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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 430691 matches for " I.D.C.; "
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Polymorphism in CYP17, GSTM1 and the progesterone receptor genes and its relationship with mammographic density
Chambo, D.;Kemp, C.;Costa, A.M.M.;Souza, N.C.N.;Guerreiro da Silva, I.D.C.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2009000400003
Abstract: radiologic breast density is one of the predictive factors for breast cancer and the extent of the density is directly related to postmenopause. however, some patients have dense breasts even during postmenopause. this condition may be explained by the genes that codify for the proteins involved in the biosynthesis, as well as the activity and metabolism of steroid hormones. they are polymorphic, which could explain the variations of individual hormones and, consequently, breast density. the constant need to find markers that may assist in the primary prevention of breast cancer as well as in selecting high risk patients motived this study. we determined the influence of genetic polymorphism of cyp17 (cytochrome p450c17, the gene involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis), gstm1 (glutathione s-transferase m1, an enzyme involved in estrogen metabolism) and progins (progesterone receptor), for association with high breast density. one hundred and twenty-three postmenopausal patients who were not on hormone therapy and had no clinical or mammographic breast alterations were included in the present study. the results of this study reveal that there was no association between dense breasts and cyp17 or gstm1. there was a trend, which was not statistically significant (p = 0.084), towards the association between progins polymorphism and dense breasts. however, multivariate logistic regression showed that wild-type progins and mutated cyp17, taken together, resulted in a 4.87 times higher chance of having dense breasts (p = 0.030). in conclusion, in the present study, we were able to identify an association among polymorphisms, involved in estradiol biosyntheses as well as progesterone response, and radiological mammary density.
Pentoxifylline decreases tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 during high tidal volume
Oliveira-Junior I.S.,Pinheiro B.V.,Silva I.D.C.G.,Salom?o R.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2003,
Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is one of the most important proinflammatory cytokines which plays a central role in host defense and in the acute inflammatory response related to tissue injury. The major source of TNF-alpha are immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages. We tested the hypothesis that pentoxifylline, a methylxanthine derivative, down-regulates proinflammatory cytokine expression during acute lung injury in rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 450 g were anesthetized ip with 50 mg/kg sodium thiopental and randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (N = 7): tidal volume (V T) = 7 ml/kg, respiratory rate (RR) = 50 breaths/min and normal saline infusion; group 2 (N = 7): V T = 42 ml/kg, RR = 9 breaths/min and normal saline infusion; group 3 (N = 7): V T = 42 ml/kg, RR = 9 breaths/min and pentoxifylline infusion. The animals were ventilated with an inspired oxygen fraction of 1.0, a positive end-expiratory pressure of 3 cmH2O, and normal saline or pentoxifylline injected into the left femoral vein. The mRNA of TNF-alpha rapidly increased in the lung tissue within 180 min of ventilation with a higher V T with normal saline infusion. The concentrations of inflammatory mediators were decreased in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in the presence of higher V T with pentoxifylline infusion (TNF-alpha: plasma, 102.2 ± 90.9 and BAL, 118.2 ± 82.1; IL-1 : plasma, 45.2 ± 42.7 and BAL, 50.2 ± 34.9, P < 0.05). We conclude that TNF-alpha produced by neutrophil influx may function as an alert signal in host defense to induce production of other inflammatory mediators.
