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Racial Disparities in Survival Outcomes of Prostate Cancer Patients after Surgery for Bone Metastases  [PDF]
Robert L. Satcher, Oluwatosin Bamidele, Patrick Lin, Sue-Hwa Lin, Bryan Moon, Mike Hernandez, Valerae Lewis, Janice Chilton
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.44A004

Introduction: This study reviewed patients’ demographic, clinical and treatment characteristics to identify prognostic factors associated with survival of prostate cancer after developing bone metastases. We explored the racial disparities in these factors and how they relate with survival. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on 79 men diagnosed with bone metastasis secondary to prostate cancer who underwent surgery at a single institution from November 1977 to June 2011. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patients’ characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate characteristics of the survival distribution using two origination points—diagnosis and surgery. Cox hazard regression explored the relationship between prognostic factors and overall survival. Results: The majority of men were White (n = 63; 80%) followed by Black (n = 7; 9%), Hispanic (n = 7; 9%), and Asian (n = 2; 2%). Multivariate factors associated with poorer survival after bone metastasis surgery included race (Black), Gleason score > 8, and radiation treatment. Patients not receiving radiation had a longer survival experience relative to patients who received radiation before or after surgery (10.3 vs 6.5 months; P = 0.030). There was an association of PSA level at the time of bone metastasis diagnosis with survival following diagnosis but prior to surgery. The median time interval (Tm in months) between prostate cancer diagnosis and bone metastasis diagnosis was 39.1 (White), 31.2 (Hispanic), 15 (Blacks) and 43 (Asians).

Negative Density Dependence Regulates Two Tree Species at Later Life Stage in a Temperate Forest
Tiefeng Piao, Jung Hwa Chun, Hee Moon Yang, Kwangil Cheon
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103344
Abstract: Numerous studies have demonstrated that tree survival is influenced by negative density dependence (NDD) and differences among species in shade tolerance could enhance coexistence via resource partitioning, but it is still unclear how NDD affects tree species with different shade-tolerance guilds at later life stages. In this study, we analyzed the spatial patterns for trees with dbh (diameter at breast height) ≥2 cm using the pair-correlation g(r) function to test for NDD in a temperate forest in South Korea after removing the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The analyses were implemented for the most abundant shade-tolerant (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and shade-intolerant (Quercus serrata) species. We found NDD existed for both species at later life stages. We also found Quercus serrata experienced greater NDD compared with Chamaecyparis obtusa. This study indicates that NDD regulates the two abundant tree species at later life stages and it is important to consider variation in species' shade tolerance in NDD study.
Nitric oxide induces MUC5AC mucin in respiratory epithelial cells through PKC and ERK dependent pathways
Jeong Song, Chun Kang, Moon Yoo, Seung Kim, Hyung Yoon, Young Kim, Kwan Kim, Hwa Moon, Sung Park
Respiratory Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-8-28
Abstract: Nitric oxide was donated to the A549 cells by NOR-1. MUC5AC mucin levels were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MUC5AC promoter activity was determined by measuring luciferase activity after the lysing the transfected cells. Activation of PKC isoforms were measured by assessing the distribution of the enzyme between cytosolic and membrane fractions using immunoblotting. Immunoblotting experiments using a monoclonal antibody specific to PKC isoforms were performed in the cytosol and membrane fractions from A549 cells. Western blot analysis for pERK and p38 were performed using the corresponding antibodies from the cell lysates after donating NO to the A549 cells by NOR-1.The transcriptional activity of MUC5AC promoter was maximal at the concentration of 0.1 mM NOR-1 for 1 hour incubation in transfected A549 cells. (±)-(E)-methyl-2-((E)-hydroxyimino)-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexenamide (NOR-1) markedly displaced the protein kinase C (PKC)α and PKCδ from the cytosol to the membrane. Furthermore, the PKC-α,βinhibitors, G?6976 (10 nM) and PKCδ inhibitors, rottlerin (4 μM) inhibited the NOR-1 induced migration of PKCα and PKCδ respectively. NOR-1 also markedly increased the MUC5AC promoter activity and mRNA