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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 523545 matches for " Ian A. Yang "
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Effect of Sub-Grains and Crystal Defects on Monolike Si Solar Cell Performance  [PDF]
Chris Yang, Hao Wu, Ian Cooper
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.42011

This paper investigates crystalline orientation in monolike silicon wafers and its effect on solar cell performance. Monolike silicon wafers from two different bricks cut from interior and corner region of an ingot were compared. The mono grain in the interior brick is nearly perfect, but there are some large oblong shaped sub-grains in the corner brick. The large sub-grains at corner brick wafers are oriented at (311), instead of (100) orientation. The (311) grains contain high density of dislocation and cannot be effectively textured by alkaline solution, therefore lowering the cell efficiency significantly. There is about 0.86% (abs) cell efficiency reduction on the monolike cells that contain large sub-grains.

On Certain 5-manifolds with Fundamental Group of Order 2
Ian Hambleton,Yang Su
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: In this paper, an explicit classification result for certain 5-manifolds with fundamental group Z/2 is obtained. These manifolds include total spaces of circle bundles over simply-connected 4-manifolds.
Expression profiling identifies genes involved in emphysema severity
Santiyagu Francis, Jill E Larsen, Sandra J Pavey, Rayleen V Bowman, Nicholas K Hayward, Kwun M Fong, Ian A Yang
Respiratory Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-10-81
Abstract: Gene expression profiling was performed on total RNA extracted from non-tumor lung tissue from 30 smokers with emphysema. Class comparison analysis based on gas transfer measurement was performed to identify differentially expressed genes. Genes were then selected for technical validation by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) if also represented on microarray platforms used in previously published emphysema studies. Genes technically validated advanced to tests of biological replication by qRT-PCR using an independent test set of 62 lung samples.Class comparison identified 98 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.01). Fifty-one of those genes had been previously evaluated in differentiation between normal and severe emphysema lung. qRT-PCR confirmed the direction of change in expression in 29 of the 51 genes and 11 of those validated, remaining significant at p < 0.05. Biological replication in an independent cohort confirmed the altered expression of eight genes, with seven genes differentially expressed by greater than 1.3 fold, identifying these as candidate determinants of emphysema severity.Gene expression profiling of lung from emphysema patients identified seven candidate genes associated with emphysema severity including COL6A3, SERPINF1, ZNHIT6, NEDD4, CDKN2A, NRN1 and GSTM3.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health burden worldwide [1]. Smoking is the primary cause of COPD, with up to 50% of smokers developing the disease [2]. It is frequently under-diagnosed and under-treated [3] since its early stages are often asymptomatic. COPD patients are classified into mild, moderate and severe based on the degree of airflow limitation, which is a result of damage in the large airways (bronchitis), small airways (bronchiolitis) and or alveoli (emphysema). Emphysema affects 40% of heavy smokers [4] and causes loss of elastic recoil, leading to abnormal gas exchange and breathlessness. Despite smoking cessation, some individuals con
Ultrafast Optical Excitation of a Persistent Surface-State Population in the Topological Insulator Bi2Se3
Jonathan A. Sobota,Shuolong Yang,James G. Analytis,Yulin Chen,Ian R. Fisher,Patrick S. Kirchmann,Z. -X. Shen
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.117403
Abstract: Using femtosecond time- and angle- resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we investigated the nonequilibrium dynamics of the topological insulator Bi2Se3. We studied p-type Bi2Se3, in which the metallic Dirac surface state and bulk conduction bands are unoccupied. Optical excitation leads to a meta-stable population at the bulk conduction band edge, which feeds a nonequilibrium population of the surface state persisting for >10ps. This unusually long-lived population of a metallic Dirac surface state with spin texture may present a channel in which to drive transient spin-polarized currents.
