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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 16389 matches for " Huw Charles-Jones "
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General practitioners' views on reattribution for patients with medically unexplained symptoms: a questionnaire and qualitative study
Christopher Dowrick, Linda Gask, John G Hughes, Huw Charles-Jones, Judith A Hogg, Sarah Peters, Peter Salmon, Anne R Rogers, Richard K Morriss
BMC Family Practice , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-9-46
Abstract: A nested attitudinal survey and qualitative study in sixteen primary care teams in north-west England. All practitioners participating in the trial (n = 74) were invited to complete a structured survey. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sub-sample of survey respondents, using a structured topic guide. Interview transcripts were used to identify key issues, concepts and themes, which were grouped to construct a conceptual framework: this framework was applied systematically to the data.Seventy (95%) of study participants responded to the survey. Survey respondents often found it stressful to work with patients with medically unexplained symptoms, though those who had received reattribution training were more optimistic about their ability to help them. Interview participants trained in reattribution (n = 12) reported that reattribution increased their confidence to practice in a difficult area, with heightened awareness, altered perceptions of these patients, improved opportunities for team-building and transferable skills. However general practitioners also reported potential barriers to the implementation of reattribution in routine clinical practice, at the level of the patient, the doctor, the consultation, diagnosis and the healthcare context.Reattribution training increases practitioners' sense of competence in managing patients with medically unexplained symptoms. However, barriers to its implementation are considerable, and frequently lie outside the control of a group of practitioners generally sympathetic to patients with medically unexplained symptoms and the purpose of reattribution. These findings add further to the evidence of the difficulty of implementing reattribution in routine general practice.Approximately 20% of patients present physical symptoms in primary care which general practitioners (GPs) are unable to explain by physical disease [1,2]. These patients frequently receive extensive investigation, referral and treatm
Evolutionary history of barley cultivation in Europe revealed by genetic analysis of extant landraces
Huw Jones, Peter Civáň, James Cockram, Fiona J Leigh, Lydia MJ Smith, Martin K Jones, Michael P Charles, José-Luis Molina-Cano, Wayne Powell, Glynis Jones, Terence A Brown
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-11-320
Abstract: The evolutionary relationships between 651 barley landraces were inferred from the genotypes for 24 microsatellites. The landraces could be divided into nine populations, each with a different geographical distribution. Comparisons with ear row number, caryopsis structure, seasonal growth habit and flowering time revealed a degree of association between population structure and phenotype, and analysis of climate variables indicated that the landraces are adapted, at least to some extent, to their environment. Human selection and/or environmental adaptation may therefore have played a role in the origin and/or maintenance of one or more of the barley landrace populations. There was also evidence that at least some of the population structure derived from geographical partitioning set up during the initial spread of barley cultivation into Europe, or reflected the later introduction of novel varieties. In particular, three closely-related populations were made up almost entirely of plants with the daylength nonresponsive version of the photoperiod response gene PPD-H1, conferring adaptation to the long annual growth season of northern Europe. These three populations probably originated in the eastern Fertile Crescent and entered Europe after the initial spread of agriculture.The discovery of population structure, combined with knowledge of associated phenotypes and environmental adaptations, enables a rational approach to identification of landraces that might be used as sources of germplasm for breeding programs. The population structure also enables hypotheses concerning the prehistoric spread and development of agriculture to be addressed.Cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), the domesticated form of Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch, was one of the founder crops of agriculture in western Asia, first appearing in the archaeological record in the 8th and 7th millennia BC [1,2]. Barley was also one of the principal crops that accompanied the spread of agriculture into Eur
Review of methodologies and a protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat
Huw D Jones, Angela Doherty, Huixia Wu
Plant Methods , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4811-1-5
Abstract: Transformation of cereal crops is a powerful research tool for gene discovery and function to investigate genetically controlled traits and is fast becoming a key element in the process of varietal improvement. It provides key underpinning knowledge to inform and short-cut conventional breeding strategies. For specific crops, it also enables the introduction of novel genes directly into locally-adapted germplasm and the creation of new genetically modified varieties. As testament to this, a total of 81 million Ha of approved GM crops, mainly for herbicide tolerance or insect resistance, were planted in 2004 [1], although wheat does not currently form part of this portfolio.Wheat was among the last of the major crops to be transformed with the first fertile transgenic plants being reported using particle bombardment little over a decade ago [2-6]. Advances in the design of micro-projectile devices, choice of explant, media composition and selection systems has enabled the application of wheat transformation to study the role specific genes in a