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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 87779 matches for " I. Tegen "
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Saharan dust transport and deposition towards the tropical northern Atlantic
K. Schepanski, I. Tegen,A. Macke
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2009,
Abstract: We present a study of Saharan dust export towards the tropical North Atlantic using the regional dust emission, transport and deposition model LM-MUSCAT. Horizontal and vertical distribution of dust optical thickness, concentration, and dry and wet deposition rates are used to describe seasonality of dust export and deposition towards the eastern Atlantic for three typical months in different seasons. Deposition rates strongly depend on the vertical dust distribution, which differs with seasons. Furthermore the contribution of dust originating from the Bodélé Depression to Saharan dust over the Atlantic is investigated. A maximum contribution of Bodélé dust transported towards the Cape Verde Islands is evident in winter when the Bodélé source area is most active and dominant with regard to activation frequency and dust emission. Limitations of using satellite retrievals to estimate dust deposition are highlighted.
Comparing two years of Saharan dust source activation obtained by regional modelling and satellite observations
I. Tegen, K. Schepanski,B. Heinold
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2013,
Abstract: A regional-scale dust model is used to simulate Saharan dust emissions and atmospheric distributions in the years 2007 and 2008. The model results are compared to dust source activation events compiled from infrared dust index imagery from the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. The observed morning maximum in dust source activation frequencies indicates that the breakdown of nocturnal low level jets is an important mechanism for dust source activation in the Sahara. The comparison shows that the time of the day of the onset of dust emission is delayed in the model compared to the observations. Also, the simulated number of dust emission events associated with nocturnal low level jets in mountainous regions is underestimated in the model. The MSG dust index observations indicate a strong increase in dust source activation frequencies in the year 2008 compared to 2007. The difference between the two years is less pronounced in the model. Observations of dust optical thickness, e.g. at stations of the sunphotometer network AERONET, do not show such increase, in agreement with the model results. This indicates that the number of observed dust activation events is only of limited use for estimating actual dust emission fluxes in the Sahara. The ability to reproduce interannual variability of Saharan dust with models remains an important challenge for understanding the controls of the atmospheric dust load.
Saharan dust transport and deposition towards the Tropical Northern Atlantic
K. Schepanski,I. Tegen,A. Macke
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: We present a study of Saharan dust export towards the tropical North Atlantic using the regional dust emission, transport and deposition model LM-MUSCAT. Horizontal and vertical distribution of dust optical thickness, concentration, and dry and wet deposition rates are used to describe seasonality of dust export and deposition towards the eastern Atlantic for three exemplary months in different seasons. Deposition rates strongly depend on the vertical dust distribution, which differs with seasons. Furthermore the contribution of dust originating from the Bodélé Depression to Saharan dust over the Atlantic is investigated. A maximum contribution of Bodélé dust transported towards the Cape Verde Islands is evident in winter when the Bodélé source area is most active and dominant with regard activation frequency and dust emission. Limitations of using satellite retrievals to estimate dust deposition are highlighted.
Comparing two years of Saharan dust source activation obtained by regional modeling and satellite observations
I. Tegen,K. Schepanski,B. Heinold
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/acpd-12-27667-2012
Abstract: A regional-scale dust model is used to simulate Saharan dust emissions and atmospheric distributions in the years 2007 and 2008. The model results are compared to dust source activation events compiled from infrared dust index imagery from the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. The observed morning maximum in dust source activation frequencies indicates that the breakdown of nocturnal low-level jets is responsible for a considerable number of dust source activation events in the Sahara. The comparison shows that the time of the day of the onset of dust emission is delayed in the model compared to the observations. Also, the simulated number of dust emission events associated with nocturnal low level jets in mountainous regions is underestimated in the model. The MSG dust index observations indicate a strong increase in dust source activation frequencies in the year 2008 compared to 2007, the difference between the two years is less pronounced in the model. The quantitative comparison of simulated dust optical thicknesses with observations at stations of the sunphotometer network AERONET shows, however, good agreement for both years, indicating that the number of observed dust activation events is only of limited use for estimating actual dust emission fluxes in the Sahara.
