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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 87684 matches for " I Yawson "
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Climate change and food security: The role of biotechnology
W Quaye, RM Yawson, ES Ayeh, I Yawson
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Several climate change related factors including temperature increases, changes in rainfall patterns and outbreak of pests and diseases negatively affect agricultural productivity and food security. Climate change effects significantly increase production risk and rural vulnerability, particularly in regions that already suffer from chronic soil and water resource scarcity or high exposure to climatic extremes, such as droughts and flooding. The effects of climate change on agriculture may depend not only on changing climate conditions, but also on the agricultural sector’s ability to adapt through changes in technology and demand for food. Significant proportions of the growing populations in developing countries derive their livelihoods from agriculture and are, therefore, vulnerable to climate change effects. The task of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015, as per Millennium Development Goals, will require both regional and global research efforts and concrete actions among which biotechnology adoption plays a key role. Advances in biotechnology can lead to cutting-edge technologies in agriculture. However, sub-Saharan Africa faces an uphill task with regard to the adoption and use of agricultural biotechnology. The potential to improve the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers is a strong incentive to meet the challenge. This paper reviews research work on climate change in relation to increasing food insecurity situation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and the significance of plant biotechnology in reversing the disturbing food insecurity trends on the continent. To move plant biotechnology forward, the paper recommends that African countries institutionalize effective bio-safety regulatory frameworks, and commit resources to capacity building and provision of infrastructure for biotechnology development. Funding of Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) related research into tropical and sub-tropical staple foods, suitable for the needs of small-scale farmers in SSA countries, is strongly recommended. There is also the need for researchers to engage in effective education and communication with the general public so as to enhance adoption of biotechnological products in Africa.
Acceptance of biotechnology and social-cultural implications in Ghana
W Quaye, I Yawson, RM Yawson, IE Williams
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: Despite major scientific progress in the application of biotechnology in agriculture, public attitudes towards biotechnology in general and genetically modified food (GM food) products in particular remain mixed in Africa. Examining responses on acceptance of GM food through a stakeholder survey in Ghana, it was established that half of the 100 people sample interviewed were not in favor of GM foods. To this group acceptance of GM foods would make farmers loose focus on the traditional ways of cultivation, putting the whole nation at the mercy of profit driven foreign companies who produce GM foods. In order to have clear and unbiased attitudes towards agricultural biotechnology in Africa, there is the need to substitute dominant ideologies in the way biotechnology research and dissemination are conducted in developed countries with tailor-made methodologies in developing countries. This paper emphasizes the social dynamic force of food focusing on the need for social shaping of biotechnologies to reflect local and regional needs. Respondents’ perceptions of GM foods suggest that food is seen as not just a commodity to be consumed but food has both cultural and national identities. Generally, people are identified by their consumption and nutrition lifestyles and therefore take pride in what they eat. A proposal is made to set biotechnology research agenda in the context of social choices; social scientific coalition of biotechnology with endogenous development pathways’ as opposed to ‘exogenous biotechnology research’. Also there is the need for adequate capacity building of the existing regulatory institutions to handle ethical and moral issues associated with biotechnology research since survey findings showed lacked of public confidence in them.
Two-Stage Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Dairy Manure for Nutrient Release, Solids Reduction and Reducing Sugar Production  [PDF]
S. K. Yawson, P.H. Liao, K.V. Lo
Natural Resources (NR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2011.24028
Abstract: The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP) aided with dilute sulfuric acid was applied in a two-stage treatment of dairy manure for nutrient release, solids reduction, and reducing sugar production. A much higher hydrogen peroxide dosage (1.2 g H2O2/g TS) was used in Stage 2 than that in Stage 1 (0.38 g H2O2/g TS). Most of the reducing sugar was produced in Stage 1, and only a small amount produced in Stage 2. The highest reducing sugar yield of 15.5% was obtained at 160℃, 0 mL H2O2/, and 20 min of heating time. With a high hydrogen peroxide dosage and a higher operating temperature of 160℃ in Stage 2, the nutrient release conversion rate was much higher in Stage 2 than Stage 1. All of total phosphorus was converted to orthophosphate, and a very high ammonia concentration was obtained in the treated solution. The results indicated that the MW/H2O2/-AOP operated under the reducing process (without hydrogen peroxide) provided the best yield of reducing sugar; however, when operated under an oxidative process (with hydrogen peroxide), it favoured nutrient release and solids disintegration. The concentration of total chemical oxidation demand (TCOD) in the treated solution decreased with an increase of temperature, hydrogen peroxide dosage and heating time. Soluble chemical oxidation demand (SCOD) concentration decreased with a very high hydrogen peroxide dosage. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration decreased with an increase of hydrogen peroxide dosage. Ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations increased with an increase of temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage.