wide range of agronomically important traits (reviewed by [7-9]). Particle bombardment remains a robust, relatively efficient method for the genetic manipulation of wheat [10], however at the molecular level, the DNA integration sites are often unnecessarily complex. There are several significant advantages to transferring DNA via Agrobacterium, including a reduction in transgene copy number, the stable integration with fewer rearrangements of long molecules of DNA with defined ends and the ability to generate lines free from selectable marker genes [7,11-14]. This has been a driving force in the development of methods using Agrobacterium tumefaciens to deliver DNA although the ability to routinely transform wheat in this way is currently restricted to a few, well-resourced public and commercial laboratories worldwide. This is partly due to the need for experienced personnel and expensive laboratory and plant growth infrastruc
The Detection of 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanol and Ethyl Glucuronide in Human Umbilical Cord  [PDF]
Joseph Jones, Mary Jones, Charles Plate, Douglas Lewis
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2012.312106
Abstract: In utero exposure to ethanol continues to be a significant public health issue and neonatal healthcare professionals are in need of objective means to identify exposed newborns. The aim of this study was to fully validate two methods for the detection of two direct alcohol biomarkers, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanol (POPE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG), in umbilical cord and apply the assays to a group of authentic specimens. The limits of detections were 2 and 1 ng/g for POPE and ETG and the limits of quantitation were 4 and 3 ng/g, respectively. Inter and intra-day precision and accuracy measurements were within 15%. The assays were applied to 308 authentic specimens where we detected POPE in five (1.6%) specimens and EtG in twelve (3.9%) specimens. The mean concentrations were 11.4 ng/g ± 9.4 ng/g and 127.2 ± 227.7 ng/g for POPE and EtG, respectively. This study suggested that umbilical cord was a suitable specimen type for the identification of newborns exposed to ethanol in the womb and the prevalence of POPE and EtG detected in umbilical cord were consistent with the prevalence of self-reported binge drinking reported by the National Birth Defect Prevention Study (NBDPS) and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Further studies are required to fully describe the association between the observed concentrations of POPE and EtG in umbilical cord to the level of maternal consumption of ethanol.
The Detection of THCA Using 2-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Human Fingernail Clippings: Method Validation and Comparison with Head Hair  [PDF]
Joseph Jones, Mary Jones, Charles Plate, Douglas Lewis
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2013.410A2001
Abstract:

Marijuana use as well as abuse is a significant public health and public safety concern in the United States and using hair to identify marijuana users and abusers has been gaining acceptance in a number of venues including workplace, court ordered, and substance abuse treatment monitoring. After the presentation of a fully validated 2-dimensional gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCA), the chief metabolite of the main psychoactive compound in marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), we evaluated the usefulness of fingernail clippings as an alternative specimen type to hair by the analysis of a set of 60 matched pairs of head hair and fingernail clippings. The limit of detection was 10 fg/mg, the limit of quantitation was 20 fg/mg, and the assay was linear from 20 fg/mg to 500 fg/mg. The intra- and inter-assay imprecision and bias studies at 4 different concentrations (50, 100, 500, and 1000 fg/mg) were acceptable where all % Target observations were within 16% of their expected concentrations and all %CV calculations were less than 13.5%. THCA was detectable in more fingernail specimens (53.3%) than hair specimens (46.7%) and the mean concentrations in nails were on average 4.9 times higher than in hair (1813 fg/mg and 364 fg/mg, respectively). The THCA concentrations in hair and nail were strongly associated (r = 0.974, P < 0.01, n = 60) and the association was significant. The study demonstrated that fingernail clippings are a suitable alternative specimen type to hair to monitor for marijuana use and abuse.

Long-Term Detection of Propofol Glucuronide in Urine Following Anesthetic Induction and Maintenance with Propofol  [PDF]
Joseph Salerno, Joseph Jones, Mary Jones, Charles Plate, Douglas Lewis
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2013.47076
Abstract: Propofol is the most commonly used compound for the intravenous induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Propofol addiction and abuse have become causes for concern in the healthcare community, especially among anesthesia and surgical professionals. The US Drug Enforcement Administration does not list propofol on any Schedules and most hospitals do not have inventory controls in place to prevent its misuse. Propofol is detectable in blood plasma as the parent compound for as much as 15 hours post-anesthesia. The metabolite propofol glucuronide (PPFG) has been detected in blood and urine as far out as 60 hours. Here we report the long-term renal excretion of PPFG in specimens from A) four participants following a 14-day course of orally ingested propofol dosing, and B) a female patient following anesthetic induction and 15 minutes’ maintenance with propofol. Urinary PPFG was measurable well above limits of quantitation up to 6 days following oral ingestion and 28 days post-anesthesia. We also present a third set of data evaluating the likelihood of passive exposure to aerosolized propofol in the surgical environment by analyzing the levels of urinary PPFG of healthcare workers following operating room work shifts. The results presented here demonstrate that quantitation of PPFG in urinary samples is an efficient method of long-term screening for propofol misuse and abuse.