An improvement on the dust emission scheme in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM
T. Cheng, Y. Peng, J. Feichter,I. Tegen
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: Formulation of the dust emission scheme in the global aerosol-climate modeling system ECHAM5-HAM has been improved. Modifications on the surface aerodynamic roughness length, soil moisture and East-Asian soil properties are included in the parameterization, which result in a large impact on the threshold wind friction velocity for aeolian erosion and thus influence the simulated dust emission amount. The annual global mean of dust emission in the year 2000 is reduced by 76.5% and 2.2%, respectively, due to changes in the aerodynamic roughness length and the soil moisture. An inclusion of detailed East-Asian soil properties leads to an increase of 16.6% in the annual global mean of dust emission, which exhibits mainly in the arid and semi-arid areas of northern China and southern Mongolia. Measurements of the surface dust concentrations are collected in remote marine sites globally and in dust source regions of East Asia. The averaged relative differences between model results and measurements are reduced from 17% to 12% in global remote marine sites and from 69% to 30% in East Asia, by including the improvements. Comparisons between model results and available measurements verify a more realistic dust distribution with the improved emission scheme.
An improvement on the dust emission scheme in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM
T. Cheng,Y. Peng,J. Feichter,I. Tegen
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: Formulation of the dust emission scheme in the global aerosol-climate modeling system ECHAM5-HAM has been improved. Modifications on the surface aerodynamic roughness length, soil moisture and East-Asian soil properties are included in the parameterization, which result in a large impact on the threshold wind friction velocity for aeolian erosion and thus influence the simulated dust emission amount. The annual global mean of dust emission in the year 2000 is reduced by 76.5% and 2.2%, respectively, due to changes in the aerodynamic roughness length and the soil moisture. An inclusion of detailed East-Asian soil properties leads to an increase of 16.6% in the annual global mean of dust emission, which exhibits mainly in the arid and semi-arid areas of northern China and southern Mongolia. Reasonable values of annual global mean of dust emission, dust burden and total aerosol optical thickness can be obtained in the improved model. In addition, measurements of the surface dust concentrations are collected in dust source regions of East Asia, and verify a more realistic spatial distribution of dust emission in the improved model.
Modelling soil dust aerosol in the Bodélé depression during the BoDEx campaign
I. Tegen,B. Heinold,M. Todd,J. Helmert
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2006,
Abstract: We present regional model simulations of the dust emission events during the Bodélé Dust Experiment (BoDEx) that was carried out in February and March 2005 in Chad. A box model version of the dust emission model is used to test different input parameters for the emission model, and to compare the dust emissions computed with observed wind speeds to those calculated with wind speeds from the regional model simulation. While field observations indicate that dust production occurs via self-abrasion of saltating diatomite flakes in the Bodélé, the emission model based on the assumption of dust production by saltation and using observed surface wind speeds as input parameters reproduces observed dust optical thicknesses well. Although the peak wind speeds in the regional model underestimate the highest wind speeds occurring on 10–12 March 2005, the spatio-temporal evolution of the dust cloud can be reasonably well reproduced by this model. Dust aerosol interacts with solar and thermal radiation in the regional model; it is responsible for a decrease in maximum daytime temperatures by about 5 K at the beginning the dust storm on 10 March 2005. This direct radiative effect of dust aerosol accounts for about half of the measured temperature decrease compared to conditions on 8 March. Results from a global dust model suggest that the dust from the Bodélé is an important contributor to dust crossing the African Savannah region towards the Gulf of Guinea and the equatorial Atlantic, where it can contribute up to 40% to the dust optical thickness.
