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Introduction: This study reviewed patients’ demographic, clinical and treatment characteristics to identify prognostic factors associated with survival of prostate cancer after developing bone metastases. We explored the racial disparities in these factors and how they relate with survival. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on 79 men diagnosed with bone metastasis secondary to prostate cancer who underwent surgery at a single institution from November 1977 to June 2011. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patients’ characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate characteristics of the survival distribution using two origination points—diagnosis and surgery. Cox hazard regression explored the relationship between prognostic factors and overall survival. Results: The majority of men were White (n = 63; 80%) followed by Black (n = 7; 9%), Hispanic (n = 7; 9%), and Asian (n = 2; 2%). Multivariate factors associated with poorer survival after bone metastasis surgery included race (Black), Gleason score > 8, and radiation treatment. Patients not receiving radiation had a longer survival experience relative to patients who received radiation before or after surgery (10.3 vs 6.5 months; P = 0.030). There was an association of PSA level at the time of bone metastasis diagnosis with survival following diagnosis but prior to surgery. The median time interval (Tm in months) between prostate cancer diagnosis and bone metastasis diagnosis was 39.1 (White), 31.2 (Hispanic), 15 (Blacks) and 43 (Asians).
Dichroic behaviors of layered ReS2 have been characterized using angular dependent polarizedabsorption and resistivity measurements in the van der Waal plane. The angular dependent optical and electrical measurements are carried out with angles ranging from θ= 0°(E || b) to θ= 90°(E ^b) with respect to the layer crystal’s b-axis. The angular de pendence of polarized energy gaps of ReS2 shows a sinusoidal variation of energies from ~1.341 eV (E ||b to ~1.391 eV (E ^ b). The experimental evidence of polarized energy gap leaves ReS2 apotential usage for fabrication of a polarized optical switch suitable for polarized optical communication in nearinfrared (NIR) region. Angular dependence of resistivities of ReS2 in the vander Waal plane has also been evaluated. The relationship of inplane resistivities shows a sinusoidallike variation from θ= 0°(E ||b) to 90°(E ^ b) and repeated periodically to 360