Telemedicine in Primary Health: The Virtual Doctor Project Zambia
Evans N Mupela, Paul Mustarde, Huw LC Jones
Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1747-5341-6-9
Abstract: This overview of the Virtual Doctor Project in Zambia provides insight into both the potential for ICT, and the problems and limitations that any "real-world" articulation of this technology must confront.The rapid spread of the use of computers and communication technologiesi, now commonly referred to as Information and Communication Technologies [ICT], in the last two decades has led to a plethora of ideas of applications for the benefit of poor people in remote areas of poor nations. One of the most important questions on the use of ICT has been the impact that these technologies can have on health service delivery to hard-to-reach areas in developing countries. This is because the central advantage and power of ICT is the inherent ability to deliver diverse information across large geographical spaces in relatively short time periods. Health practitioners in developing countries have seen this possibility and come up with useful ways of tapping the power of ICT to reduce morbidity and mortality rates in rural areas of poor developing countries. There is now a large stock of literature and project examples [both rural and urban], which demonstrate how this concept, commonly referred to as telemedicine, has been implemented for the benefit of poor populations in developing countries [1-4].What we present is yet another use of ICT, in the telemedicine gamma of applications, aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in the remote villages of Lundazi in the Eastern province of The Republic of Zambia.Like most developing countries Zambia is characterized by an urban and rural demographic structure. The urban areas are relatively economically vibrant areas with access to basic infrastructure like telephones, electricity, treated water etc. The question in these areas is not the availability of basic infrastructure but rather the quality of service provided and the number of people able to make meaningful economic use of the infrastructure. The rural areas are more affl
Pressure-temperature Phase Diagram of the Earth
Eriita Jones,Charles Lineweaver
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Based on a pressure-temperature (P-T) phase diagram model of the Earth, Jones & Lineweaver (2010) described uninhabited terrestrial liquid water. Our model represents the atmosphere, surface, oceans and interior of the Earth - allowing the range of P-T conditions in terrestrial environments to be compared to the phase regime of liquid water. Here we present an overview and additional results from the Earth model on the location of the deepest liquid water on Earth and the maximum possible extent of the terrestrial biosphere. The intersection of liquid water and terrestrial phase space indicates that the deepest liquid water environments in the lithosphere occur at a depth of ~ 75 km. 3.5 % of the volume of the Earth is above 75 km depth. Considering the 3.5 % of the volume of the Earth where liquid water exists, ~ 12% of this volume is inhabited by life while the remaining ~ 88% is uninhabited. This is distinct from the fraction of the volume of liquid water occupied by life. We find that at least 1% of the volume of liquid water on Earth is uninhabited. Better geothermal gradients in the Earth's crust and mantle will improve the precision and accuracy of these preliminary results.
Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assay to Detect Ethyl Glucuronide in Human Fingernail: Comparison to Hair and Gender Differences  [PDF]
Joseph Jones, Mary Jones, Charles Plate, Douglas Lewis, Michael Fendrich, Lisa Berger, Daniel Fuhrmann
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2012.31012
Abstract: Over the past decade, the use of hair specimens for the long-term detection of the alcohol biomarker ethyl glucuronide has been increasing in popularity and usage. We evaluated the usefulness of fingernail clippings as a suitable alterna-tive to hair for ethyl glucuronide detection. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of ethyl glucuronide in fingernail clippings was fully validated and used to analyze the hair and/or fingernail specimens of 606 college-aged study participants. The limit of detection was 2 pg/mg, the limit of quantitation was 8 pg/mg and the method was linear from 8 to 2000 pg/mg. Intra- and inter-assay imprecision studies at three different concentrations (20, 40, 200 pg/mg) were all within 7.8% and all intra- and inter-assay bias studies at these levels were within 115.1% of target concentration. Ethyl glucuronide levels in fingernail (mean = 29.1 ± 55.6 pg/mg) were higher than ethyl glucuronide levels in hair (mean = 9.48 ± 22.3 pg/mg) and a correlation of the matched pairs was observed (r = 0.552, P < 0.01, n = 529). Evaluating each gender separately revealed that the correlation of male fingernail to male hair was large and significant (r = 0.782, P < 0.01, n = 195) while female hair to female fingernail was small yet sig-nificant (r = 0.249, P < 0.01, n = 334). The study results demonstrated that fingernail may be a suitable alternative to hair for ethyl glucuronide detection and may be the preferred sample type due to the lack of a gender bias.
Laparoscopic Resection of a Gastric Plasma Cell Granuloma: A Case Report
Christopher Horn,Huw G. Jones,Gareth Leopold,Anna Mainwaring,Ashraf Rasheed
Case Reports in Pathology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/589682
Abstract: Plasma cell granuloma, also known as inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour or inflammatory pseudotumour, is a nonneoplastic process characterized by an unregulated growth of inflammatory cells. It most commonly occurs in the lung and upper respiratory tract, and only six other cases of gastric plasma cell granuloma exist. There are no other cases of intragastric laparoscopic resection of this type of lesion. Here, we present a case of a 60-year-old gentleman who had gradual onset epigastric discomfort and was thought to have a gastrointestinal stromal tumour on gastroscopy. Subsequent imaging and laparoscopic transgastric resection of the lesion confirmed the presence of a plasma cell granuloma. We discuss the aetiologies, presentation, investigation, and treatment of this rare disorder and make recommendations on the management.
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