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Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Remodelling Effects of ISU201, a Modified Form of the Extracellular Domain of Human BST2, in Experimental Models of Asthma: Association with Inhibition of Histone Acetylation
Cristan Herbert, Alexander M. Shadie, Melissa M. Bunting, Nicodemus Tedla, Linda Garthwaite, Araluen Freeman, Hyouna Yoo, Sang-Ho Park, Rakesh K. Kumar
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090436
Abstract: There are few alternatives to glucocorticosteroids for treatment of asthma. We assessed the activity of a novel protein drug designated ISU201, the extracellular domain of the human cell surface protein BST2, stabilised by fusion with the Fc region of IgG, in mouse models of mild chronic asthma and an acute exacerbation of asthma. The ability of ISU201 to suppress airway inflammation and remodelling was compared with that of dexamethasone. Female BALB/c mice were systemically sensitised with ovalbumin, then received controlled low-level challenge with aerosolised ovalbumin for 6 weeks, which induced lesions of mild chronic asthma, and were treated with drugs during the final 2 weeks. Alternatively, sensitised mice received 4 weeks of chronic low-level challenge and were treated 24 and 2 hours before a final single moderate-level challenge, which triggered acute airway inflammation simulating an asthmatic exacerbation. Inflammation and remodelling were quantified, as was the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and tissues. To identify cellular targets of ISU201, we assessed the effects of the drug on activated lymphocytes, macrophages and airway epithelial cells. In the model of mild chronic asthma, ISU201 was as effective as dexamethasone in suppressing airway inflammation and most changes of remodelling. In the model of an allergen-induced acute exacerbation of chronic asthma, ISU201 was also an effective anti-inflammatory agent, although it was less active than dexamethasone. The drug acted on multiple cellular targets, suppressing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by lymphocytes and macrophages. ISU201 significantly reduced acetylation of histone H4 in airway epithelial cells, suggesting at least one potential mechanism of action. We conclude that in these models of asthma, ISU201 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of both airway inflammation and remodelling. Thus, unlike drugs which target specific mediators, it could potentially be an alternative or an adjunct to glucocorticoids for the treatment of asthma.
Epithelioid sarcoma of the spine: a case report and review  [PDF]
Jeong Hyun Yoo
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2011.11001
Abstract: Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare malignant soft tissue neoplasm commonly involving extremities of young adults and rarely occurring in the trunk area. It re-sembles a chronic inflammatory process and mimics benign reactive granuloma or other benign diseases. Despite its indolence and slow growth, the prognosis is poor with high recurrence and early lymph node spreading and hematogeneous distant metastasis. Involvement of the spine is extremely rare and diffi-cult to diagnose correctly in clinical presentation and pathology. We describe our experience a case of epi-thelioid sarcoma involving lumbar spine. A pre-ope- rative spine MRI showed a large solid and necrotic paraspinal mass which extended into the spinal canal with cord compression, and bone destruction. Final correct diagnosis was confirmed by immunohisto-chemical studies. When young adults present with a spinal lesion that has unusual large necrotic soft tissue mass, immunohistochemical studies are recommended for promptly determining the possibility of spinal epithelioid sarcoma.
Gender differences of health behaviors and quality of life of Koreans with asthma  [PDF]
Yeonsoo Jang, Hyera Yoo
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.36057

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in health-behaviors and quality of life (QOL) in Koreans with asthma. Methods: Participants, selected from the 2009 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey VI, included 305 individuals (men = 128, women = 177) with asthma and over 19 years old. Health behaviors were measured by questions about disease management, health choices, and functional and psychological status. QOL was measured with the European Quality of Life-5D (EQ-5D). Results: In health behaviors, 51.3% of women and 37.7% of men suffered from wheezing at rest. About 41% of men and 10% of women were smokers. One half of the participants were not taking medication and this was not significantly different by gender. The number of women with symptoms of depression was significantly higher than men. The EQ-5D index score of women was significantly lower than that of men. Conclusion: Women with asthma were more likely to have psychological problems and discomfort than men. Understanding gender differences in asthma is important to the development of effective, tailored asthma management strategies to cope with symptoms and improve health behaviors and QOL for people with asthma.