An improvement on the dust emission scheme in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM
T. Cheng,Y. Peng,J. Feichter,I. Tegen
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: Formulation of the dust emission scheme in the global aerosol-climate modeling system ECHAM5-HAM has been improved. Modifications on the surface aerodynamic roughness length, soil moisture and East-Asian soil properties are included in the parameterization, which result in a large impact on the threshold wind friction velocity for aeolian erosion and thus influence the simulated dust emission amount. The annual global mean of dust emission in the year 2000 is reduced by 76.5% and 2.2%, respectively, due to changes in the aerodynamic roughness length and the soil moisture. An inclusion of detailed East-Asian soil properties leads to an increase of 16.6% in the annual global mean of dust emission, which exhibits mainly in the arid and semi-arid areas of northern China and southern Mongolia. Measurements of the surface dust concentrations are collected in remote marine sites globally and in dust source regions of East Asia. The averaged relative differences between model results and measurements are reduced from 17% to 12% in global remote marine sites and from 69% to 30% in East Asia, by including the improvements. Comparisons between model results and available measurements verify a more realistic dust distribution with the improved emission scheme.
Modelling soil dust aerosol in the Bodélé depression during the BoDEx campaign
I. Tegen, B. Heinold, M. Todd, J. Helmert, R. Washington,O. Dubovik
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2006,
Abstract: We present regional model simulations of the dust emission events during the Bodélé Dust Experiment (BoDEx) that was carried out in February and March 2005 in Chad. A box model version of the dust emission model is used to test different input parameters for the emission model, and to compare the dust emissions computed with observed wind speeds to those calculated with wind speeds from the regional model simulation. While field observations indicate that dust production occurs via self-abrasion of saltating diatomite flakes in the Bodélé, the emission model based on the assumption of dust production by saltation and using observed surface wind speeds as input parameters reproduces observed dust optical thicknesses well. Although the peak wind speeds in the regional model underestimate the highest wind speeds occurring on 10–12 March 2005, the spatio-temporal evolution of the dust cloud can be reasonably well reproduced by this model. Dust aerosol interacts with solar and thermal radiation in the regional model; it is responsible for a decrease in maximum daytime temperatures by about 5 K at the beginning the dust storm on 10 March 2005. This direct radiative effect of dust aerosol accounts for about half of the measured temperature decrease compared to conditions on 8 March. Results from a global dust model suggest that the dust from the Bodélé is an important contributor to dust crossing the African Savannah region towards the Gulf of Guinea and the equatorial Atlantic, where it can contribute up to 40% to the dust optical thickness.
The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM
P. Stier, J. Feichter, S. Kinne, S. Kloster, E. Vignati, J. Wilson, L. Ganzeveld, I. Tegen, M. Werner, Y. Balkanski, M. Schulz, O. Boucher, A. Minikin,A. Petzold
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2005,
Abstract: The aerosol-climate modelling system ECHAM5-HAM is introduced. It is based on a flexible microphysical approach and, as the number of externally imposed parameters is minimised, allows the application in a wide range of climate regimes. ECHAM5-HAM predicts the evolution of an ensemble of microphysically interacting internally- and externally-mixed aerosol populations as well as their size-distribution and composition. The size-distribution is represented by a superposition of log-normal modes. In the current setup, the major global aerosol compounds sulfate (SU), black carbon (BC), particulate organic matter (POM), sea salt (SS), and mineral dust (DU) are included. The simulated global annual mean aerosol burdens (lifetimes) for the year 2000 are for SU: 0.80 Tg(S) (3.9 days), for BC: 0.11 Tg (5.4 days), for POM: 0.99 Tg (5.4 days), for SS: 10.5 Tg (0.8 days), and for DU: 8.28 Tg (4.6 days). An extensive evaluation with in-situ and remote sensing measurements underscores that the model results are generally in good agreement with observations of the global aerosol system. The simulated global annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) is with 0.14 in excellent agreement with an estimate derived from AERONET measurements (0.14) and a composite derived from MODIS-MISR satellite retrievals (0.16). Regionally, the deviations are not negligible. However, the main patterns of AOD attributable to anthropogenic activity are reproduced.
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