expression, mucin synthesis and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The PKC inhibitors also inhibited the NOR-1 induced MUC5AC mRNA and MUC5AC protein synthesis by inhibiting the activation of PKCα and PKCδ with ERK1/2 pathways.Exogenous NO induced the MUC5AC mucin gene and protein through the PKCα and PKCδ – ERK pathways in A549 cells. Inhibition of PKC attenuated NO-mediated MUC5AC mucin synthesis. In view of this findings, PKC inhibitors might be useful in the treatment of bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis patients where NO and mucus are increased in the bronchial airways.Production of NO is generally increased during inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma or bronchiectasis, or after exposure to irritant gases such as ozone [1]. NO is produced by the a
Intracranial metastasis from primary transitional cell carcinoma of female urethra: case report & review of the literature
Kyung-Sub Moon, Shin Jung, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Eu Hwang, In-Young Kim
BMC Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-23
Abstract: A 49-year-old woman, presented with a prolapsed mass in urethral orifice that was diagnosed as primary urethral TCC with distant lung and multiple bone metastases. The patient subsequently underwent chemotherapy under various regimens. A year later, the patient developed headache and vomiting which as was found to be due to multiple intracranial metastasis. The patient underwent surgical resection of the largest lesion located on the cerebellum, and consecutively gamma knife radiosurgery was performed for other small-sized lesions. Pathological examination of the resected mass revealed a metastatic carcinoma from a known urethral TCC. Serial work-up of systemic metastasis revealed concomitant aggravation of lung, spleen, and liver metastasis. The patient died of lung complication 2 months after the diagnosis of brain metastasis.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cerebral metastasis from primary urethral TCC, with pathological confirmation. As shown in intracranial metastasis of other urinary tract carcinoma, this case occurred in the setting of uncontrolled systemic disease and led to dismal prognosis in spite of aggressive interventional modalities.Primary urethral carcinoma is a rare entity, accounting for only 0.02% of all female cancers [1]. The overall annual incidence for women is 1.5 per million and it increases progressively with age [2]. Although there have been some debates in the exact proportion of pathological subtypes of female urethral carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is one of the most frequently observed subtypes [2,3].Intracranial metastasis from TCC of urinary system is reported as rare events [4]. Majority of the reported cases of intracranial metastasis from TCC originated from bladder and upper urinary tract [5-12]. To the best of our knowledge, intracranial metastasis from primary urethral TCC has not yet been reported in the literature. In this paper, we present an extremely rare case that underwent s
Characterization of mouse clonal mesenchymal stem cell lines established by subfractionation culturing method
Myung-Shin Jeon,Tac-Ghee Yi,Hyun-Ja Lim,Sun-Hwa Moon
World Journal of Stem Cells , 2011, DOI: 10.4252/wjsc.v3.i8.70
Abstract: AIM: To characterize single-cell-derived mouse clonal mesenchymal stem cells (mcMSCs) established with bone marrow samples from three different mouse strains. METHODS: We established mcMSC lines using subfractionation culturing method from bone marrow samples obtained from long bones. These lines were characterized by measuring cell growth, cell surface epitopes, differentiation potential, lineage-specific gene expression and T-cell suppression capability. Nonclonal MSCs isolated by the conventional gradient centrifugation method were used as controls. RESULTS: All mcMSC lines showed typical nonclonal MSC-like spindle shape morphology. Lines differed in optimal growth density requirement. Cell surface epitope profiles of these mcMSC lines were similar to those of nonclonal MSCs. However, some lines exhibited different expression levels in a few epitopes, such as CD44 and CD105. Differentiation assays showed that 90% of the mcMSC lines were capable of differentiating into adipogenic and/or chondrogenic lineages, but only 20% showed osteogenic lineage differentiation. T-cell suppression analysis showed that 75% of the lines exhibited T-cell suppression capability. CONCLUSION: mcMSC lines have similar cell morphology and cell growth rate but exhibit variations in their cell surface epitopes, differentiation potential, lineage-specific gene expression and T-cell suppression capability.