DVL/RPM Based Velocity Filter Aiding in the Underwater Vehicle Integrated Inertial Navigation System  [PDF]
Tae Suk Yoo
Journal of Sensor Technology (JST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jst.2014.43015
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to design a DVL-RPM based VKF (Velocity Kalman Filter) design for a performance improvement underwater integrated navigation system. The integrated navigation sensor using DVL (Doppler Velocity Log) is widely used to improve the underwater navigation performance. However, the DVL’s range of measuring varied depending on the characteristics of sensor. So, if the sea gets too deep suddenly, it cannot measure the velocity. To complement such a weak point, the VKF was additionally designed, which was made of DVL, RPM (Revolve Per Minutes) of motor, and ES (Echo Sounder). The proposed approach relies on a VKF, augmented by an altitude from ES based switching architecture to yield robust performance, even when DVL exceeds the measurement range and the measured value is unable to be valid. The proposed approach relies on two parts: 1) indirect feedback navigation Kalman filter design, 2) VKF design. To evaluate the proposed method, we compare the VKF aided navigation system with PINS (Pure Inertial Navigation System) and conventional INS-DVL navigation system through simulation results. Simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the underwater navigation system assisted by the additional DVL-RPM based VKF in underwater environment.
Electroencephalography Analysis Using Neural Network and Support Vector Machine during Sleep  [PDF]
JeeEun Lee, Sun K. Yoo
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.55B018
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyze sleep stages accurately using fast and simple classifiers based on the frequency domain of electroencephalography(EEG) signal. To compare and evaluate system performance, the rules of Rechtschaffen and Kales(R&K rule) were used. Parameters were extracted from preprocessing process of EEG signal as feature vectors of each sleep stage analysis system through representatives of back propagation algorithm and support vector machine (SVM). As a result, SVM showed better performance as pattern recognition system for classification of sleep stages. It was found that easier analysis of sleep stage was possible using such simple system. Since accurate estimation of sleep state is possible through combination of algorithms, we could see the potential for the classifier to be used for sleep analysis system.
Synthesizing Nanoparticles Using Reactions Occurring in Aerosol Phases  [PDF]
Ho Yeon Yoo, Stanley Bruckenstein
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2013.24042

Our ultimate objective is to form nanoparticles by merging oppositely charged nanodroplets containing different constituents of the nanoparticle and construct a desktop apparatus to do this. These nanodroplets will be in oppositely charged aerosols originating from oppositely charged solutions containing the different component of the nanoparticle. In this paper, as the first stage in establishing the feasibility of this concept, we demonstrate that droplets formed from uncharged solutions will merge and the product of such reactions is the same as when their bulk solutions are mixed. We demonstrate that this is the case for three classes of reactions: the chemiluminescent reaction between Luminol and Potassium Ferricyanide, the pH sensitive fluorescence of Umbelliferone and the precipitation of Silver Chromate by reaction of Silver Nitrate with Potassium Chromate. We present arguments that our future goal using oppositely charged droplets is more efficient synthetically and will produce a narrow distribution of nanoparticle sizes.

Compactness in product spaces
WonSok Yoo
Pure Mathematical Sciences , 2012,
Isocurvature Constraints and Gravitational Ward Identity
Hojin Yoo
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: Axions and WIMPZILLAs are well-motivated dark matter candidates with interesting cos- mological implications, such as isocurvature perturbations and non-Gaussianities. How- ever, these predicted implications in the literature are based on the assumption that the cross-correlation between curvature and CDM isocurvature is negligible. This contribution discusses the cross-correlation in the axion and the WIMPZILLA scenarios. Particularly, it is shown that the gravitational Ward identity associated with diffeomorphism invariance plays an important role in this cross-correlation calculation confirming the assumption.
A search for periodic modulations of the solar neutrino flux in Super-Kamiokande-I
J. Yoo
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.68.092002
Abstract: A search for periodic modulations of the solar neutrino flux was performed using the Super-Kamiokande-I data taken from May 31st, 1996 to July 15th, 2001. The detector's capability of measuring the exact time of events, combined with a relatively high yield of solar neutrino events, allows a search for short-time variations in the observed flux. We employed the Lomb test to look for periodic modulations of the observed solar neutrino flux. The obtained periodogram is consistent with statistical fluctuation and no significant periodicity was found.
General Relativistic Description of the Observed Galaxy Power Spectrum: Do We Understand What We Measure?
Jaiyul Yoo
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.82.083508
Abstract: We extend the general relativistic description of galaxy clustering developed in Yoo, Fitzpatrick, and Zaldarriaga (2009). For the first time we provide a fully general relativistic description of the observed matter power spectrum and the observed galaxy power spectrum with the linear bias ansatz. It is significantly different from the standard Newtonian description on large scales and especially its measurements on large scales can be misinterpreted as the detection of the primordial non-Gaussianity even in the absence thereof. The key difference in the observed galaxy power spectrum arises from the real-space matter fluctuation defined as the matter fluctuation at the hypersurface of the observed redshift. As opposed to the standard description, the shape of the observed galaxy power spectrum evolves in redshift, providing additional cosmological information. While the systematic errors in the standard Newtonian description are negligible in the current galaxy surveys at low redshift, correct general relativistic description is essential for understanding the galaxy power spectrum measurements on large scales in future surveys with redshift depth z>3. We discuss ways to improve the detection significance in the current galaxy surveys and comment on applications of our general relativistic formalism in future surveys.
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