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Optimization of Contrast Material Dose for Abdominal Multi-Detector Row CT: Predicting Patient Lean Body Weight by Using Preliminary Transverse CT Images  [PDF]
Antonino Guerrisi, Daniele Marin, Huiman Barnhart, Lisa Ho, Thomas L. Toth, Carlo Catalano, Rendon C. Nelson
Advances in Computed Tomography (ACT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/act.2014.31001
Abstract:

Estimated LBW could be used to determine the contrast material dose and rate during MDCT. The aim of this study is to test the accuracy of a technique for estimation of lean body weight (LBW) from a single multi-detector row computed tomographic (MDCT) abdominal image, using a bioelectrical body composition analyzer scale as the reference standard. CT images of 21 patients with previously measured LBW (mLBW) were processed using computer-assisted, vendor-specific software (Advantage Windows 4.2; GE Healthcare, Inc). For each transverse image, a fat-fraction was automatically measured as the number of fat pixels (-200 to -50 HU) divided by the total number of pixels having an attenuation value ≥-200 HU. Estimated LBW (eLBW) of five single contiguous sections was calculated in each of three abdominal regions (upper abdomen, mid abdomen and pelvis) by multiplying TBW by (1 – fat-fraction). Bland-Altman plot with limits of agreement was used to assess agreement between mLBW and eLBW. The mean mLBW for all patients was 56 kg (range, 39 - 75 kg). Mean differences and limits of agreement between mLBW and eLBW measurements for the upper abdomen, mid abdomen and pelvis reported were -8.9 kg (-25.6 kg, +7.5 kg), -10.6 kg (-27.7 kg, +6.4 kg), and +0.5 kg (-12.8 kg, +13.8 kg) respectively. eLBW deriving directly from a transverse CT image of the pelvis can accurately predict mLBW.

Profiles of Serum Cytokines in Acute Drug-Induced Liver Injury and Their Prognostic Significance
Nury M. Steuerwald, David M. Foureau, H. James Norton, Jie Zhou, Judith C. Parsons, Naga Chalasani, Robert J. Fontana, Paul B. Watkins, William M. Lee, K. Rajender Reddy, Andrew Stolz, Jayant Talwalkar, Timothy Davern, Dhanonjoy Saha, Lauren N. Bell, Huiman Barnhart, Jiezhun Gu, Jose Serrano, Herbert L. Bonkovsky
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081974
Abstract: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the United-States. The aim of the study was to describe serum immune profiles associated with acute DILI, to investigate whether there are profiles associated with clinical features or types of DILI and/or with prognosis, and to assess temporal changes in levels. Twenty-seven immune analytes were measured in the sera of 78 DILI subjects in the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) and compared with 40 healthy controls. Immune analytes (14 cytokines, 7 chemokines and 6 growth factors) were measured by BioPlex multiplex ELISA at DILI onset and after 6 months. A modeling process utilizing immune principles was used to select a final set of variables among 27 immune analytes and several additional clinical lab values for prediction of early death (within 6 months of DILI onset). Nineteen of the 27 immune analytes were differentially expressed among healthy control, DILI onset and 6-month cohorts. Disparate patterns of immune responses, especially innate and adaptive cellular (mostly TH17) immunity were evident. Low values of four immune analytes (IL-9, IL-17, PDGF-bb and RANTES) and serum albumin are predictive of early death [PPV = 88% (95% CI, 65%-100%), NPV = 97% (95% CI, 93%-100%), accuracy = 96% (95% CI, 92%-100%)]. Conclusions Acute DILI is associated with robust and varying immune responses. High levels of expression of cytokines associated with innate immunity are associated with a poor prognosis, whereas high levels of expression of adaptive cytokines are associated with good long-term prognosis and eventual recovery. Serum immune analyte profiles at DILI onset appear to be of prognostic, and perhaps, diagnostic significance.
The Impact of Sociodemographic Factors on Knowledge of Cardiac Procedures  [PDF]
Samara Lipsky, Michael Bohnen, Janice Barnhart
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.14030
Abstract: Background: This paper investigates the extent to which sociodemographic factors are associated with knowledge of cardiac procedures in a sample of study participants treated for coronary heart disease (CHD). Research indicates the importance of knowledge of CHD and its associated risks in order to prevent CHD. However, quantification of knowledge levels among individuals undergoing cardiac procedures to treat CHD has not been well documented. Method: Using a cross-sectional design, 156 participants, diverse in race/ethnicity, age, and sex, underwent elective cardiac catheterization for the evaluation of chest pain and/or angina. Participants completed surveys regarding medical history, sociodemographic information, and knowledge of cardiac procedures. Ninety-five of these individuals, with clinically significant CHD, were recommended by their physician to undergo a coronary revascularization procedure [percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)]. These individuals completed additional knowledge assessment surveys. Results: The overall knowledge scores for those undergoing coronary angiography were suboptimal (M score = 4.6 out of 8). Older aged (> 65), male, married, white, college-educated participants demonstrated greater knowledge of cardiac catheterization procedures (all p values < 0.05). Knowledge scores were greater among those revascularized than among participants undergoing coronary angiography. Conclusions: Health professionals should provide general information about CHD treatment and interventions, especially among women and ethnic minorities.