Effect of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphism on high density lipoprotein levels in response to hormone replacement therapy
Nogueira-de-Souza, N.C.;Guerreiro da Silva, I.D.C.;de Carvalho, C.V.;Pulchinelli, A.;Haidar, M.A.;Baracat, E.C.;Massad-Costa, A.M.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2009007500018
Abstract: studies have shown that estrogen replacement therapy and estrogen plus progestin replacement therapy alter serum levels of total, ldl and hdl cholesterol levels. however, hdl cholesterol levels in women vary considerably in response to hormone replacement therapy (hrt). a significant portion of the variability of these levels has been attributed to genetic factors. therefore, we investigated the influence of estrogen receptor-alpha (esr1) gene polymorphisms on hdl levels in response to postmenopausal hrt. we performed a prospective cohort study on 54 postmenopausal women who had not used hrt before the study and had no significant general medical illness. hrt consisted of conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate continuously for 1 year. the lipoprotein levels were measured from blood samples taken before the start of therapy and after 1 year of hrt. esr1 polymorphism (mspi c>t, haeiii c>t, pvuii c>t, and xbai a>g) frequencies were assayed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. a general linear model was used to describe the relationships between hdl levels and genotypes after adjusting for age. a significant increase in hdl levels was observed after hrt (p = 0.029). women with the esr1 pvuii tt genotype showed a statistically significant increase in hdl levels after hrt (p = 0.032). no association was found between other esr1 polymorphisms and hdl levels. according to our results, the esr1 pvuii tt genotype was associated with increased levels of hdl after 1 year of hrt.
Pentoxifylline decreases tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 during high tidal volume
Oliveira-Junior, I.S.;Pinheiro, B.V.;Silva, I.D.C.G.;Salom?o, R.;Zollner, R.L.;Beppu, O.S.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2003001000011
Abstract: tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-a) is one of the most important proinflammatory cytokines which plays a central role in host defense and in the acute inflammatory response related to tissue injury. the major source of tnf-a are immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages. we tested the hypothesis that pentoxifylline, a methylxanthine derivative, down-regulates proinflammatory cytokine expression during acute lung injury in rats. male wistar rats weighing 250 to 450 g were anesthetized ip with 50 mg/kg sodium thiopental and randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 7): tidal volume (vt) = 7 ml/kg, respiratory rate (rr) = 50 breaths/min and normal saline infusion; group 2 (n = 7): vt = 42 ml/kg, rr = 9 breaths/min and normal saline infusion; group 3 (n = 7): vt = 42 ml/kg, rr = 9 breaths/min and pentoxifylline infusion. the animals were ventilated with an inspired oxygen fraction of 1.0, a positive end-expiratory pressure of 3 cmh2o, and normal saline or pentoxifylline injected into the left femoral vein. the mrna of tnf-a rapidly increased in the lung tissue within 180 min of ventilation with a higher vt with normal saline infusion. the concentrations of inflammatory mediators were decreased in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) in the presence of higher vt with pentoxifylline infusion (tnf-a: plasma, 102.2 ± 90.9 and bal, 118.2 ± 82.1; il-1?: plasma, 45.2 ± 42.7 and bal, 50.2 ± 34.9, p < 0.05). we conclude that tnf-a produced by neutrophil influx may function as an alert signal in host defense to induce production of other inflammatory mediators.
Comparative Performance of Broiler Fed Diets Containing Raw and Processed Mucuna Seed Meal
C.D. Tuleun,B. Offia,I.D.I. Yaakugh
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2010,
Abstract: The effects of raw and local processing methods on the nutritive value of Mucuna utilis seeds fed in diets to broiler performance were investigated. The processing methods were: seeds were soaked for 24 h in plain water, cooking of 24-h pre-soaked seeds for 60 min and cooking in a solution of potash (kanwa, trona) for 60 min. Five experimental diets were formulated such that diet 1 contained no mucuna (control), while raw, soaked, pre-soaked and cooked and cooked-in-potash mucuna seed meal were included at 20% dietary levels respectively. One hundred and fifty (150) 0ne-week old (Anak, 2000) broiler chicks were randomly assigned to the experimental diets in a completely randomized design. There were 3 replicates of the 5 treatments and 10 birds per replicate. 22% Crude Protein (CP) diets were fed during the starter phase and 20%CP diets during the finisher phase. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum throughout the 8-week trial period. At the end of the feeding trial, 3 birds were selected from replicates and slaughtered for carcass and blood evaluation. The different processing methods caused percentage reductions in Crude Protein (CP) and ether extract but increased the gross energy and ash content of the seeds. Cooking of pre-soaked beans and cooking in potash solution significantly (p<0.05) reduced most of the antinutrient factor contents of the seeds. During the starter phase, average fed intake and feed conversion efficiency f birds on cooked mucuna seed diets were similar to the control group. At the finisher phase better performance in terms of weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio were significantly (p<0.05) achieved with a 25% reduction in cost of feed per kilogram gain in the group fed seeds cooked for 60 minutes diet. Birds on cooked mucuna seed diets had comparable dressing percentage, empty gizzard, liver, pancreas spleen and lungs weights with the birds fed the control diet. The packed cell volume, haemoglobin and white blood cell count values of the birds on the cooked mucuna diets were significantly similar to the control group.
