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TL Glow Curve Study, Kinetics, PL and XRD Analysis of Mn2+ Doped CaAl2O4 Phosphors  [PDF]
Jagjeet Kaur, Nemana Subramanyam Suryanarayana, Beena Jaykumar, Vikas Dubey, Ravi Shrivastava, Huma Nazli Baig
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.1111114
Abstract: The present paper reports Thermoluminescence (TL) Glow curve of Mn2+ doped CaAl2O4 phosphor with different UV exposure time. The Glow peak shows general order kinetics and evaluation of kinetic parameters was done by peak shape method. Calculations of Trap Depth were done with Chen’s different methods and order of kinetics, activation energy and frequency factor are calculated. The recorded glow curve shifts towards higher temperature with increasing intensity as a function of UV exposure time until 30 minutes where it is seen that the peak shifts towards low temperature side and intensity also decreases. The peaks were found at 345?C, 356.83?C, 358?C and 356.73?C respectively using the heating rate 6.7?C/s. The PL (photoluminescence) excitation spectra show peaks at 248 nm and 362 nm whereas emission spectra shows peaks between 364 nm and 551 nm. Sample was characterized by XRD technique.
Comparison of Shisha Smoking Behavior among Medical and Pharmacy Students  [PDF]
Ashok Kumar, Salman Baig, Sana Ansari, Nadeem Rizvi, Huma Sharif, Anwar Ejaz Beg, Ammara Rauf, Faraz Ahmed Baig, Ammara Abdul Majeed
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2016.67027
Abstract: Background: Health care workers are respected in every society and have a strong influence on the behaviour of the community. In order to reduce the shisha dependence in the Pakistani population, it is necessary to evaluate the perspective of future doctors and pharmacists regarding this addiction as they become role models for the future generations. Objective: The aim is to compare the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of shisha use among medical students and pharmacy students in order to assess their support in the anti-shisha campaigns of Pakistan. Methodology: Cross sectional study was performed in four major medical universities of Karachi, Pakistan through a modification of the WHO global health survey questionnaire. Result: 398 medical students and 470 pharmacy students were included in the study which showed that currently 9.6% pharmacy students and 4.8% medical students used shisha daily (p = 0.000). Pharmacy students started shisha use in less than 15 years of age while this number was 29.5% among medical students (P = 0.000). Moreover, 44.6% pharmacy students and 50% medical students were not planning to quit this addiction within the next six months. 14% of pharmacy students and 20.4% in medical students (P = 0.002) were unaware that passive smoking caused lung cancer, while 23.4% pharmacy students and 33.5% medical students rejected it as cause of heart diseases (p = 0.006). Conclusion: A significant number of medical and pharmacy students were unaware about some of the serious consequences of shisha smoking. Therefore, both groups of students need to be educated about the health hazards of shisha use, in order to control this growing menace.
The association of complex liver disorders with HBV genotypes prevalent in Pakistan
Saeeda Baig, Anwar Siddiqui, Waqaruddin Ahmed, Huma Qureshi, Ambreen Arif
Virology Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-4-128
Abstract: A total of 295 patients with HBsAg positive were selected from the Pakistan Medical Research Council's (PMRC) out patient clinics. Two hundred and twenty six (77%) were males, sixty nine (23%) were females (M to F ratio 3.3:1).Out of 295 patients, 156 (53.2%) had Acute(CAH), 71 (24.2%) were HBV Carriers, 54 (18.4%) had Chronic liver disease (CLD) Hepatitis. 14 (4.7%) were Cirrhosis and HCC patients. Genotype D was the most prevalent genotype in all categories of HBV patients, Acute (108), Chronic (39), and Carrier (53).Cirrhosis/HCC (7) were HBV/D positive. Genotype A was the second most prevalent with 28 (13%) in acute cases, 12 (22.2%) in chronics, 14 (19.7%) in carriers and 5 (41.7) in Cirrhosis/HCC patients. Mixed genotype (A/D) was found in 20 (12.8%) of Acute patients, 3 (5.6%) of Chronic and 4 (5.6%) of carriers, none in case of severe liver conditions.Mixed HBV genotypes A, D and A/D combination were present in all categories of patients except that no A/D combination was detected in severe conditions. Genotype D was the dominant genotype. However, genotype A was found to be more strongly associated with severe liver disease. Mixed genotype (A/D) did not significantly appear to influence the clinical outcome.HBV is a classical virus that has amazed the researchers and clinicians around the world first with geographic relationship of its genotypes then secondly the association of its different genotypes with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In the recent years, there has been an explosion of knowledge regarding clinical significance of HBV genotypes in terms of clinical outcomes and therapeutic response to antiviral therapy in patients with HBV related severe liver conditions [1]. Approximately 2 billion people in the world are infected by HBV [2], More than 350 million people are chronic carriers of the virus [3] Acute hepatitis of varying severity exists in 95% of children and 2–10 % of adult patients [4]. Overall, less than 1 % of acute infectio