Preserving Different Pasts: The American National Monuments, by Hal Rothman, University of Illinois Press, Urbana and Chicago, 1989
Terry A. Barnhart
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology , 1992, DOI: 10.5334/bha.02209
Abstract: The national monuments that exist today within our national parks are often perceived as icons of a romantic or even a mythic past Seldom, however, do very personal crusades that were waged to preserve these natural and culture resources intrude upon the public consciousness? Even less frequently are the preservation efforts of the past valued for what they tell us about American culture and how the values of that culture have changed over time. But the archaeological, historic, and natural history sites that comprise our national monuments have layered meanings. Quite apart from their intrinsic value as heritage sites, our effort to preserve perceptions of the past. It is somewhat surprising, therefore, that scholarship on the national monuments proper remained an historiographical backwater. This situation has been rectified, however, with the publication of Hal Rothman's Preserving Different Pasts: The American National Monuments. These national treasurers have at last found an able historian to tell their story.
Solid State Adaptive Rotor Using Postbuckled Precompressed, Bending-Twist Coupled Piezoelectric Actuator Elements
Ronald M. Barrett,Ryan Barnhart
Smart Materials Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/832939
Abstract: This paper is centered on a new actuation mechanism which is integrated on a solid state rotor. This paper outlines the application of such a system via a Post-Buckled Precompression (PBP) technique at the end of a twist-active piezoelectric rotor blade actuator. The basic performance of the system is handily modeled by using laminated plate theory techniques. A dual cantilevered spring system was used to increasingly null the passive stiffness of the root actuator along the feathering axis of the rotor blade. As the precompression levels were increased, it was shown that corresponding blade pitch levels also increased. The PBP cantilever spring system was designed so as to provide a high level of stabilizing pitch-flap coupling and inherent resistance to rotor propeller moments. Experimental testing showed pitch deflections increasing from just peak-to-peak deflections at 650?V/mm field strength to more than at the same field strength with design precompression levels. Dynamic testing showed the corner frequency of the linear system coming down from 63?Hz (3.8/rev) to 53?Hz (3.2/rev). Thrust coefficients manipulation levels were shown to increase from 0.01 to 0.028 with increasing precompression levels. The paper concludes with an overall assessment of the actuator design. 1. Introduction For more than two decades, adaptive rotors, flaps and helicopter flight and vibration control systems have been actively pursued by a small army of technologists scattered around the world. The work of Crawley and his team at MIT in the mid-1980s laid the foundations of adaptive aerostructures by investigating the properties of bending and twist-active plates [1–3]. These early studies lead to several broad reviews which examined material properties and their associated energy and power densities when used as actuator elements [4, 5]. 1.1. Adaptive Flaps The earliest twist, camber, and bending active aerodynamic plates were followed by the first of the adaptive flap studies [6]. A host of adaptive flaps flowed into the technical literature at a steady rate from the early 1990s through their implementation in a full-scale rotor test bed (right) [7–19]. Through much effort it was shown that blade loads could indeed be manipulated as fast as 4/rev with appreciable deflection levels. However, the weight, cost, and complexity issues still prevent full transition to prototype flying aircraft and serial production aircraft. Efforts with “Smart Active Blade Tips” (SABT) showed good results, but fell prey to the same issues as conventional flaps, but with exacerbated propeller
Comparing Two Methods of Surface Change Detection on an Evolving Thermokarst Using High-Temporal-Frequency Terrestrial Laser Scanning, Selawik River, Alaska
Theodore B. Barnhart,Benjamin T. Crosby
Remote Sensing , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/rs5062813
Abstract: Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) allow large and complex landforms to be rapidly surveyed at previously unattainable point densities. Many change detection methods have been employed to make use of these rich data sets, including cloud to mesh (C2M) comparisons and Multiscale Model to Model Cloud Comparison (M3C2). Rather than use simulated point cloud data, we utilized a 58 scan TLS survey data set of the Selawik retrogressive thaw slump (RTS) to compare C2M and M3C2. The Selawik RTS is a rapidly evolving permafrost degradation feature in northwest Alaska that presents challenging survey conditions and a unique opportunity to compare change detection methods in a difficult surveying environment. Additionally, this study considers several error analysis techniques, investigates the spatial variability of topographic change across the feature and explores visualization techniques that enable the analysis of this spatiotemporal data set. C2M reports a higher magnitude of topographic change over short periods of time (~12 h) and reports a lower magnitude of topographic change over long periods of time (~four weeks) when compared to M3C2. We found that M3C2 provides a better accounting of the sources of uncertainty in TLS change detection than C2M, because it considers the uncertainty due to surface roughness and scan registration. We also found that localized areas of the RTS do not always approximate the overall retreat of the feature and show considerable spatial variability during inclement weather; however, when averaged together, the spatial subsets approximate the retreat of the entire feature. New data visualization techniques are explored to leverage temporally and spatially continuous data sets. Spatially binning the data into vertical strips along the headwall reduced the spatial complexity of the data and revealed spatiotemporal patterns of change.