Current-Induced Resonant Motion of a Magnetic Vortex Core: Effect of Nonadiabatic Spin Torque
Jung-Hwan Moon,Dong-Hyun Kim,Myung Hwa Jung,Kyung-Jin Lee
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.134410
Abstract: The current-induced resonant excitation of a magnetic vortex core is investigated by means of analytical and micromagnetic calculations. We find that the radius and the phase shift of the resonant motion are not correctly described by the analytical equations because of the dynamic distortion of a vortex core. In contrast, the initial tilting angle of a vortex core is free from the distortion and determined by the nonadiabaticity of the spin torque. It is insensitive to experimentally uncontrollable current-induced in-plane Oersted field. We propose that a time-resolved imaging of the very initial trajectory of a core is essential to experimentally estimate the nonadiabaticity.
Food Sanitation Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior for the University Restaurants Employees  [PDF]
Wen-Hwa Ko
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.27102
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to discuss the food sanitation knowledge, attitude, and behavior for the employees of university restaurants, and furthermore, to explain the interrelations of these various were occurring at school. A questionnaire survey procedure was used. Each two constructs of food sanitation attitude and behavior were analyzed by factor analysis. Data was analyzed by description, Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis. The correctness rate toward the whole sanitation knowledge of trials was 70%. The overall attitude toward food sanitation was prone to positive and the attitude of employee self-responsibility was superior to the attitude of food sanitation practice. The sanitary guiding behavior was better than the sanitary habit behavior; and there was a significant relationship indicated through Pearson correlation analysis among three various. The sanitation knowledge and sanitation attitude showed a 42.6% predictive power to behavior, the attitude was mediated between knowledge and behavior. The university restaurant employees shared a more pessimistic view toward the benefits of training and the institutions could establish a committee for monitoring food nutrition and sanitation. It provides valuable information for development employees training while seeking to raise school restaurant food safety levels.
Dichroic Electro-Optical Behavior of Rhenium Sulfide Layered Crystal  [PDF]
Ching-Hwa Ho
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications (CSTA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/csta.2013.22009

Dichroic behaviors of layered ReS2 have been characterized using angular dependent polarizedabsorption and resistivity measurements in the van der Waal plane. The angular dependent optical and electrical measurements are carried out with angles ranging from θ= 0°(E || b) to θ= 90°(E ^b) with respect to the layer crystal’s b-axis. The angular de pendence of polarized energy gaps of ReS2 shows a sinusoidal variation of energies from ~1.341 eV (E ||b to ~1.391 eV (E ^ b). The experimental evidence of polarized energy gap leaves ReS2 apotential usage for fabrication of a polarized optical switch suitable for polarized optical communication in nearinfrared (NIR) region. Angular dependence of resistivities of ReS2 in the vander Waal plane has also been evaluated. The relationship of inplane resistivities shows a sinusoidallike variation from θ= 0°(E ||b) to 90°(E ^ b) and repeated periodically to 360

The Development of Electricity Grid, Smart Grid and Renewable Energy in Taiwan  [PDF]
Hwa Meei Liou
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2017.86011
Abstract: The grid has played a vital role in the evolution of the electricity market; from traditional to smart grids; from fossil fuel power generated electricity grid connections to the integration of other renewable energy forms such as solar and wind power; the grid has played a key role in each step in Taiwan’s move towards energy transition. This study includes Taiwan’s construction of its transmission and distribution network, the recently passed newly revised version of the Electricity Act with its revisions to its transmission and distribution related content, and policies promoting the smart grid as well as issues that the renewable energy grid has raised in both the technical and legal aspects. Taiwan’s electricity supply system is made up of the northern, central and southern systems. The Transmission and distribution grid have been defined as a common carrier, maintaining state-owned monopoly. The smart grid has 6 main facets to promote, including smart generation and dispatch, smart transmission, smart consumers, smart grid electricity grid industry and the establishment of a smart grid environment. Due to the possible effects of the integration of renewable energy generated electricity, there is a vital need for the regulation of the grid’s management and skills.
Endogenous Timing in Contests with Group-Specific Public-Goods Prizes  [PDF]
Jong Hwa Lee
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.76112
Abstract: I analyze the two-group contest with the group-specific public-goods prize when each player decides on the timing of their moves endogenously and individually. Unlike the previous papers, I show that free riders suffer a damage in the endogenous-timing framework because the decision on the endogenous timing adversely affects the behavior of free riders, by making them more egotistical.
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