Field-Caught Permethrin-Resistant Anopheles gambiae Overexpress CYP6P3, a P450 That Metabolises Pyrethroids
Pie Müller equal contributor ,Emma Warr equal contributor,Bradley J. Stevenson equal contributor,Patricia M. Pignatelli,John C. Morgan,Andrew Steven,Alexander E. Yawson,Sara N. Mitchell,Hilary Ranson,Janet Hemingway,Mark J. I. Paine,Martin J. Donnelly
PLOS Genetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000286
Abstract: Insects exposed to pesticides undergo strong natural selection and have developed various adaptive mechanisms to survive. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is receiving increasing attention because it threatens the sustainability of malaria vector control programs in sub-Saharan Africa. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms conferring pyrethroid resistance gives insight into the processes of evolution of adaptive traits and facilitates the development of simple monitoring tools and novel strategies to restore the efficacy of insecticides. For this purpose, it is essential to understand which mechanisms are important in wild mosquitoes. Here, our aim was to identify enzymes that may be important in metabolic resistance to pyrethroids by measuring gene expression for over 250 genes potentially involved in metabolic resistance in phenotyped individuals from a highly resistant, wild A. gambiae population from Ghana. A cytochrome P450, CYP6P3, was significantly overexpressed in the survivors, and we show that the translated enzyme metabolises both alpha-cyano and non–alpha-cyano pyrethroids. This is the first study to demonstrate the capacity of a P450 identified in wild A. gambiae to metabolise insecticides. The findings add to the understanding of the genetic basis of insecticide resistance in wild mosquito populations.
Enabling Sustainability: Hierarchical Need-Based Framework for Promoting Sustainable Data Infrastructure in Developing Countries
David O. Yawson,Frederick A. Armah,Alex N. M. Pappoe
Sustainability , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/su1040946
Abstract: The paper presents thoughts on Sustainable Data Infrastructure (SDI) development, and its user requirements bases. It brings Maslow's motivational theory to the fore, and proposes it as a rationalization mechanism for entities (mostly governmental) that aim at realizing SDI. Maslow's theory, though well-known, is somewhat new in geospatial circles; this is where the novelty of the paper resides. SDI has been shown to enable and aid development in diverse ways. However, stimulating developing countries to appreciate the utility of SDI, implement, and use SDI in achieving sustainable development has proven to be an imposing challenge. One of the key reasons for this could be the absence of a widely accepted psychological theory to drive needs assessment and intervention design for the purpose of SDI development. As a result, it is reasonable to explore Maslow’s theory of human motivation as a psychological theory for promoting SDI in developing countries. In this article, we review and adapt Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as a framework for the assessment of the needs of developing nations. The paper concludes with the implications of this framework for policy with the view to stimulating the implementation of SDI in developing nations.
Who is utilizing anti-retroviral therapy in Ghana: An analysis of ART service utilization
Dako-Gyeke Phyllis,Snow Rachel,Yawson Alfred E
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-11-62
Abstract: Introduction The global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV patients has led to concerns regarding inequities in utilization of ART services in resource-limited contexts. In this paper, we describe regional and sex differentials in the distribution of ART among adult HIV patients in Ghana. We highlight the need for interventions to address the gender-based and geographic inequities related to the utilization of ART services in Ghana. Methods We reviewed National AIDS/STIs Control Program’s ART service provision records from January 2003 through December 2010, extracting data on adults aged 15+ who initiated ART in Ghana over a period of eight years. Data on the number of patients on treatment, year of enrollment, sex, and region were obtained and compared. Results The number of HIV patients receiving ART in Ghana increased more than 200-fold from 197 in 2003, to over 45,000 in 2010. However, for each of six continuous years (2005-2010) males comprised approximately one-third of adults newly enrolled on ART. As ART coverage has expanded in Ghana, the proportion of males receiving ART declined from 41.7% in 2004 to 30.1% in 2008 and to 27.6% in 2010. Also, there is disproportionate regional ART utilization across the country. Some regions report ART enrollment lower than their percent share of number of HIV infected persons in the country. Conclusions Attention to the comparatively fewer males initiating ART, as well as disproportionate regional ART utilization is urgently needed. All forms of gender-based inequities in relation to HIV care must be addressed in order for Ghana to realize successful outcomes at the population level. Policy makers in Ghana and elsewhere need to understand how gender-based health inequities in relation to HIV care affect both men and women and begin to design appropriate interventions.