Influência da temperatura de calcina??o na resistência à corros?o do eletrodo de Ti/SnO2-Sb para eletrooxida??o de fenóis em meio de cloreto
Santos, I.D.;Afonso, J.C.;Dutra, A.J.B.;
Matéria (Rio de Janeiro) , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-70762009000300013
Abstract: in this paper the influence of calcination temperature on the corrosion resistance of a ti/sno2-sb electrode, prepared according to pechini's method, and its efficiency for phenol oxidation in chloride medium was investigated. the results showed that the corrosion resistance depends on calcination temperature, coating structure and ph control during the electrolysis. after 60 min of electrolysis of a 0.34 mol·l-1 nacl solution containing 100 mg·l-1 phenol, at 10 ma·cm-2, keeping ph between 7 and 9, only the electrode calcined at 600oc remained unchanged. a reduction of 90% of the phenol absorbance band (269.5 nm) was achieved after 60 min of electrolysis, at 10 ma·cm-2, with the ti/sno2-sb electrode calcined at 600oc.
Participation of endogenous opioids in the antinociception induced by resistance exercise in rats
Galdino, G.S.;Duarte, I.D.G.;Perez, A.C.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2010007500086
Abstract: exercise is a low-cost intervention that promotes health and contributes to the maintenance of the quality of life. the present study was designed to investigate the influence of different resistance exercise protocols on the nociceptive threshold of rats. female wistar rats were used to perform exercises in a weight-lifting exercise model. the following groups were examined (n = 6 per group): untrained rats (control group); an acute protocol group consisting of rats submitted to 15 sets of 15 repetitions of resistance exercise (acute group); rats exercised with 3 sets of 10 repetitions, three times per week for 12 weeks (trained group), and a group consisting of trained rats that were further submitted to the acute protocol (trained-acute group). the nociceptive threshold was measured by the paw-withdrawal test, in which the withdrawal threshold (escape reaction) was measured by an apparatus applying force to the plantar surface of the animal paw. the opioid antagonist naloxone (2 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously 10 min before the exercise protocols. the trained group demonstrated antinociception only up to day 45 of the 12-week training period. a significant increase (37%, p < 0.05) in the nociceptive threshold was produced immediately after exercise, decreasing to 15% after 15 min, when the acute exercise protocol was used. naloxone reversed this effect. these data show that the acute resistance exercise protocol was effective in producing antinociception for 15 min. this antinociceptive effect is mediated by the activation of opioid receptors.
Promotion of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Cultivation for Improving Livelihood Security: A Case Study from West Himalaya, India
P.C. PHONDANI,Vikram S. NEGI,I.D. BHATT,R.K. MAIKHURI
International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants , 2011,
Abstract: Conservation of medicinal plants is receiving increased attention all across the globe keeping in view the resurgence of interest in herbal medicines. Especially in the entire Himalayan region, rural and traditional societies are using medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) for health care and economic benefit. Keeping this in view, five potentially medicinal and aromatic herbs viz. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Satawar (Asparagus racemosus), Ban-tulsi (Ocimum basilicum), Tagar (Valeriana jatamansi) and Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) were selected for cultivation at farmer’s field of selected village clusters i.e. Dharaunj, Mudiyani and Gumod through participatory action research approaches. As a result, a total of 120 farmers initiated cultivation of selected MAP species in 14 hectare land. Towards, capacity building of the farmers, a series of meeting among farmers and the trader’s and other stakeholders were conducted. Simultaneously, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was facilitated between traders and farmers. These efforts provided opportunities to the farmers to develop skill, knowledge and self-confidence for cultivation of MAPs. This will help in fulfilling the raw material demands of pharmaceutical industries and enhance the livelihood security of the local farmers. The present study is an attempt to analyze yield and cost-benefit of selected MAPs adopted by farmers in the Champawat district of Uttarakhand state in India.
