproblematic. Translation studies and its engagement with visibility, power, authenticity and fidelity has a lot to offer to qualitative researchers working critically with transcription theory and practice. This paper explores the translation studies theories of equivalence, overt and covert translation, foreignisation and domestication, and the remainder, and demonstrates some fertile connections between transcription and translation. These connections help us to think about some broader political and cultural issues in relation to transcription and academic discourse, the complexity of equivalence and the central role of the situated transcriber. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100223 A pesar de un peque o pero convincente cuerpo de literatura argumentando que la transcripción representa un momento clave de la elección y al ejercicio del poder en el proceso de investigación, muchos investigadores cualitativos parecen creer (o al menos actúan como si lo hicieran) que la transcripción es relativamente exenta de problemas. Los estudios de traducción y su compromiso con la visibilidad, el poder, la autenticid
The Philosopher's Island
Jen Glaser
Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis , 2000,
Abstract: In this volume of Analytic Teaching we begin a new regular feature: A review of websites that promote philosophical inquiry. The sites reviewed in this column have one thing in common - they are designed to encourage and promote the activity of philosophy amongst students of all ages. While principally designed for use in schools, many of these sites provide wonderful resources that can also be used to initiate philosophical inquiry between parents and children or between groups of friends.It has often been noted that the global nature of the web throws the possibilities of cross-cultural dialogue and understanding wide open. Many of the sites we will be reviewing here have been developed(and funded) with the express purpose of building inquiry across national and cultural borders.Other sites we will be reviewing reflect the local and particular; they are tied to an individual school, teacher, or group of children. In sharing their resources through the web, these people have provided us all with a rich set of materials that may prompt us to begin our own philosophical inquiries. In prompting us to post our own replies, these sites too open the possibility for ongoing dialogue and cultural exchange.
The Web Wanderer
Jen Glaser
Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis , 2001,
Abstract: This volume of Analytic Teaching contains the third in our series of reviews of websites that promote philosophical inquiry. The sites reviewed in this column have one thing in common - they are designed to encourage and promote the activity of philosophy amongst students of all ages. While principally designed for use in schools, many of these sites provide wonderful resources that can also be used to initiate philosophical inquiry between parents and children or between groups of friends.
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