Building the Capacity of Farmer Based Organisation for Sustainable Rice Farming in Northern Ghana
Quaye Wilhemina,Yawson Ivy,Manful John Tawiah,Gayin Joseph
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v2n1p93
Abstract: This study assessed the perceptions of stakeholders concerning implementation activities of a Food Security and Rice Producers Organisation Project (FSRPOP) in Northern Ghana. The project aimed at building the capacities of farmer based organisations (FBOs) to assist rice farmers access credit, organise production inputs and improve market access. The study results showed that although access to input supply and production credit improved, enhancing farmers’ marketing capacity was not successful. The management capacity of the FBOs was weak in performing more complex administrative issues and market facilitating roles. Timely provision of production inputs, use of custom based processing and credit inventory system for maximum profit were some of the lessons learnt. Facilitation of farmer - medium scale buyer linkages and the development of lessons-based action plan for change with beneficiaries were recommended
Estimation of Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure in a Large Teaching Hospital in Ghana  [PDF]
Ebenezer Owusu Darkwa, Frank Boni, Eugenia Lamptey, Yaw Adu-Gyamfi, Christian Owoo, Robert Djagbletey, Alfred Edwin Yawson, Edmund Ayesu, Daniel Akwanfo Yaw Sottie
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2015.512042
Abstract: Background: Maintenance of optimal Endotracheal Tube cuff Pressure (ETTcP) in anaesthetic practice reduces cuff pressure complications. Aneroid manometers for measurement of ETTcP are not widely available in Ghana, hence anaesthesia providers estimate ETTcP according to their experience. The study assessed ETTcP obtained from estimation techniques between anaesthesia providers at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH). It also evaluated the Volume of Air Required (VAR) to obtain an acceptable cuff inflation pressure for sizes 7.0 and 8.0 mm adult endotracheal tubes used at the hospital, and the effect of patient’s age, weight and height on this volume. Methods: Eighty-one patients who underwent general anaesthesia were recruited. ETTcP was measured using an aneroid manometer via a three-way tap. After full cuff deflation, the cuff was refilled with air until an ETTcP of 20 cm H2O was obtained. Independent t-test was used to measure the statistical variations in the ETTcP using estimation techniques in relation to recommended levels as well as the significant difference of mean VAR to obtain a cuff pressure of 20 cm H2O. Grouped t-test was used to determine significant differences in ETTcP between anaesthesia providers using estimation techniques. Results: Mean ETTcP obtained from estimation techniques was (61.87, 73.79) cm H2O. The mean ETTcP measured for Physician and Nurse Anaesthetists were 65.36 cm H20 and 69.52 cm H2O respectively. The mean VAR to achieve an ETTcP of 20 cm H2O for endotracheal tube sizes 7.0 mm and 8.0 mm were 3.90 ± 1.13 mls and 4.55 ± 0.95 mls respectively. Age and weight significantly influenced the VAR to achieve a cuff pressure of 20 cm H2O, however, height did not. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that cuff pressures obtained by estimation techniques were generally higher than the recommended average with no significant difference between anaesthesia providers. However, in the absence of an aneroid manometer, ETTcP of tube sizes 7.0 mm and 8.0 mm can be safely approximated to the recommended levels with predetermined inflation volumes.
N2O Emission and Mineral N Release in a Tropical Acrisol Incorporated with Mixed Cowpea and Maize Residues
Kwame A. Frimpong,David O. Yawson,Kofi Agyarko,Elizabeth M. Baggs
Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/agronomy2030167
Abstract: A laboratory microcosm incubation was conducted to study the influence of mixed cowpea-maize residues on N 2O emission and N mineralization in a tropical acrisol. The soils were incorporated with different ratios of cowpea:maize mixtures on weight basis: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, and a control treatment in which there was no residue incorporation. The results show that N 2O and CO 2 emissions were higher in the sole cowpea treatment (100:0) than the sole maize treatment (0:100) and the control. However, cowpea-maize residue mixtures increased the proportion of N lost as N 2O compared to the sole treatments. This interactive effect was highest in the 75:25 treatment. The 50:50 treatment showed moderate N 2O emission compared to the 100:0, 75:25 and 25:75 treatments but with corresponding steady N mineralization and appreciable mineral N concentration. It is concluded that mixing cowpea-maize residues might increase the proportion of N lost as N 2O in a tropical acrisol. However, compared to the other residue mixture treatments, mixing cowpea-maize residues in equal proportions on weight basis might offer a path to reducing N 2O emissions while maintaining a steady N mineralization without risking good N supply in acrisols. The study therefore offers potential for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining soil fertility in tropical acrisols. However, further studies under both laboratory and field conditions will be required to verify and validate this claim.
Participation and Sustainable Management of Coastal Lagoon Ecosystems: The Case of the Fosu Lagoon in Ghana
Frederick A. Armah,David O. Yawson,Alex N.M. Pappoe,Ernest K.A. Afrifa
Sustainability , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/su2010383
Abstract: Participation as a tool has been applied as a social learning process and communication platform to create awareness among stakeholders in the context of resource utilisation. The application of participatory processes to aquatic ecosystem management is attracting a growing body of literature. However, the application of participation as a tool for sustainable management of coastal lagoon ecosystems is recent. This paper examines the context and the extent of participation of stakeholders in the management of the Fosu lagoon in Ghana. Six hundred individuals from twenty seven stakeholder groups were randomly selected for study. Both closed and open-ended questions were used in face-to-face interviews with stakeholders. The findings indicate that the stakeholder groups were not involved in decision-making regarding the conservation of the lagoon irrespective of their expertise in planning and/or their interest in lagoon resource utilisation. This situation has created apathy among some of the stakeholders who feel neglected in the decision-making process. There is scope for broadening the base of interest groups in decision-making processes regarding the lagoon and improving stakeholder participation in the management of the lagoon to ensure the sustainability of the management process.
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