Operating System Performance Analyzer for Embedded Systems
Shahzada Khayyam Nisar,Maqsood Ahmed,Huma Ayub,Iram Baig
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2011,
Abstract: RTOS provides a number of services to an embedded system designs such as case management, memory management, and Resource Management to build a program. Choosing the best OS for an embedded system is based on the available OS for system designers and their previous knowledge and experience. This can cause an imbalance between the OS and embedded systems. RTOS performance analysis is critical in the design and integration of embedded software to ensure that limits the application meet at runtime. To select an appropriate operating system for an embedded system for a particular application, the OS services to be analyzed. These OS services are identified by parameters to establish performance metrics. Performance Metrics selected include context switching, Preemption time and interrupt latency. Performance Metrics are analyzed to choose the right OS for an embedded system for a particular application.
Decolorization of Remazol Black-B azo dye in soil by fungi
Azeem Khalid*, Sadia Batool, Muhammad Tariq Siddique, Zilli Huma Nazli, Riffat Bibi, Shahid Mahmood and Muhammad Arshad
Soil & Environment , 2011,
Abstract: Textile industry is known to release huge amount of dyes in the water and soil environments during the dyeingprocess. The present study was planned with the aim to remove azo dye toxicants from the soil using fungal strains.The fungi were isolated by using Remazol Black-B azo dye as the sole source of C and N. Ten isolates were initiallyselected for testing their decolorization potential in the liquid medium. Three most effective strains were used tostudy the decolorization of Remazol Black-B in soil. The strain S4 was found to be very effective in removing thedye Remazol Black-B from liquid medium as well as in soil suspension. More than 95% decolorization by the strainS4 was observed in soil under optimal incubation conditions. Overall, the dye decolorization was maximum at 100mg dye kg-1 soil at pH 7-8 under static conditions. Glucose, moisture and aeration also affected the decolorizationefficacy of the fungal strain in soil. This study implies that fungi could be used for bioremediation of dyecontaminatedsites.
An Overview of Analytical Determination of Diltiazem, Cimetidine, Ranitidine, and Famotidine by UV Spectrophotometry and HPLC Technique
Nighat Shafi,Farhan Ahmed Siddiqui,Huma Naseem,Nawab Sher,Arif Zubair,Azhar Hussain,Ali Akbar Sial,Mirza Tasawer Baig
Journal of Chemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/184948
Abstract: This review article recapitulates the analytical methods for the quantitative determinations of diltiazem and three H2 receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine) by one of the spectroscopic technique (UV spectrophotometery) and separation technique such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The clinical and pharmaceutical analysis of these drugs requires effective analytical procedures for quality control, pharmaceutical dosage formulations, and biological fluids. An extensive survey of the literature published in various analytical and pharmaceutical chemistry-related journals has been compiled in its review. A synopsis of reported spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatographic methods for individual drug is integrated. This appraisal illustrates that majority of the HPLC methods reviewed are based on the quantitative analysis of drugs in biological fluids, and they are appropriate for therapeutic drug monitoring purpose. 1. Introduction 1.1. Diltiazem Hydrochloride Diltiazem hydrochloride (DLZ), d-cis diltiazem, d-cis-3-acetyloxy-5-[2-(dimethylamino) ethyl]-2,3-dihydro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,5-benzothiazepin-4(5H)one)hydrochloride (Figure 1) are one of the widely used benzothiazepine Ca2+-blocking drugs (calcium channel blockers). Clinically it is used to treat cardiovascular diseases such as angina pectoris, hypertension, and cardiac arrhythmias [1, 2]. Figure 1: Diltiazem. 1.2. Histamine H2 Receptor Antagonists Histamine H2 receptor antagonists: cimetidine (CIM), ranitidine (RAN), and famotidine (FAM) classified as class III drugs (high solubility, low permeability) according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) [3, 4] are used in the treatment of gastrooesophageal reflux disease and gastric and duodenal ulceration [5]. 1.3. Cimetidine Cimetidine??is?N-Cyano-N-methyl-N-[2-[[(5-methyl-1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl]thio]ethyl]guanidine, contains imidazole ring (Figure 2), and inhibits hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4 P450 isoforms [6]. Figure 2: Cimetidine. 1.4. Ranitidine Hydrochloride Ranitidine??hydrochloride??is N-{2-[[[5-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-2 furanyl]methyl]thio]ethyl}-N′-methyl-2-nitro-1,1-ethenediamine (Figure 3), a histamine H2 receptor antagonist with a furan ring structure that increases its potency to inhibit gastric acid secretion induced by various stimuli, while lacking the antiandrogenic and hepatic microsomal enzyme-inhibiting effects [7]. Figure 3: Ranitidine. 1.5. Famotidine Famotidine, 3-[[[2-[(aminoiminomethyl)