World Soybean Trade: Growth and Sustainability  [PDF]
Ian McFarlane, Ernesto A. O’Connor
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.55054

Soybeans can be consumed directly as food, and in China they are the major ingredient in food products such as tofu and soy milk, but direct consumption is small relative to their wider use in animal feed, and it is the requirement for livestock feed that drives international trade. Rapid growth of economies and population, especially in Asia, has led to increased demand for animal protein and cooking oil. This paper analyses the recent growth in supply of soybeans from North and South America to China, and considers the factors that may affect this trade in future; a contrast is made with supply from North and South America to Europe, which has not been increasing. The constraints preventing an increase in supply of soybeans to Europe are reviewed. The paper concludes with brief discussion of the factors which will affect world markets for soybeans and soybean products in future.

Circular and Faceted Monopile Installation Fatigue Damage  [PDF]
Giorge Koulin, Ian Sewell, Brain A. Shaw
Engineering (ENG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2016.84020
Abstract: There are currently no models predicting localised stressing induced in monopole foundations resulting from pile driving installation. A scaled down test was conducted for both circular and faceted monopile, during which monopile stressing was measured. From the stress data gathered fatigue damage was estimated. Fatigue damage of the faceted geometry is significantly larger than that of the circular geometry. It is shown that in the worst case the fatigue damage incurred is still negligible compared to the full service life of the foundation. Suggestions for future developments are made, such developments can be helpful in providing greater understanding of the occasional cases where fatigue damage resulting from pile driving is not negligible and has perhaps resulted in failure.
Green Microstructural Visualization of Dry-Pressed Spray-Dried Alumina (Al2O3)  [PDF]
Ian P. Maher, Richard A. Haber
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2019.912067
Abstract: Slurry parameters were controlled prior to spray-drying to visualize and govern an understanding of which parameters govern hollow coring and granule morphology during spray-drying. An aqueous alumina using a polyvinyl alcohol binder (PVA) system was analyzed and granules were processed by altering the slurry specific gravity and viscosity value prior to spray-drying. Spray-dried granules were uniaxial dry-pressed at varying moisture contents to show the plasticizing effects of moisture during compaction. A novel characterization method using a field emission electron microscope (FESEM) was implemented to image the green microstructures of the granules and compacted samples. Slurries with a higher specific gravity and viscosity resulted in denser granules with spherical shapes. Viscosity affected the binder segregation during the spray-drying process. Granules stored at higher moisture contents resulted in denser compacts with fewer intergranular pores and cracks along granule boundaries. Using a FESEM resulted in higher resolution for green microstructural characterization.
Genes and Gene Ontologies Common to Airflow Obstruction and Emphysema in the Lungs of Patients with COPD
Santiyagu M. Savarimuthu Francis,Jill E. Larsen,Sandra J. Pavey,Edwina E. Duhig,Belinda E. Clarke,Rayleen V. Bowman,Nick K. Hayward,Kwun M. Fong,Ian A. Yang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017442
Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem with increasing prevalence worldwide. The primary aim of this study was to identify genes and gene ontologies associated with COPD severity. Gene expression profiling was performed on total RNA extracted from lung tissue of 18 former smokers with COPD. Class comparison analysis on mild (n = 9, FEV1 80–110% predicted) and moderate (n = 9, FEV1 50–60% predicted) COPD patients identified 46 differentially expressed genes (p<0.01), of which 14 genes were technically confirmed by quantitative real-time-PCR. Biological replication in an independent test set of 58 lung samples confirmed the altered expression of ten genes with increasing COPD severity, with eight of these genes (NNMT, THBS1, HLA-DPB1, IGHD, ETS2, ELF1, PTGDS and CYRBD1) being differentially expressed by greater than 1.8 fold between mild and moderate COPD, identifying these as candidate determinants of COPD severity. These genes belonged to ontologies potentially implicated in COPD including angiogenesis, cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis. Our secondary aim was to identify gene ontologies common to airway obstruction, indicated by impaired FEV1 and KCO. Using gene ontology enrichment analysis we have identified relevant biological and molecular processes including regulation of cell-matrix adhesion, leukocyte activation, cell and substrate adhesion, cell adhesion, angiogenesis, cell activation that are enriched among genes involved in airflow obstruction. Exploring the functional significance of these genes and their gene ontologies will provide clues to molecular changes involved in severity of COPD, which could be developed as targets for therapy or biomarkers for early diagnosis.