Biología molecular del metabolismo de poliaminas en parásitos tripanosomátidos. Expresión de genes heterólogos de ornitina y arginina decarboxilasa en Trypanosoma cruzi.
I.D. Algranati,M.P. Serra,C. Carrillo,N.S. González
Química Viva , 2006,
Abstract: El protozoario Trypanosoma cruzi es el agente causante de la enfermedad de Chagas que afecta a millones de personas en Latino América. Muchos estudios sobre la bioquímica y biología molecular de este parásito intentan investigar las posibles diferencias entre los caminos metabólicos utilizados por el protozoario y por las células de los hospedadores mamíferos, con el propósito de detectar blancos potencialmente aptos para el dise o de quimioterapias antiparasitarias. El metabolismo de poliaminas es un buen candidato pues presenta propiedades únicas en Trypanosoma cruzi. Las poliaminas son un grupo de sustancias básicas de bajo peso molecular que están presentes en prácticamente todos los organismos vivos y cumplen múltiples funciones esenciales tanto en la biosíntesis de ácidos nucleicos y proteínas como en la proliferación y diferenciación celular. La inhibición de la biosíntesis de poliaminas es una de las estrategias más adecuadas en la búsqueda de drogas antiproliferativas eficientes. Las concentraciones endógenas de poliaminas en células de mamíferos están reguladas por mecanismos de retroinhibición e interconversión que pueden contrarrestar el bloqueo del metabolismo de dichas sustancias en las células mencionadas. Contrariamente, los protozoarios Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi y diferentes especies de Leishmania tienen un metabolismo de poliaminas más simple y carecen de capacidad para regularlo. Esto explica la dependencia de los parásitos del transporte de poliaminas desde el medio externo. Por otra parte el compuesto bis-glutationil espermidina (tripanotiona), un cofactor esencial para mantener el equilibrio intracelular de óxido-reducción, se ha encontrado exclusivamente en protozoarios tripanosomátidos y este hecho también contribuye al efecto selectivo antiparasitario de algunas drogas que inhiben la biosíntesis de poliaminas. Trypanosoma cruzi es el único organismo eucariótico incapaz de sintetizar poliaminas de novo pues carece de las decarboxilasas de ornitina y arginina que son las enzimas que catalizan el primer paso de los dos posibles caminos metabólicos en la síntesis de poliaminas. Investigaciones de nuestro laboratorio han demostrado que la carencia mencionada no se debe a factores inhibitorios del medio interno del parásito sino a la ausencia de los genes correspondientes en el genoma de T. cruzi. Por esta razón el protozoario se comporta como una mutante de deleción natural de los genes que codifican las enzimas de biosíntesis de putrescina, sustancia precursora de las demás poliaminas. Después de transformar T. cruzi c
On sumsets of dissociated sets
I.D. Shkredov
Online Journal of Analytic Combinatorics , 2009,
Abstract: In the paper we are studying some properties of subsets $Q subset Lambda_1+···+Lambda_k$, where $Lambda_i$ are dissociated sets. The exact upper bound for the number of solutions of the following equation $q_1 +···+q_p =q_{p+1} +dots+q_{2p}, q_i in Q~~~~~ (1)$ in groups $mathbb F_n^2$ is found. Using our approach, we easily prove a recent result of J. Bourgain on sets of large exponential sums and obtain a tiny improvement of his theorem. Besides an inverse problem is considered in the article. Let $Q$ be a set belonging to a sumset of two dissociated sets such that equation $(1)$ has many solutions. We prove that in the case the large proportion of $Q$ is highly structured.
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