Blinded By Magic: Eye-Movements Reveal the Misdirection of Attention
Anthony S. Barnhart,Stephen D. Goldinger
Frontiers in Psychology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01461
Abstract: Recent studies (e.g., Kuhn & Tatler, 2005) have suggested that magic tricks can provide a powerful and compelling domain for the study of attention and perception. In particular, many stage illusions involve attentional misdirection, guiding the observer’s gaze to a salient object or event, while another critical action, such as sleight of hand, is taking place. Even if the critical action takes place in full view, people typically fail to see it due to inattentional blindness. In an eye-tracking experiment, participants watched videos of a new magic trick, wherein a coin placed beneath a napkin disappears, reappearing under a different napkin. Appropriately deployed attention would allow participants to detect the “secret” event that underlies the illusion (a moving coin), as it happens in full view and is visible for approximately 550 ms. Nevertheless, we observed high rates of inattentional blindness. Unlike prior research, eye-movements during the critical event showed different patterns for participants, depending upon whether they saw the moving coin. The results also showed that when participants watched several “practice” videos without any moving coin, they became far more likely to detect the coin in the critical trial. Taken together, the findings are consistent with perceptual load theory (Lavie & Tsal, 1994).
Decision Processes about Condom Use among Shelter-Homeless LGBT Youth in Manhattan
Geoffrey L. Ream,Kate F. Barnhart,Kevin V. Lotz
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/659853
Abstract: Health behavior interventions based on Theory of Planned Behavior address participants’ personally-held beliefs, perceived social norms, and control over the behavior. New data are always needed to “member check” participants’ decision processes and inform interventions. This qualitative study investigates decision processes around condom use among 81 homeless LGBT youth ages 18–26. Findings indicated considerable endorsement of the conventional policy of always using condoms, promulgated in HIV prevention education targeting this population. Although some participants reported risk behavior in contexts of sex work, survival sex, casual encounters, open relationships, and substance use, most were aware of these risks and consistently safe in those situations. Condoms use boundaries became vulnerable in states of emotional need and negative mood. The only effect participants acknowledged of homelessness on condom use was indirect, through negative mood states. The most prevalent context of condom non-use was with long-term primary partners, a potential area of vulnerability because, of 13 participants for HIV or HCV, nine mentioned how they had been infected, and all nine believed they had acquired it from a primary partner. Findings imply programs should emphasize HIV risk potential within long-term romantic partnerships and mental health services to remediate negative mood states. 1. Introduction According to the theory of planned behavior [1], health behaviors like condom use [2] are influenced by personally-held beliefs and perceived social norms. In order to appropriately address the target population’s shifting attitudes and values toward the target behavior, new data are always needed. This study concerns homeless lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, a population with even higher rates of HIV sexual risk behaviors than heterosexual homeless youth [3–5]. Shelters and other programs serving homeless LGBT youth [6, 7] provide condoms and HIV education tailored to their specific needs. The content of this socialization depends on assumptions about their condom use beliefs and norms, e.g., that their elevated risk comes from greater involvement in survival sex [8] and substance use [9]. This study is a “member check” of those assumptions, open-endedly inquiring into homeless LGBT youths’ decision processes in hopes of identifying risky beliefs and norms not already addressed. Experiences along the path toward homelessness help form the context of homeless LGBT youths’ condom decision processes. For both LGBT and heterosexual youth,
A Statewide Case Management, Surveillance, and Outcome Evaluation System for Children with Special Health Care Needs
Karen A. Monsen,Scott A. Elsbernd,Linda Barnhart,Jacquie Stock
ISRN Nursing , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/793936
Abstract:
Managing Relocation and Delay in Container Terminals with Flexible Service Policies
Setareh Borjian,Vahideh H. Manshadi,Cynthia Barnhart,Patrick Jaillet
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We introduce a new model and mathematical formulation for planning crane moves in the storage yard of container terminals. Our objective is to develop a tool that captures customer centric elements, especially service time, and helps operators to manage costly relocation moves. Our model incorporates several practical details and provides port operators with expanded capabilities including planning repositioning moves in off-peak hours, controlling wait times of each customer as well as total service time, optimizing the number of relocations and wait time jointly, and optimizing simultaneously the container stacking and retrieval process. We also study a class of flexible service policies which allow for out-of-order retrieval. We show that under such flexible policies, we can decrease the number of relocations and retrieval delays without creating inequities.
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