MicroRNA-218 Is Deleted and Downregulated in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Morgan R. Davidson,Jill E. Larsen,Ian A. Yang,Nicholas K. Hayward,Belinda E. Clarke,Edwina E. Duhig,Linda H. Passmore,Rayleen V. Bowman,Kwun M. Fong
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012560
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small, non-coding RNA species functioning as negative regulators of multiple target genes including tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes. Many miRNA gene loci are located within cancer-associated genomic regions. To identify potential new amplified oncogenic and/or deleted tumour suppressing miRNAs in lung cancer, we inferred miRNA gene dosage from high dimensional arrayCGH data. From miRBase v9.0 (http://microrna.sanger.ac.uk), 474 human miRNA genes were physically mapped to regions of chromosomal loss or gain identified from a high-resolution genome-wide arrayCGH study of 132 primary non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) (a training set of 60 squamous cell carcinomas and 72 adenocarcinomas). MiRNAs were selected as candidates if their immediately flanking probes or host gene were deleted or amplified in at least 25% of primary tumours using both Analysis of Copy Errors algorithm and fold change (≥±1.2) analyses. Using these criteria, 97 miRNAs mapped to regions of aberrant copy number. Analysis of three independent published lung cancer arrayCGH datasets confirmed that 22 of these miRNA loci showed directionally concordant copy number variation. MiR-218, encoded on 4p15.31 and 5q35.1 within two host genes (SLIT2 and SLIT3), in a region of copy number loss, was selected as a priority candidate for follow-up as it is reported as underexpressed in lung cancer. We confirmed decreased expression of mature miR-218 and its host genes by qRT-PCR in 39 NSCLCs relative to normal lung tissue. This downregulation of miR-218 was found to be associated with a history of cigarette smoking, but not human papilloma virus. Thus, we show for the first time that putative lung cancer-associated miRNAs can be identified from genome-wide arrayCGH datasets using a bioinformatics mapping approach, and report that miR-218 is a strong candidate tumour suppressing miRNA potentially involved in lung cancer.
Genetic influences on right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Janet G Shaw, Annette G Dent, Linda H Passmore, Darryl J Burstow, Rayleen V Bowman, Paul V Zimmerman, Kwun M Fong, Ian A Yang
BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2466-12-25
Abstract: In patients with COPD, we genotyped 7 SNPs in 6 candidate PH genes (NOS3, ACE, EDN1, PTGIS, SLC6A4, VEGFA). We tested for association with right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), spirometry and gas transfer, and hypoxemia.580 COPD patients were recruited, 341 patients had a transthoracic echocardiogram, with RVSP measurable in 278 patients (mean age 69?years, mean FEV1 50% predicted, mean RVSP 44?mmHg, median history of 50 pack-years). Of the 7 tested SNPs, the NOS3-VNTR polymorphism was significantly associated with RVSP in a dose-dependent fashion for the risk allele: mean RVSP for a/a and a/b genotypes were 52.0 and 46.6?mmHg respectively, compared to 43.2?mmHg for b/b genotypes (P?=?0.032). No associations were found between RVSP and other polymorphisms. ACE II or ID genotypes were associated with a lower FEV1% predicted than the ACE DD genotype (P?=?0.028). The NOS3-298 TT genotype was associated with lower KCO % predicted than the NOS3-298 GG or GT genotype (P?=?0.031).The NOS3-VNTR polymorphism was associated with RVSP in patients with COPD, supporting its involvement in the pathogenesis of PH in COPD. ACE and NOS3 genotypes were associated with COPD disease severity, but not with the presence of PH. Further study of these genes could lead to the development of prognostic and screening tools for PH in COPD.Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and develops in 30% to 70% of patients with COPD, increasing their morbidity and mortality [1]. PH is progressive in COPD, with mean pulmonary arterial pressure increasing over time [2,3]. Understanding variations in susceptibility to PH in patients with COPD could significantly enhance diagnosis, risk stratification and therapy for these patients.Vascular remodelling is the main pathological feature in PH and is mediated via vasoactive molecules [4]. Genes encoding these mediators contain genetic polymorphisms that potentially affect their function and
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