Antioxidant Potential Some Medicinal Plants of Central India  [PDF]
Savita Dixit, Huma Ali
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2010.12014
Abstract: Cellular damage or oxidative injury arising from free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) now appears the fun-damental mechanism underlying a number of human neurodegenerative disorder, diabetes, inflammation, viral infec-tions, autoimmune pathologies and digestive system disorders. Free radicals are generated through normal metabolism of drugs, environmental chemicals and other xenobiotics as well as endogenous chemicals, especially stress hormones (adrenalin and noradrenalin). Accumulated evidence suggests that ROS can be scavenged through chemoprevention utilizing natural antioxidant compounds present in foods and medicinal plants. In this review, research on the antioxi-dant potential of some medicinal plants of origin of Central India is considered.4CdBw3
Experimental Study of Surface and Solution Properties of Gemini -conventional Surfactant Mixtures on Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon  [PDF]
M. Kamil, Huma Siddiqui
Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Material Science (MNSMS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/mnsms.2013.34B004

Experimental data are presented on the enhanced solubilities of fluorene (FLR) resulting from solubilization in aqueous solutions of two conventional surfactants: cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) , anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), nonioinic polyethylene glycol dodecyl ether (Brij35) and a cationic gemini bis (hexadecyldimethylammonium) pentane dibromide (G5). The critical micellar concentration of surfactants was determined by surface tension measurements and aqueous solubilities of fluorene compound in surfactant solutions were measured spectrophotometrically. Solubilization of PAH compound commenced at the surfactant critical micelle concentration and was proportional to the concentration of surfactant in micelle. The results of the mixed systems were analyzed with the help of regular solution theory, in which the deviation of CMCexp values for mixed surfactant systems from CMCideal was measured by evaluating the interaction parameter, βm. Negative values of βm were observed in all equimolar binary systems which show synergism in the mixed micelle. Attraction force between two oppositely charged head groups lead the strongest synergism effect between cationic gemini and anionic conventional surfactant. In addition to molar solubilization ratio (MSR) solubilization efficiency is also quantified in terms of micelle-water partition coefficient (Km).

The Case for the Universal Personal Internet Identification: The Case against Internet Anonymity
Nazli Hardy
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2009,
Immunohistochemical localizations of Orexin-A and the neurokinin 1 receptor in the rat spinal cord
Nazli M.
Acta Veterinaria , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/avb0404311n
Abstract: Orexins (hypocretins) are a recently described set of hypothalamic peptides that have been implicated in feeding, neuroendocrine regulation and sleep-wakefulness. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the distribution of orexin-A-and neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing neurones in the spinal cord of adult Wistar rats using immunohistochemistry. Orexin-A immunoreactive fibres and their terminals were observed in the superficial dorsal horn. Neurokinin 1 receptor positive cells and their processes were also observed in lamina I of the dorsal horn. Although neurokinin 1 cells with orexin-A fibres were concentrated in the marginal layer of the dorsal horn, there was occasional direct anatomic contact between orexin-A and neurokinin 1 receptors in this region. The results of the present study suggest that the functions of the orexins and the neurokinin 1 receptor related to feeding, nociception, sensory information and neuroendocrine functions are possibly mediated via dependent mechanisms. Thus neurokinin 1 containing neurones could potentially receive synaptic inputs from inhibitory and excitatory interneurones in the marginal layer.
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